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3  3433  08179768  4 





GREAT  WAR   1861 -'65. 




(Lieut.  Colonel  Seventieth  Regiment  N.  C.  T. 

VOL.  V. 





GOLDSBORO,    N.    C. 







R  1 90^'  L 



MORE    THAN    1«5,000  frOKDlERS,   LIVING   AND    DEAD,  WHOM 

Zbis  State 






Iberoic  Momen  of  IRortb  Carolina, 




Ubcir  jfair  iDaugbters, 


®ur  Glorious  H)ea&. 


JEqual  to  Dictorg— Superior  to  Defeat. 



Dedication,   ; iii 

Review  and  Conclusion,  by  the  Editor vii 

List  of  Historians  and  Contributors,  hy  the  Editor.    xviii 

Number  op  Troops  prom  North  Carolina,  hy  the  Editor 1 

Number  OP  Generals  PROM  North  Carolina,   by  the  Editor  . .    .  3 

Generals  Commissioned  by  the  State,  by  Lieut.  E.  A.  Thome. . .  5 

North  Carolinians  on  Military  Courts,  by  the  Editor 8 

General  and  Field  Oppicers  Killed,  by  Lieut.  E.  A.  Thome. . .  9 
Where   North   Carolina  Troops  Stationed  November  1861, 

hy  Brigadier -General  J.  G.  Martin 13 

Deeds  of  Daring — Six  Heroes,  hy  Lieutenant- General  D.  H.  Hill..  15 

Other  Deeds  op  Daring,  hy  the  Editor 1? 

,A.  North  Carolina  Heroine,   hy  Colonel  S.  L).  Pool 19 

captures  and   battles. 

Capture  of  Forts  Before  the  War,  by  Colonel  Jno.  L.  CantwelL.  23 

Battle  of  Manassas,  by  Brigadier-General  T.  L.  Clingman  29 

The  Fall  op  Hatteras,  by  Major  Thomas  Sparrow 35 

Chicamacomico,   by  Lieutenant- Colonel  E.  C.  Yellowley 55 

Loss  op  Roanoke  Island,  by  Hon.  Burgess  S.  Gaither,  C.  S.  Congress,  57 

Fall  op  Roanoke  Island,  by  Lieutenant-Colonel  E.  R.  Liles 63 

Sharpsburg,   by  Lieutenant-Colonel  Walter  Clark 71 

Battle  op  White  Hall,  by  Colonel  S.  D.  Pool 83 

Flank  March  at  Chancellorsville,   by  Brig. -Gen.  J.  H.  Lane. .  93 

The  Wounding  of  Jackson,  hy  Adjutant  Spier  Whitaker 96 

Another  Account,  by  Captain  A.  H.  H.  Tolar  98 

Longstreet's  Assault  at  Gettysburg,  hy  Maj.  W.  M.  Bobbins  .  101 
Pettigrew's  Brigade  at  Gettysburg,  by  Captain  Louis  G.  Young, 

A.  A.   0 113 

Pettigrew's  Charge  at  Gettysburg,  hy  Lieutenant- Colonel  John 

T.  Jones 133 

The  Pettigrew-Pickett  Charge,  by  Captain  S.  A.  Ashe 137 

Defence  of  Fort  Wagner,  by  Adjutant  E.  K.  Bryan  and  Sergeant 

E.  H.  Meadoivs 161 

Chicamauga,  by  Captain  C.  A.  Cilley,  A.  A.  G.,  U.  S.  A 169 

Capture  op  Plymouth,  by  Major  John  W.  Graham 175 

Second  Cold  Harbor,  by  Brigadier-General  Thos.  L.  Clingman 197 

Reams  Station,  by  Major  Charles  M.  Stedman       207 

The  Thin  Gray  Line,  by  Brigadier-General  Bradley  T.  Johnson   . .  .  213 

Defence  op  Fort  Fisher,  hy  Colonel  William  Lamb 217 

The  Surrender  at  Appomattox,  by  Major-General  Bryan   Grimes,  247 

IV  Contents. 

The  Return  fkom  Appomattox,  hy  Lieutenant  W.  A.  Montgomery  257 
Last  Fifteen  Days  of  Baker's  Command,  by  Private  James  M. 

Mullen  269 

A  Battle  After  the  War,  by  Prioate  R.  Z.  Linney 285 


Confederate  Vessels  in  North  I'arolina,  by  the  Editor 298 

North  Carolina  Navy,   hy  Paymaster  Adam  Tredivell 299 

The  Ram  Albemarle,  by  Adjutant  Gilbert  Elliott 315 

Capture  of  the  Underwriter,  by  Commander  B.  P.  Loyall 325 

The  Steamer  Ad- Vance,  by  James  Maglenn,  Chief  Engineer 385 

Running  the  Blockade,   by  Rev.  Dr.  Moses  D.  Hoge  341 

The  Shenandoah,  by  An  Officer  Thereof 345 

Fight  with  Blockaders,  by  Colonel  William  Lamb 351 

Blockade  Running,  by  Purser  James  Sprunt 353 

North  Carolina's  Financial  Operations  in  England,  by  Com- 
missioner John  White 453 

North  Carolina's  Record,  by  Governor  Z.  B.  Vance 463 

Parole  List  at  Appomattox, 482 

Comments  on  Parole  List,  by  the  Editor  bldt 


First  North  Carolina  Soldier  to  Die,  by  Private  R.  H.  Bradley  578 

Sixth  Regiment  at  Manassas,  by  Captain  B.  F.   White .  581 

Report  OF  Siiarpsburg  Battlefield  Commissioners, 587 

First  Regiment  at  Gettysburg,  by  Sergeant  C.  W.  Rivenbark  . .  595 

Unparallelled  Loss,  by  Captain  R.  M.  Tuttle 599 

Capture  op  Cemetery  HiLt  at  Gettysburg,  by  Captain  N.  W.  Ray  605 
Incident  at  Gettysburg,  by  Col.  T.  S.  Kenan,  C.  S.  A.,  and  J.  B. 

Callis,  U.  S.  A., 611 

Planner's  Batter y^  at  the  Crater,  by  Captain  H.  G.  Planner.  .  ..  615 
Prisoners   Under  Fire  at  Morris  Island,  by  Sergeant- Major  C. 

M.  Busbee 619 

Twenty-Sixth  Battalion,  by  The  Editor 626 

Company  B,  Tenth  Virginia  Cavalry,   by  Sergeant  11.  R.  Berrier  627 

The  Home  Guards,  by  Colonel  James  R.  Cole 629 

Home  Guards  Face  Stoneman,  by  Colonel  T.  George  Walton 635 

Hillsboro  Military  Academy,  by  Cadet  Captain  William  Cain  . . .  637 

HiLLSBORO  Military  Academy,  by  Cadet  J.  George  Hanna 643 

N.  C.  Military  Institute,  by  Brigadier-General  J.  H.  Lane 645 

University  op  N.  C.  in  the  War,  by  Dr.  K.  P.  Buttle 647 

The    Last    Battle    and  the    Last  Surrender    by    Lieutenant- 
Colonel    W.    W.    Stringfield 653 

Supplement  to  Appomattox    Parole    List 657 

Corrections 661 

Index  to  Appomattox  Parole  List 683 

Index  to  Illustrations 719 

General  Index 729 


The  last  line  of  these  five  volumes  having  now  been  printed 
it  is  projDer  to  write  a  few  lines  in  review  and  farewell  to  be 
prefixed  to  this,  the  last  volume. 

The  origin,  the  purpose  and  the  scope  of  this  work  have 
been  stated  in  the  Preface  to  Vol.  1.  and  need  not  be  re- 
peated. In  the  classic  tongue  of  historic  Greece  the  word 
oida,  I  have  seen,  is  at  the  same  time  both  the  perfect  tense  of 
the  verb  eido,  I  see,  and  the  present  tense  of  the  verb  I  know. 
That  is,  ''what  I  have  seen  I  know."  It  is  upon  this  idea 
that  this  work  has  been  compiled.  Tlie  narrative  is  not  by 
one  historian  writing  at  second  hand  from  information  de- 
rived from  many  sources.  But  herein  the  narratives  are  by 
participants  who  have  written  from  the  personal  knowledge 
of  themselves  or  of  their  immediate  comrades  and  largely 
of  scenes  of  which  they  were  eye  witnesses. 

Their  contributions  have  l)een  laboriously  gathered  by  them 
from  conference,  or  corres])ondence,  with  surviving  comrades 
and  diligently  compared  with  the  original  reports  published 
in  the  "Official  Records  of  the  Union  and  Confederate  Ar- 
mies." As  a  further  assurance  of  accuracy  these  sketches 
were  printed  in  the  newspapers  and  criticisms  and  correc- 
tions requested.  It  may  be  stated  here  that  the  dates  affixed 
are  mostly  arbitrary  for  the  majority  of  the  regimental 
sketches  were  written  in  1895,  l)ut  being  revised  again  and 
again  down  to  the  time  each  went  to  press,  the  date  9  April, 
1900  or  1901,  was  affixed  to  those  organizations  from  the 
Army  of  ISTorthern  Virginia  and  26  April  to  those  from  the 
Army  of  the  West,  these  being  the  anniversaries  of  the 
surrender  of  the  respective  armies.  A  few  articles  writ- 
ten by  persons  who  died  before  the  beginning  of  this  work 
have  been  rej^roduced  where  the  name  of  the  writer  or  the 
subject  matter  has  given  them  special  interest. 

The  writers  herein  number  180  and  represent  every  grade 
in  the  Army  from  Lieutenant  General  to  private,  and  em- 
brace not  only  men  who  have  filled  almost  every  vocation  in 

viii  Review  and  Conclusion. 

life  since  the  war  but  those  who  have  occupied  every  civil  office 
from  IT.  S.  Senator  and  Governor  to  constable.  Farmers, 
lawyers,  preachers,  physicians,  manufacturers,  teachers,  edi- 
tors, day  laborers  have  each  and  all  freely  contributed  their 
time  and  labor  to  preserve  herein  the  memorials  of  what 
their  comrades  did  and  suffered  at  the  command  of  North 
Carolina  during  those  four  eventful  years  the  memory  of 
which  can  never  be  forgotten. 

Among  the  brave  men  who  have  traced  the  lines  in  these 
volumes  are  soldiers  who  heard  the  first  shriek  of  shell  at 
Bethel  in  the  first  real  battle  of  the  war  10  June,  1861,  and 
whose  ears  caught  the  patter  of  minies  as  Cox's  brigade  fired 
the  last  volley  at  Appomattox  9  April,  1865  and  who  missed 
but  little  of  the  musi,c  of  Avar  between  those  dates.  Among 
tliese  writers  are  some  who  heard  the  o];)ening  guns  at  Sum- 
ter 13  April,  1861 ;  many  who  heard  the  crash  of  A.  P.  Hill's 
musketry  on  that  sultry  summer's  eve  as  he  drove  back  Burn- 
side  at  Shar])sbnrg  and  who  listened  to  the  long,  low  mono- 
tone of  artillery  at  Gettysburg  so  steady  and  unbroken  as  to 
seem  the  ])r()l()nge(l  reverberation  of  a  single  broadside;  eyes 
now  dim  saw  the  Southern  night  lightened  with  shell  and  mor- 
tar over  doomed  Vicksburg;  limbs  now  stift'  stepped  fast  and 
cheerily  as  the  echoes  of  Jackson's  cannon  rolled  along  the 
silver  Shenandoah.  Such  another  gathering  can  not  be 
found  in  any  other  work  and  could  not  be  duplicated  now  for 
nearly  one  in  every  ten  has  passed  beyond  the  pale  since 
their  articles  were  penned.  Their  comrades  of  whose  deeds 
they  wrote  slee]\  many  of  them,  where  the  Georgian  pines 
are  bare,  others  l)v  the  Mississippi,  the  Cumberland,  the 
Ohio,  the  Kanawha  and  where  Potomac's  breezes  whispering 
low  soothe  many  a  soldier's  endless  sleep. 

With  a  devotion  to  duty,  only  to  be  expected  of  such  men, 
they  have  written  these  volumes  and  deserve  the  grateful  re- 
membrance of  their  countrymen  for  this  scarcely  less  thp.n 
for  the  gallant  deeds  they  aided  to  perform  and  which  but  for 
their  pens  would  have  been  unrecorded. 

While  these  articles  have  ])een  necessarily  written  from 
the  stand]3oint  of  each  writer  which  by  a  natural  law  makes 
each  object  and  event  near  us  seem  larger  and  more  impor- 

Review  and  Conclusion.  ix 

tant  than  those  farther  oft",  still  there  has  been  a  strenuous 
and  j)ainstaking  effort  to  be  accurate  and  truthful  to  the 
smallest  detail.  The  work  of  such  men  could  not  be  other 
than  reliable.  Any  errors  come  from  the  lack  of  perspective 
incident  to  every  narrative  by  an  eye  witness. 

The  articles  are  254  in  number  exclusive  of  165  pages  em- 
braced in  the  three  Indexes,  i.  e.  Index  to  Appomattox  Pa- 
role List,  Index  to  Illustrations  and  the  General  Index. 
These  Indexes  include  some  17,000  names,  a  very  large  part 
■of  which  are  cited  more  than  once. 

The  history  of  each  of  our  84  regiments  (which  includes  the 
''Bethel"  Regiment)  is  written  by  a  member  thereof  except 
the  sketches  of  four  of  the  Senior  Reserves  Regiments  and 
two  of  the  Detailed  men  of  which  no  suiwivors  could  be  found. 
The  history  of  each  of  our  twenty-six  Battalions  is  also  given. 
The  history  of  each  brigade  is  written  by  a  member  thereof 
iind  a  valuable  series  of  Battles,  giving  ISTorth  Carolina's 
part  therein  is  furnished  by  participants  on  the  respective 
occasions.  The  articles  on  Gettysburg  by  Major  W.  M. 
I^obbins,  Captain  Louis  G.  Young,  Captain  S.  A.  Ashe 
and  Lieutenant-Colonel  John  T.  Jones  as  to  the  assault 
on  Cemetery  Ridge  and  by  Captain  X.  W.  Ray  on  the 
capture  of  Cemetery  Hill  are  of  exceptional  value.  An  ac- 
count of  jSTorth  Carolina's  share  in  the  Xavy  is  herein  pre- 
served including  the  story  of  the  cruise  of  the  Shenandoah, 
C()]nmanded  by  a  gallant  Xorth  Carolinian  who  flew  the 
Confederate  battle  emblem  at  her  mast  head  till  6  JN'ovem- 
ber,  1865,  nearly  seven  months  after  Lee's  surrender. 

The  ex])crience  of  ju-isoners  of  war  is  graphically  told  in- 
cluding an  account  of  those  who  were  exposed  to  the  fire  of 
our  own  batteries  at  Morris  Island.  Governor  Vance's 
rnemoralde  speech  narrating  the  State's  record  in  the  war, 
also  the  report  of  our  agent  sent  to  England  to  procure  sup- 
plies are  reproduced.  The  history  of  the  State's  steamer,  the 
"Ad-Vairce"  and  a  most  interesting  story  by  Mr.  Sprunt  of 
the  incidents  of  the  system  of  Blockade-running  by  which 
we  were  so  long  enabled  to  continue  the  war  are  printed  for 
the  first  time. 

Every  subject  is  touched  upon  save  the  story  of  the  sacri- 

X  Review  and  Conclusion. 

llces,  the  services,  the  sufferings  of  our  glorious  and  heroic 
women.  The  flight  of  time  and  the  invincible  modesty  of 
the  sex  prevented  our  securing  one  of  themselves  to  narrate 
tliat  story  and  no  man  felt  that  his  pen  was  equal  to  the  por- 
trayal. Like  Emmett's  epitaph,  it  must  remain  unwritten 
but  its  abiding  remembrance  is  in  the  hearts  of  the  soldiery 
of  the  South.  The  dedication  prefixed  to  the  completed 
work  in  this  last  volume  comes  from  the  heart.  They  are 
not  perfunctory  words,  but  the  exj^ression  of  the  sentiments 
of  the  more  than  125,000  soldiers,  living  and  dead,  whom 
North  Carolina  sent  to  the  front. 

The  pay  of  the  Confederate  soldier  in  the  depreciated  cur- 
rency w^as  wholly  inadequate  to  be  of  any  assistance  to  those 
dependent  upon  him  at  home.  Mention  has  already  been 
made  of  the  cotton  cards  and  other  supplies  brought  in 
tlirougli  the  blockade  and  distributed  by  the  State  to  soldiers' 
v.'ives.  In  most,  if  not  all  the  counties,  the  county  authorities 
procured  supplies  of  corn,  meat  and  salt  which  were  stored  in 
warehouses  and  dispensed  weekly  by  boards  of  elderly  citi- 
zens to  the  mothers,  wives  and  children  who  needed  assis- 
tance. This  was  not  charity  but  just  compensation  to  those 
who  were  absent  flghting  for  the  State  without  pay. 
Where  the  counties  neglected  this  just  measure  there  were 
of  course  large  nund3ers  of  desertions.  The  soldier  felt  it 
but  just  tliat  the  government  should  see  that  his  aged  mother, 
his  dependent  wife  and  children  were  provided  for  by  the 
State  since  at  its  command  they  were  deprived  of  his  labor. 
The  salt  was  procured  from  the  works  at  Saltville,  Virginia, 
or  from  the  ocean  near  Wilmington,  the  counties  raising  the 
funds  by  the  issue  of  what  was  known  as  "Salt  bonds."  By 
what  now  seems  a  singular  decision  the  Supreme  Court  of 
the  State,  in  the  Reconstruction  era,  held  the  bonds  thus  is- 
sued in  aid  of  the  destitute  and  suffering  women  and  chil- 
dren of  the  State  void  "'because  issued  in  aid  of  the  Rebel- 

A  most  interesting  chapter  might  have  been  added  of  the 
operation  of  the  "'Tax  in  kind"  by  which  provisions  Avere 
obtained  for  the  support  of  our  armies,  but  as  that  would 
have  required  much  elaboration  and  was  a  matter  concerning 

Review  and  Conclusion.  xi 

the  xVrmy  as  a  whole  rather  than  the  North  Carolina  Regi- 
ments and  Battalions,  the  subject  has  not  been  treated  herein. 

A  series  of  extracts  from  the  Executive  Letter  Books  and 
the  files  of  the  Adjutant-General's  office  1861-5  would  have 
added  interest  to  this  work,  but  it  had  already  swelled  to  five 
volumes,  and  this  as  well  as  some  other  valuable  nuitter  was 
necessarily  foregone. 

The  legend  on  the  cover  is  no  idle  boast,  but  is  based  upon 
evidence  given  herein  that  is  deemed  worthy  to  be  presented 
to  the  great  jury  of  the  public  and  of  posterity.  Major 
Hale's  history  of  the  ''Bethel"  regiment  proves,  (if  it  had 
ever  been  called  in  question)  North  Carolina's  claim  to  be 
the  First  at  Bethel.  The  histories  herein  by  Brigadier  Gen- 
eral Cox,  i\Iajor  General  Grimes  and  by  Colonel  Frank  Par- 
ker of  the  Thirtieth  regiment  abundantly  establish  that  the 
volley  of  (?ox's  Brigade,  of  Grimes'  Division  vas  the  Last  at 
Appomattox,  the  last  shots  being  fired  by  the  Thirtieth  Regi- 
ment belonging  to  that  brigade.  The  last  capture  of  guns 
by  that  gallant  army  was  the  1  Napoleons  taken  by  Roberts' 
North  Carolina  Cavalry  brigade  the  morning  of  the  sur- 

Davidson's  history  of  the  Thirty-ninth  regiment,  as  well 
as  Major  Harper's  history  of  the  Fifty-eighth  and  Colonel 
Ray's  of  the  Sixtieth  fully  demonstrate  that  our  North  Caro- 
lina soldiers  were  Farthest  to  the  front  at  Chicamauga  and 
they  are  corroborated  by  Ca])tain  C.  A.  Cilley's  report,  here- 
in reprinted,  who  was  a  Staff  Officer  of  Vanderveer's  Brigade 
which  faced  our  North  Carolinians  on  that  well  fought  field. 

At  Grttystmrg  the  history  of  the  Fifty-fifth  Regiment  by 
Adjutant  C.  M.  Cooke  shows  that  it  went  farthest  to  the 
front  on  Cemetery  Ridge.  The  best  proof  of  how  far  a  line 
of  battle  went  is  where  it  left  its  dead  and  wounded.  These 
derelicts  cast  up  by  the  bloody  wave  of  war  were  found  farth- 
est in  the  front  of  that  gallant  regiment  and  this  is  shown  by 
the  battlefield  map  prepared  by  the  authority  of  the  United 
States  government  after  years  of  careful  investigation  of 
official  reports  and  living  witnesses  from  both  armies.  A 
copy  of  this  official  map,  on  a  reduced  scale  is  printed  in  this 

xii  Review  and  Conclusion. 

The  number  of  troops  this  State  furnished  is  shown  here- 
in from  official  records  to  have  been  over  125,000  and  a  full 
one  fifth  of  the  total  force  of  the  Confederacy.  The  losses 
of  this  State  were  over  41,000  by  death  on  the  battlefield  or 
from  wounds,  being  the  largest  loss  sustained  l)y  any  South- 
ern State.  Though  K'orth  Carolina  furnished  one-fifth  of 
the  troops,  it  also  appears  that  instead  of  one-fifth  of  the  gen- 
eral officers  being  appointed  from  this  State  not  one  third  of 
the  pro  rata,  which  was  her  due,  received  the  promotion  they  . 
so  well  deserved.  Yet  by  the  general  opinion  in  the  Army 
Pender,  Hoke,  Pettigrew  and  perhaps  others,  were  as  com- 
petent to  command  corps  and  as  much  deserved  promotion  as 
TcUy  who  received  the  appointment  of  Lieutenant-General  at 
the  hands  of  the  Confederate  government.  Brigadier-Gen- 
erals Clingiuan,  Lane,  James  B.  Gordon,  Matt.  W.  Ransom, 
Scales,  and  others  merited  being  made  Major-Generals,  and 
the  State  had  many  gallant  sons  who  well  earned  promotion  to 
Brigadier-General  Among  many  such,  it  may  not  be  invid- 
ious to  name  Major  E.  J.  Hale,  who  (General  Lane  being  ab- 
sent wounded)  planned  the  successful  movement  at  Fuzzell's 
]yiills  and  virtually  commanded  his  brigade  at  Reams  Station, 
a  South  Carolinian  (General  Conner)  being  nominally  in 
command — Colonel  R.  Tyler  Bennett,  the  hero  of  the  Bloody 
Lane  at  Sharpsburg — Colonel  David  Coleman  in  the  Army  of 
the  West  (to  which  we  sent  eight  regiments  and  had  no  Briga- 
dier after  General  Vance's  capture  in  1863) — Colonel  Lno.  S. 
McElroy  of  the  Sixteenth,  Colonel  W.  H.  Cheek  of  the 
Xinth  (First  Cavalry)  and  Colonel  T.  M.  Garrett  of  the 
Fifth  all  of  whom  w^ere  recommended  for  this  promotion. 
These  and  many  others,  whether  recommended  or  not,  de- 
served the  honor  and  were  entitled  to  receive  it  both  on  their 
own  merits  and  from  the  number  of  troops  furnished  by  this 
State.  But  N'orth  Carolina  was  modest,  as  she  always  is, 
and  did  not  receive  just  recognition  which  has  ever  been 
her  fate,  alike  in  war  and  peace. 

The  following  admirable  summary  of  the  services  of  our 
soldiers  is  taken  from  a  recent  speech  by  the  eloquent  Henry 
A.  London,  now  Senator  from  Chatham,  who  at  the  surren- 
der at  Appomattox,  w^as  a  member  of  the  Thirty-second  Regi- 

Review  and  Conclusion.  xiii 

ment  and  courier  to  General  Grimes,  and  carried  to  General 
Cox  the  order  for  the  last  volley  fired  by  that  gallant  army. 
His  words  deserve  preservation. 

"With  a  white  population  in  1800  of  629,942  and  115,000 
voters,  North  Carolina  sent  125,000  soldiers  to  the  Confed- 
erate armies,  composing  eighty-four  regiments  and  eigh- 
teen battalions.  Three  of  these  regiments  were  artillery, 
eight  cavalry  and  seventy-three  infantry.  Several  of  the  bat- 
talions were  artillery  and  cavalry.  Over  41,000  were  killed 
or  died  in  the  service.  There  were  seven  Major-Generals 
from  this  State,  of  whom  three  were  killed,  namely:  Pen- 
der, Ramseur  and  Whiting.  There  were  twenty-six  Brig- 
adier Generals  from  this  State ;  four  of  whom  were  killed 
and  the  others,  almost  without  exception,  were  wounded. 

"The  first  victory  was  won  by  North  Carolina  troops  at 
Bethel  on  10  June,  1861,  and  they  fired  the  last  volley  at 
Appomattox  Court  House. 

''At  Gettysburg  2,592  Confederates  were  killed  and 
12,707  wounded,  and  3,155  Federals  were  killed  and 
14,529  were  wounded.  Of  the  killed  770  were  North 
Carolinians,  435  Georgians,  399  Virginians,  258  Mis- 
sissippians,  217  South  Carolinians  and  204  Alabamians. 
The  three  brigades  which  lost  more  killed  than  any  others 
in  that  battle  were  Pettigrew's  North  Carolina  (which  lost 
190  killed)  Davis',  composed  of  three  Mississippi  and  oi'.e 
North  Carolina  regiment,  which  lost  180,  and  Daniel's  North 
Carolina  brigade,  which  lost  165  killed.  Pickett's  entire 
division  lost  214  killed.  No  brigade  in  Pickett's  division 
lost  as  many  killed  and  wounded  as  the  Twenty-sixth  North 
Carolina  regiment,  whose  loss  was  86  killed  and  502 
wounded,  which  was  the  heaviest  loss  of  any  regiment  in 
either  army  in  any  battle  of  the  war.  There  were  sixteen 
brigades  of  Confederates  in  the  first  day's  battle,  of  which 
seven  were  from  North  Carolina.  In  what  is  called  'Pick- 
etts'  charge  there  were  nineteen  Virginia  regiments  and  fif- 
teen North  Carolinians.  At  Beams  Station,  in  August, 
1864,  after  the  first  efforts  of  other  Confederates  had  failed, 
the  three  North  Carolina  brigades  of  Cooke,  Lane  and  Mac- 

xiv  Review  and  Conclusion. 

Rae,  consisting  of  only  1,750  men,  routed  the  enemy  and 
captured  2,100. 

"Among-  the  regiments  which  suffered  the  heaviest  losses 
were  the  following:  The  Fifth  jSTorth  Carolina  at  Williams- 
burg, the  Fourth  at  Seven  Pines,  the  Third  at  Sharpsburg^ 
the  Twenty-sixth  at  Gettysburg  and  the  Twenty-seventh  at 
Bristoe  Station.  At  Williamsburg  the  Fifth  lost  in  killed, 
wounded  and  missing  197  out  of  240.  At  Seven  Pines  the 
Fourth  went  into  battle  with  twenty-five  oflicers  and  520 
non-commissioned  officers  and  privates,  and  lost  in  killed  and 
wounded  every  officer  except  one  and  462  men.  At  Sharps- 
burg  the  Third  lost  in  an  hour  and  a  half  330  out  of  520. 
At  Bristoe  the  Twenty-seventh  lost  in  less  than  half  an 
hour  291  out  of  420.  At  Sharpsburg  Company  C,  of  the 
Fourteenth  North  Carolina  regiment  lost  in  killed  and 
wounded  every  man  of  the  forty-five  present,  and  at  Chan- 
cellorsville  the  same  company  carried  in  forty-three  men  and 
all  were  killed  or  wounded  except  one  and  a  minie  ball  had 
lodged  in  his  haversack.  Company  F  of  the  Twenty-sixth 
lost  at  Gettysburg  every  man  out  of  eighty-seven,  except  one 
and  he  was  knocked  down  by  the  concussion  of  a  shell. 

"jSTo  troops  were  better  armed  and  equipped  than  those 
from  Xorth  Carolina,  and  our  State  was  the  only  one  that 
clothed  her  troops  during  the  entire  war.  Also  furnished 
clothing  for  otlier  troops,  and  at  the  surrender  had  92,000 
suits  of  uniforms  on  hand  and  gi'eat  stores  of  blankets  and 
leather :  was  the  only  State  that  was  engaged  in  direct  trade 
witli  England  and  running  the  blockade.  At  the  close  of  the 
war  North  Carolina's  commissary  was  feeding  about  half  of 
Lee's  army. 

"The  day  after  the  battle  of  Manassas  Secretary  of  War 
Benjamin  telegraphed  Governor  Clark  that  there  was  not 
enough  powder  for  another  day's  fight,  and  requested  him  to 
obtain  nitre,  which  he  did.  In  the  fall  of  1861  Secretary 
Benjamin  wrote  Governor  Clark  that  it  was  not  necessary  to 
make  large  contracts  for  military  supplies  for  any  long  time, 
as  the  war  would  not  last  long,  but  the  Governor  soon  after- 
wards sent  an  agent  to  England  to  buy  arms." 

Over  900    engravings    of    officers  and    men,    representing 

Review  and  Conclusion.  xv 

them,  as  they  looked  in  those  days,  give  added  interest  to 
tliese  volumes.  Nearly  one  hundred  of  these — mostly  pri- 
■\'ates  (for  no  line  has  been  drawn  at  rank) — have  been  sent  in 
by  Judge  A.  W.  Graham.  He  was  too  young  to  be  in  the  army 
himself,  but  he  had  .five  brothers  in  the  service,  each  of  whom 
Avas  wounded  and  four  of  whom  have  contributed  articles  to 
this  work.  A  very  large  part  of  the  other  photographs  have 
been  sent  in  by  the  mothers,  wives  and  daughters  of  soldiers 
who  with  a  devotion  known  only  to  a  \vomaj]'s  heart  have  pre- 
served these  mementoes  of  a  long-buried  past,  ofttimes  the 
only  relic  of  their  dead,  and  taking  them  from  their  sacred 
repositories  have  had  them  engraved,  a  cost  they  could  oft 
not  afford,  that  jxjsterity  might  look  upon  the  lineaments  of 
the  brave  who  could  merit  such  fidelity. 

The  engraving  of  the  photographs  could  not  have  been 
procured  but  for  the  assistance  of  that  patriotic  Southerner, 
iVIajor  C.  L.  Patton,  of  A^ew  York  City,  President  of  the 
University  Publishing  Company,  wlio  without  leward  or 
the  hope  of  reward,  undertook  the  supervision  of  ihe  work 
of  engraving,  securing  the  lowest  possible  cost  for  the  Veter- 
ans and  providing,  at  his  own  expense, the  clerical  force  to  con- 
duct the  correspondence,  receiving  the  photographs  and  re- 
turning them  to  their  respective  owners,  grouping  the  en- 
gravings and  attending  to  every  detail  till  the  last  sheet  was 
printed  oif  and  shipped  us.  Had  he  been  a  native  North 
Carolinian  he  could  not  have  done  more.  Our  thanks  are 
also  due  to  his  accomplished  clerk,  who  chiefly  conducted  this 
matter.  Miss  P.  S.  Adams.  To  rare  business  accuracy  she 
has  added  a  woman's  sympathetic  assistance  in  this  work. 
The  engi-avings  of  all  the  thirty-five  North  Carolina  Gen- 
erals have  been  made  at  Major  Patton's  own  expense  for 
those  volumes.  Fuller  investigation  in  the  Confederate 
Archives  having  shown  that  Major-General  Jeremy  P.  Gil- 
iiier  and  Brigadier-General  Gabriel  J.  Rains  were  appoint- 
ed from  this  State,  their  names  have  been  added  to  the  thirty- 
three  JSTorth  Carolina  generals  given  in  the  preface  to  Vol. 
I,  and  engravings  of  them  have  been  inserted  in  this  volume. 

To  Colonel  William  Lamb,  the  gallant  defender  of  Fort 
Fisher,  we  are  indebted  for  the  full  page  engraving  of  the 

xvi  Review  and  Conclusion. 

''Bombardment  of  Fort  Fisher"  (the  frontispiece  to  Vol.  5), 
the  full  page  engraving  of  the  ''Mound  Battery"  and  other 
engravings.  To  Mr.  James  Sprunt  the  writer  of  the  val- 
uable article  on  "Blockade  Running"  we  are  indebted  for  the 
full  page  engravings  of  the  "Steamer  Ad-Vance,"  the  "Shen- 
andoah" and  other  engravings,  and  we  owe  to  Colonel  Thos. 
S.  Kenan,  of  the  Forty-third  regiment,  the  frontispiece  to 
Vol.  4  "Johnson's  Island"  (a  description  of  which  may  be 
found  in  his  personal  reminiscences  of  prison  life  on  page 
689  of  that  volume)  and  also  for  a  full  page  engraving  of 
C(^mpany  A  of  his  regiment.  The  only  other  engraving  of 
a  full  company  is  that  furnished  by  Captain  C.  B.  Denson 
in  the  Twentieth  Regiment. 

JSTumerous  majDS  are  given  which  add  much  to  the  easy 
comprehension  of  the  narratives.  The  two  maps  of  Gettys- 
burg and  that  of  the  capture  of  Plymouth  are  especially  val- 

This  work  undertaken  more  than  seven  years  ago  has  been 
prosecuted  with  many  hindrances.  It  would  be  bootless  to 
relate  the  tribulations  attending  such  an  undertaking.  Its 
merits  are  due  to  the  efforts  of  the  self-sacrificing  patri- 
otic men  who  have  written  the  several  histories  composing 
it.  Its  short-comings  are  due  to  the  Editor  and  the  limita- 
tions which  the  lapse  of  time  and  untoward  circumstances 
have  imposed. 

For  better,  for  worse,  the  record  is  now  made  up.  The  last 
word  to  the  present  age  or  posterity  has  been  said  and  al- 
ready the  voices  of  many  who  have  spoken  are  stilled  in 

On  several  r)ccasions,  the  Confederacy  was  on  the  very  eve 
of  success,  but  some  unexpected  fatality  intervened.  At  Shi- 
loh  within  a  half  hour  of  the  capture  of  the  Federal  Army 
with  Grant  and  Sherman  at  its  head,  a  single  bullet  which 
caused  the  death  of  Albert  Sidney  Johnston  changed  the  his- 
tory of  the  Continent.  At  Chancellorsville,  one  scattering 
volley  fired  by  mistake  of  his  own  men  took  the  life  of  Stone- 
wall Jackson,  when  but  for  that  fatality  the  capture  of 
Hooker  and  his  whole  army  was  inevitable.  The  unexpected 
humiliation    of    the    Federal    Government    in    surrendering 

Review  and  Conclusion.  xvii 

Mason  and  Slidell  to  British  threats  avoided  a  war  with  that 
power  and  with  it  the  independence  of  the  South,  which 
would  have  come  with  the  command  of  the  seas  which  was 
within  the  power,  at  that  time,  of  Britain's  fleet.  If  Stuart's 
cavalry  had  been  on  hand  at  Gettysburg,  or  even  a  competent 
Corps  commander  to  have  held  our  gains  of  the  first  two  days, 
in  all  human  probability  the  war  would  have  ended  in  a  great 
Southern  victory  at  that  spot.  Had  Mr.  Davis,  when  he  sent 
his  commissioners  to  Englanci  to  negotiate  a  loan  of  $15,000,- 
000,  acceded  to  the  pressure  of  foreign  capitalists  to  make  it 
$000,000,000,  not  only  would  the  Southern  finances  not  have 
broken  down  (which  was  the  real  cause  of  our  defeat)  and 
Southern  troops  have  been  amply  supplied,  but  European 
governments  would  have  intervened  in  favor  of  Southern  In- 
dependence ere  they  would  have  suffered  their  influential 
capitalists  to  lose  that  sum.  They  have  always  intervened 
ererywhere  for  such  cause. 

There  were  other  occasions  besides  when  a  contrary  event 
vould  have  brought  about  Independence.  Xo  troops  in  all 
history  have  fought  better  nor  has  any  people  shown  better 
military  qualities.  But,  as  jSTapier  said  of  Xapoleon,  "For- 
tune, that  name  for  the  unknoirn  comhinations  of  an  infinite 
power,  was  wanting  to  us  and  without  her  aid,  the  desigms  of 
man  are  as  bubbles  on  a  troubled  ocean." 

Historical  experience  in  other  countries  has  been  that  the 
disbanded  soldiers  after  a  long  war,  having  contracted  habits 
of  idleness,  have  been  a  source  of  long  continued  disturbance. 
Xot  so  with  the  Confederate  veterans  who  at  once  went  to 
work  to  repair  the  ravages  of  war  and  rebuild  the  fortunes 
of  their  sorely  devastated  country.  Xot  only  that,  but  they 
were  the  mainstay  of  order  and  in  many  places  when  the 
discarded  camp-followers  of  the  other  side  were  not  restrain- 
ed by  the  commanders  of  that  army,  these  were  sternly  given 
to  understand  that  if  order  was  not  otherwise  maintained, 
tlie  ex-Confederates  could  and  would  establish  it. 

Unawed  by  garrisons  of  the  victorious  army,  and  unse- 
dueed  by  the  blandishments  and  temptations  offered  them, 
these  soldiers  of  a  Lost  Cause  took  their  stand  for  Anglo- 

xviii  Review  and  Conclusion. 

Saxon  civilization  and  saved  the  South  from  the  fate  of 
Hayti  and  the  West  Indies.  Their  services  in  the  years  suc- 
ceeding- the  war  were  as  truly  great  and  as  worthy  of  lasting 
gratitude  as  those  rendered  from  1861  to  1865. 

The  youngest  who  wore  the  gray  have  crossed  the  crest  of 
the  narrow  ridge  that  divides  two  great  oceans  and  already, 
like  Balboa,  they  have  descried  from  the  western  slope  the 
wide  waste  of  waters  which  reaches  beyond  the  sunset.  Xot 
many  years  shall  pass  ere  the  last  of  those  who  followed  the 
fortunes  of  Lee  and  Jackson,  of  Johnston  and  Forrest  shall 
have  set  sail  on  that  shoreless  sea,  and  the  last  footfall  of  the 
tread  of  the  old  Confederate  regiments  whose  march  shook  a 
Continent  shall  be  echoing  in  eternity.  Then  these  volumes 
?]iall  preserve  to  a  distant  posterity  the  memory  of  a  courage 
and  a  patriotism  and  a  spirit  of  self-sacrifice  which  our  sons 
should  not  willingly  let  die. 

My  Comrades,  to  have  been  deemed  worthy  of  labor  for 
you  and  with  you  is  honor  enough  for  any  man.  To  one  and 
all  I  give  my  thanks  for  your  groat  patience  and  your  U7i- 
failing  courtesy. 

Raleigh,  N.  C,  '    /  .i:2^ 

31  December,  1901. 

Errata. — There  are  over  1,000  engravings  (instead  of  900  as  above 
stated)  of  which  13  are  full  page  engravings  and  there  are  32  maps. 


By  the  editor. 

For  information,  to  tlie  following  list  of  contribntors  is  appended  a  memo- 
randum of  the  occupation  of  each  since  the  war.  Where  one  has  held  official 
position,  only  the  higliest  is  given.  There  are  179  writers  exclusive  of  the 
editor  and  :ii54  articles,  including  those  written  by  him.  The  writers  held, 
it  will  be  noted,  every  position  in  the  army  from  Lieutenant-General  to  pri- 
vate, and  since  the  war  have  distributed  themselves  among  nearly  all  the 
professions   and   ordinary  occupations  of  life. 

Aiken,  R.  A.,   Captain   Vol.  IV,  p.  117 

Merchant,   Murphy,   N.   C. 

Albright.  Jno   G.,  Lieutenant     IV —  99 

Merchant,    County    Commissioner.     Died   1890. 

Alexander,  J.  W.,  Lieut  -Commander  C.  S.  N .IV — 733 

Died  Liucolnton.   N.   C,  1898. 

Ashe,  S.  A. ,  Captain  A.  A.  G         V— 137 

Member  Gen.   Assembly  1870.     Ed.   Observer,    Lawyer,   Raleigh, 
N.    C. 

Avery,  A  C,  Major 1—337,  IV— 371 

Judge    Superior    Court    1878-1889,    Judge    Supreme    Court    1889- 
1897.     Morganton,   N.   C. 

Bailey,  Isaac  H. ,  Captain Ill— 447 

In  Business,  Bakersville,  N.  C. 

Barringer,  Rufus,  Brigadier-General   I — 417 

State  Senator  1852,  Chairman  Rep.  St.  Exec.  Com.     Died  3  Feb- 
ruary,  1895. 

Battle,  Kemp.  P.,  Member  Con  v.  1861 V — 647 

Public     Treasurer    18ti()-'7,     President     University     1875;     Prof. 
History   University   N.   C.   since  1891. 

Beall,  Jas.  F,  Major 11—129 

Member   Gen.    Ass.    1883.     Physician,    Davidson    County. 

Bennett,  R.  T.,  Colonel 1—705 

Judge   Superior  Court  1880,   M.   C.   1880-'84. 

Berrier,  H.  R.,  Sergeant   V — 627 

Farmer,  Davidson  County. 

Betts,  a.  D  ,  Chaplain IV— 597 

Methodist  Minister,  Sampson  County,  N.   C. 

Bradley,  Robt.  H.,  Private V — 577 

Marshal  Supreme  Court  since  1879. 

Brenizer,  A  G,  Colonel IV— 131 

Bank  Officer,   Charlotte,  N.  C. 

Broadfoot,  Chas.  W..  Colonel IV —    9 

Member  Gen.   Ass.   N.   C,   1870-72,   Lawyer,    Fayetteville. 

Brown,  H.  A.,  Colonel    1—185 

Prominent  Citizen  and  Capitalist,  Columbia,  Tenn. 

Brown,  T.  J. ,  Major 11—789 

In  business,   Winston,  N.  C. 

Bryan,  E.  K.,  Adjutant II— 507,  V— 161 

In  business,  New  Bern,  N.  C. 

XX  Historians  and  Contributors. 

BuRGWY-N,  W.  H.  S. .  Captain 11—591,  IV— 481,  569 

Col.  7th  Md.  Regt.,  Col.  2nd  N.  C.  Regiment  Spanish  War,  Au- 
thor  Md.    Digest,   Lawyer,   Bank   President,    Weldon,    N.    C. 

BusBEE,  Fabius  H  ,  Lieutenant IV — 583 

U.    S.    District   Attorney,   Raleigh,   N.   C. 

BusBEE,  C.  M..  Sergeant-Major 1—281,   V— 619 

State    Senator   1874,    Grand    Sire   Odd   Fellows   1890,    President 
State  Bar  Association  1901-2,   Raleigh,   N.   C. 

Caho,  W.  T.  ,  Sergeant     Ill— 725 

State  Senator  1874,  Lawyer,  Bayboro,  N.   C. 

Cain,  William,  Cadet  Captain V— 637 

I'rofessor  University  of  N.   C,   Chapel   Hill. 

Callis,  G.   B.,  Brigadier  General  U.  S.  A., V— 611 

Member  CouKitss   Wisconsin.    Died  1897 

Cantwell,  Jno.  L  ,  Colonel IV— 721,  V—  23 

Veteran  also  Mexican  War,   Secretary .  Produce  Exchange,  Wil- 
mington,  N.   C. 

Carr,  Julian  S.,  Private IV — 581 

One  of  Founders  Blackwell's  Mfg  '  o..  Commander  State  Veterans  As- 
sociaiiou,  Millionaire.  Durham,  N.  C. 

Cathey,  B.  H. ,  Lieutenant I — 751 

In  business.     Bryson  City,  N.  C. 

Cheek,  W.   H.,  Colonel 1—445,  775 

Lawyer,   Henderson,    N.    C.    Died  23   March,   1901. 

CiLLEY,  C.  A  ,  Captain  U.  S.  A V— 169 

Judge   Superior  Court   N.    C.    1867-8.     Died  1898. 

Clingman,  Thomas  L.,  Brigadier-General V— 29,  197 

Resigned  from  U.  S.  Senate  1861,  to  join  C.  S.  A.     Died  3  No- 
vemt)er,  1897. 

CoLE,  James  R.,  Colonel . .  .V— 629 

Supt.    Military   School,    Dallas,    Texas. 

CooKE,  Charles  M.,   Adjutant   Ill— 287 

State  Senator  1874;  Solicitor  1877-8;  Secretary  of  State  1895-7; 
Lawyer,  Louisburg,   N.   C. 

Cowan.  John,  Captain 1—177 

Secretary    Board    of    Audit    and    Finance,    Wilmington,    N.    C. 
Died    1900. 

Cox,  W.  R.,   Brigadier-General         IV — 443 

Judge   Super.or  Court  1877-80;   M.   C.   1881-87;    Secretary   U.    S. 
Senate  1894-1900;  Farmer  and  Lawyer,  Edgecombe  Co.,  N.  C. 

Cross,  J.  F. ,  Lieutenant  IV — 703 

Farmer,  Sunbury,  N.  C. 

Gumming,  James  D.,  (.'aptain IV — 861 

in    business   Brooklyn,    N.    Y.     Died   January,    1902. 

Daves,  Graham,  Adjutant  II — 161 

Author  and  Man  of  Letters,  New  Bern,  N.  C. 

Davidson,  Jno.  M. ,     11—727 

R.   R.   Agent,   Farmer.    Kingston,   Georgia. 

Davidson,  Theo.  F.  ,  Lieutenant  ...    II — 699 

Att'y  General  N.   C.  1884-92;  Mayor  of  Asheville  1895. 

Davis,  T.  C. Sergeant 11—745 

Postmaster,  Morehcad,  N.  C. 

Denson,  C.   B.,  Captain IV— 409 

Teacher,   Sec'y  N.  C.   Ag'l.   Society,  Raleigh,  N.  C. 

DeRossett.  W.  L.  ,  Colonel I — 215 

Commander  State  Veteran  Association  1896-7,  Wilmington,  N.  C. 

Dixon,  B.  F.  ,  Captain Ill— 151 

State  Auditor  N.  C.  1901;  Major  Second  N.  C.  Reg't  1898  (Span- 
ish War). 

Historians  and  Contributors.  xxi 

Ellington,  J.  C.  ,  Lieutenant Ill — 161 

Civil  Engineer  City  of  Raleigti. 

Elliott,  Chas.  G.,  Captain IV— 527 

Treasurer  N.   &  C.   R.   R.    Died  14  August,   1901. 

Elliott,  Gilbert,   Adjutant V — 315 

Lawyer,  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  and  New  York.     Died  9  May,  1895. 

Evans,  .1.  W.,  Corporal    Ill— 713 

Register  of  Deeds  Dare  Co.,  Merchant,  Manteo,  N.  C. 

Ferguson,  Garland  S. ,   Lieutenant  ...      II — 291 

Solicitor  12th  District  1879-1892,  State  Senator  1876,  Waynes- 
ville,  N.  C. 

Flanner,  Henry   G.  .  Captain   V — 617 

Druggist,  Wilmington,  N.  C.    Died  1885. 

Flowers,  Geo.  W.,  Lieutenant- Colonel  ...    II — 675 

Merchant,    Taylorsville,    N.    C. 

Frazier,  F.  C,  Lieutenant  IV — 335 

Farmer,  High   Point,  N.  C. 

Gaither,  Bi'rgess  S  , V —  57 

Member  Congress  C.  S.,  Lawyer,  Morganton,  N.  C.    Died  1892. 

Galloway,  Jno.  M Ill— 529 

Prominent  Citizen,  Madison,  N.   C. 

Gordon,  A.,  Major 1—3,  23,  37,  39,  45 

Planter,   Hulda,    La. 

Graham,  James  A. ,  Captain 11—425,    IV— 501 

Lawyer,   State   Senator  1872;   Washington,   D.   C. 

Graham,  John  W  ,  Major V — 1 75 

Member  State  Convention  1868;  State  Senator  1868-'9;  and 
1876-'77;   Lawyer,   Hillsboro,   N.   C. 

Graham,  Robt  D. ,  Captain Ill— 313 

Chief  of  Bureau,  Dept.  Interior;  Lawyer,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Graham,  W.  A.  Major     1—50,  II—  79 

Planter.  Lincoln  Co..  N.  C.  Several  times  in  N.  C.  Legislature, 
President  Farmers'  Alliance.  Son  of  Hon.  W.  A.  Graham, 
C.  S.  Senator  and  brother  of  Major  Jno.  W.  Graham,  Captain 
Robert  D.  Graham  and  Captain  Jas.  A.  Graham,  who  are  also 
Historians   in  this  work. 

Green,  AVharton  J.,  Lieutenant-Colonel IV — 243 

Member  of   Congress   1883-87;   Farmer,   Fayetteville,   N.    C. 

Grimes.  Bryan,  Major  General V — 247 

Farmer,    Pitt  County;   Assassinated  14  August,   1880. 

Grizzard,  James  M.,  Captain IV — 645 

Member  Gen.   Ass.  1895;  Lawyer.    Died  1901. 

Hale,  E.  J  .  Major 1—69 

Consul  to  Manchester,   England  ;   Ed.   Fayetteville  Observer. 

Hampton,  E.  R  ,  Hospital  Steward     IV— 385 

Clerk  U.  S.  Dist.   Court  1870-1884.    Lawyer,   Sylva,  N.   C. 

Hannah,  J.  George V— 643 

Insurance  Agent,   Slier  City,  N.   C. 

Harper,  G.  W.  F.,  Major     Ill— 431 

In  Gen.  Ass.  1881;  Prest.  Lenoir  N.  G.  R.  R.  1894;  Prest.  Bank 
Lenoir,  N.  C. 

Habrill,  L. .  Captain I — 771 

Prominent   Physician.   Statesville,   N.   C. 

Habbis,  J.  S. .  Capt. ,   1—361 

Wounded  three  times.   Merchant,   Davidson   College,   N.   C. 

Hill,  D.  H  ,  Lieutenant-General V—  15 

President  Uni.   of  Arkansas.     Died  25   September,   1889. 

Hill,  Joshua  B.  ,  Sergeant   11—767 

U.  S.  Marshal,  Raleigh,  N.  C. 

XXII  Historians  and  Contributors. 

HiNES,  Peter  E.,  Surgeon  IV— 623 

Prominent    Physician,    Raleigh,    N.    C. 

Hinsdale  John  W. ,  Colonel IV —  35 

Prominent    Lawyer,    Raleigh,    N.    C. 

HoGE,  Rev.  Dr.  Moses  D .     V— 341 

Presbyterian    Minister,    Richmond,  Va.    Died  6  January,  1898. 

Holt.  E.  J.,  Lieutenant  IV— 91,  580 

Sheriff    Johnston    Co.;    Member    Gen.    Ass.    1874-8;    Merchant, 

Johnson,  Bradley  T.,  Brigadier-General V — 213 

Lawyer,   Baltimore,   Md. 

Johnston,  Jos.  F.  ,  Lieutenant IV — 531 

Governor  of  Alabama  1898-'9. 

Jones,  Hamilton  C,  Colonel  Ill — 405 

state  Senator  1809-1871;  U.  S.  Dist.  Atty.  1884-88;  Lawyer;  Char- 
lotte,  N.   C. 

Jones,  John  T.  ,  Lieutenant-Colonel   V — 133 

Killed   0   May,    1864,    at   the   Wilderness. 

Kearney,  H.  C,  Lieutenant   I — 733 

Sheriff  of  Franklin  Co.  since  1878,  Louisburg,  N.   C. 

Kenan,  Thos.  S.,  Colonel Ill— 1,  19,  IV— 689,  V— 611 

Attorney-General    1876-1884;    Clerk    Supreme    Court    since    1887, 
Raleigh,    N.    C. 

Kennedy,  John  T.,  Colonel   IV— 71,  370 

Member   Gen.    Ass.,    Farmer,   Goldsboro,   N.   C. 

Lamb,  William.  Colonel    11-629,  V— 317,  351 

Prominent   business  man,   Norfolk,   Va. 

Lamb,  Wilson  G.,  Lieutenant    II —    1 

Merchant,  Wllliamston,  N.   C. 

Lane,  James  H.,  Brigadier-General 11—465,  IV— 465,  V— 93,  645 

Prof.   A.   &  M.   College,   Auburn,   Ala. 

Lattimore.  Thos.  D.,  II — 581 

Clerk  Superior  Court  Cleveland  Co.;    Treasurer    Manufacturing 
Co.,    Shelby,    N.    C. 

Lawhon,  W.  H.  H,  Captain     III-113 

Meni!)er  Gen.  Ass.  1897;  Baptist  Minister,  Moore  Co.,  N.  C. 

LiLES,  E.   R.,  Lieutenant-Colonel   ...         V—  63 

Farmer,   Anson   Co.     Died  about   1894. 

LiNNEY,  Romulus  Z.,         V— 285 

State  Senator;   M.   C;   Lawyer,   Taylorsville,   N.   C. 

London,  Henry  A.,  Private II — 531 

Courier   who  carried   last  order  to  charge  at  Appomattox;   Ed. 
Chatham  Record;  State  Senator  1901.     Pittsboro,  N.  C. 

London,  W.  L.,  Captain IV — 513 

Merchant,    Pittsboro,    N.    C. 

LoYALL,  B.   P.,  Commander  C.  S.  N., V— 325 

Resides  Norfolk,  Va. 

LuDWiG,   H.  T.    L,  Drummer 1—387 

Professor  Mount  Pleasant  College,    N.    C,    1871-1900.     Died    28 
July,    1900. 

LusK,  Virgil  S.,    IV— 371 

Member  (ien.   Ass.   1895-1897;   U.   S.   Dist.    Atty  1868-1884;   Law- 
yer.    Asheville,    N.    C. 

MacRae,  J.  C.  Major 1—281,  IV— 379 

Judge    Superior    Court    N.    C.    1882-1892;    Judge    Supreme    Court 
1892-5:  Prof.   Law  Uni.  of  N.   C,   Chapel  Hill,   N.   C. 

MacRae,  Walter  G.,   Captain  IV— 713 

Sheriff  of  New  Hanover;  Civil  Engineer.    Wilmington,  N.  C. 

Maglenn,  James,    Chief  Engineer V — 335 

Master    Machinist.    Hamlet,    N.    C. 

Historians  and  Contributors.  xxiii 

T 1  K7 

Manly,  Matt.,  Captain ^ 

Mayor  and  Postmaster  at  New  Bern. 

Mangum,  a.  W.,  Chaplain.    . .    .  .■     ...  -••-••■ -^ IV— 745 

Methodist   Minister;   Prof.   Uni.   N.   C.    Died  1890. 

Martin  Jas.  G.,  Brigadier-General a.  v,  ;  a:  ^~  ^ 

^'^^^"^,Vaduate  West^ Point;  Lawyer,   Asheville,   N.   C.    Died  4  Octo- 
ber, 1878. 

^"^"p\-oXsso^r'un'^°N'^C.-  and  "Davidson '  Co-llege.    Died   2.3  •March.  "^ 

Maxwell,  David  G.  ,  Captain   IV— 405 

In  business,  Charlotte,  N.   C. 
McDowell,  B.  G  ,  Lieutenant-Colonel    Ill— 515 

Atty   at   Law,    Bristol,   Tenn. 

McKethan,  a.  a..  Lieutenant • ^- ' ' ::  '  '■i}}^~~'^^^ 

Clerk   Superior  Court  Cumberland;   Manufacturer;   FayetteviUe, 
N.   C. 

McKiNNE,  David  E.,  Captain IV—  25 

Merchant,   Princeton,   N.   C. 

McLaukin,  W.  H  ,  Adjutant H"  ^^ 

Farmer,    Laurinburg,   N.   C. 

McNeill,  Thos.  A o     x  '   i "  ;  ' " '  W    W IV-303 

Judge  Superior  Court,   1898.    Lumberton,   N.   C. 

Meadows,  E.  H.,  Sergeant ... ...     ...••■  •  ■  •  ■  II-^p^"^'  ^'"^^^ 

In  business  and  Bank  and  R.  R.  Director.    New  Bern,  N.  C. 

Means,  Paul   B.,  Private   • ■  •  HI— 545 

Member  Gen.  Ass.  1874-^;  btate  Senator  18a5  and  1889;  Lawyer.    (  on- 
oord.N.  C. 

Metts,  James  L,  Captain • 

Prominent   ^  itizen,    Wilmington,    N.    C. 

Mills,  G.   H.,  Lieutenant ••.••,,  t iom IV— 137 

In  business.   Kutherfordton.    Died  10  January,   1901. 

Montgomery,  W.  A. ,  Lieutenant     ■■■■;:■■■■■■■     ■■■  ^-^^^'  V— 257 

Justice  Supreme  Court  since  1895.     Raleigh,  N.  C. 

Moore,  John  W.,  Major „■■■.„■•./  • -1^—261 

Editor  "Moore's  Roster,  "  Historian  and  Novelist,  PowellsviUe,  N.  C. 
Moore,  M.  V..  Captain   Ill— 673 

Editor  and   Farmer.    Died   1900. 
Moore,  T.  C,  Lieutenant IV— 221 

Farmer,    Bladen    County. 
MoREHEAD,  Jas.  T  ,  Colonel •  •  ■ Ill— 255 

State   Senator  1872;   Lawyer.    Greensboro,   N.   C 

Morris,  B.  T.,  (^aptain     ^  V  '  x^    " '  m~^^^ 

Chairman   County   Commissioners   Henderson    County;    Farmer. 

Mullen,  James  M., ^    ■  :  '  „  V     V  ' '^  '  vn '^"^^^ 

state   Senator  N.    C;   Judge   Hustings   Court,    Petersburg,    \a. 

Myrover,  J.   H.,  Lieutenant  ...  ■ IV— 341 

Editor,   Man  of  Letters,   FayetteviUe,   N.   C. 

Officer  of  Shenandoah •  •  ■    • * 

The  name  is  unknown,  l)ut  supposed  to  be  one  of  the  Surgeons 
of    the    ship. 

Osborne,  E.  A.,  Colonel .• :     .     " '.,   xt    n  '  R.<,in.pnt^~^^^ 

Minister    Episcopal    Church;    Chaplain    Second    N.    C.    Regiment 
Spanish  War  1898.     Charlotte,   N.   C. 

Outlaw,  E.  R.,  Captain „V     ,.-.^      xr    n   ' '  ^""^^^ 

Sheriff  Bertie  Co.  10  years;  Planter.    Bertie  County,  N.   C. 

Parker.  Frank  M. ,  Colonel II— 49o 

Farmer.    Enfield,    N.    C. 

XXIV  Historians  and  Contributors. 

Parker,  W.  Fletcher.  Lieutenant IV —  71 

Member  Gen.  Ass.  1901;  Merchant  and  Farmer.    Enfield,  N.  C. 

Patton,  Thos.  W.,  Captain Ill— 499 

Twice  Mayor,  Co.  Commr.,  Philanthropist  and  Financier,  Ashe- 
ville,   N.   C. 

Pickens,  S  V.,  Adjutant IV-109,  36S 

Lawyer,    Hendersonville,    N.    C. 

Pool,  S.  D  ,  Colonel, 1—489;  V— 19,  83 

Ed.   "Our  Living  and  Our  Dead";  Supt.  Pub.  Instruction  N.  C. 
1878-80.    Died  in   Louisiana   1902. 

Powell.  C.  S. ,  Adjutant IV— 329 

Sheriff  of  Johnston  Co.;   Merchant.    Smithfleld,   N.   C. 

Powers,  L.  E.,  Lieutenant.  . .    II — 147 

Member  Gen.  Ass.  1879-1883,  Architect,  Rutherfordton,  N.   C. 

Prisoners  at  Johnson  Island   to  Gov.  Vance  IV — 697 

Ramsay,  John  A. ,  Captain I — 551 

State   Senator;   Civil   Engineer.    Salisbury,   N.   C. 

Ramsey,  N.  A  ,  Captain ...    Ill — 503 

Surveyor,    Durham,    N.    C, 

Ray,  James  M.,  Lieutenant-Colonel    Ill — 473- 

Real   Estate   Agent,    Asheville,    N.    C. 

Ray,  Neill  W.,  Captain 1-293:   V— 605 

Lawyer;  Mayor  of  Fayetteville,   N.   C.    Died  1899. 

Rawley,  T.  L.,  Captain   1—701,  IV— 551 

In  business,  Winston,  N.  C. 

Rivenbark,  Chas   W..  Sergeant ...  .IV — 725    V — 595 

In  business,  Charlotte,  N.  C. 

RoBBiNs,  W.   M. ,  Major  V— 101 

Member   Congress    1872-78;    Com.    Gettysburg    Battlefield    since 

Roberts.  W.  P  .  Brigadier  General . .  .II —  99 

State   Auditor   1877-1891;   Consul   to   Victoria,    B.    C,    1893-1897. 
Gatesville,  N.  C. 

Robinson,  Jno.  H. .  Adjutant Ill— 223 

Accountant,   Fayetteville,  N.  C. 

Rogers,  J.  Rowan,  Lieutenant Ill — 103 

bueriff  Wake  County  1887-1891;  Farmer.    Raleigh,  N.   C. 

Rose,  George  M..  Adjutant         Ill — 685 

Speaker  N.  C.  House  of  Reps.  1883;  Lawyer,  Fayetteville,  N.  C. 

Rose,  W.N.,  Corporal 11—269 

Farmer,  Johnston  County,  N.  C. 

RouLH.AC,  Tiios.  R..   Lieutenant Ill — 125 

Judge    Superior   Court   Alabama.    Sheffield,    Ala. 

Sanders.  J.  W. ,    Lieutenant   I — 499 

Physician,  Carteret  County,  N.  C.  ; 

Shaw,  W.  P. ,  Lieutenant Ill— 455 

Clerk   Superior  Court  Hertford  County.    Winton,  N.   C. 

Smith.  N.  S.,  Adjutant 1-689 

Farmer,  Forsythe  Co. 

Sparrow.  Thom.\s.  Major.  V —  35 

Member    Gen.    Assembly    1858-9:    Lawyer.    Washington,    N.    C. 
Died  14  January,  1884. 

Sprunt,  James,  Purser V — 353- 

Large  shipper  and  British  Vice  Consul,    Wilmington,  N.   C. 

Stedman,  Charles  M..  Major Ill— 21,  V— 207 

Lieutenant-Governor   1889-1893;    Lawyer.    Greensboro,    N.    C. 

Historians  and  Contributors.  xxv 

,y   ^y  Ill— 729 

bTRiNGFl^ELD,^  Gen.  Ass  1883;'  state"  Senator 'iVoi;  Surveyor,  Waynes- 
ville,  N.  C. 

Sutton,  Thomas  H.  ,  Private ■  ■  ■■  •;■■•••■•.•.     p"~  " 

Member  Gen.   Assembly  1887,   1889,   1891,   1897;  Judge  Criminal 
Court  1897-8;   Fayetteville,  N.   C. 

^  TV 9Q^ 

Taylor,  MATTHiiw  P ^^ 

Insurance  Agent.    Wilmington,   N.   C. 

Thorn E,  E   A.,  Lieutenant ^--^     ^-      V    \j'n ^  ~^'  ^ 

County  Commissioner;  Farmer,   Halifax  County,   JN.   C. 

Thorp,  John  H.,  Captain ■  -^     ■■-       ■,     ■  :^  ■  ■  I^—  ^^ 

State    Senator    1887;    Lawyer;    Farmer,    Nash    County,    N.    C. 
Rocky  Mount. 
ToLAR,  A.  H.  H.,  Captain ^'—  98 

Editor,    jJamon,    Texas. 

Toon    Thos.   F.,  Brieadier-General         ..  •  •  •  •  •    -T^I— HI 

'superintendent    Public    Instruction    1901-1902.    Died    February 
1902.     Lumberton,   N.   C. 
Tredwell,  Adam,  Paymaster  in  Navy    ^  — 299 

In   business,    Norfolk,    Va. 
Turner,  Yi^e-s  E..  Captain 11—181 

Dentist,    Raleigh,   N.    C. 
TuTTLE,  RoMuix'S  M., • A  —599 

Presbyterian   Minister,    Collierstown,    va. 
Underwood,  George  C,  Assistant  Surgeon 11—303 

Physician,  Chatham  County,  N.  C. 
Vance   Robert  B..  Brigadier  General   11—485 

Member  Congress  \S72-H->.    U.  S.  Comm'r  Patents  1884.    Died  1900. 

Vance,  Zebulon  B.  ,  Colonel ^  -^ •  ■    ■      ■■■■,w  '^^  ~"*^^^ 

Three  times  Governor  of  N.   C,   and  four  times  elected  U.   b. 
Senator;  Lawyer.     Died  1893. 

Waddill,  J.  M.,   Lieutenant       HI—  '^^ 

Merchant,  Greenville,  S.  C. 

\M  ATT     H    C^     Spro'pant  — lol 

Cotton '  Mamifacturer,    Meni{)er    Gen.    Ass.    1899,    Rockingham. 
N.   C.    Died  1900. 

Walton,  T  George ^-^ • V— 635 

Promineut  Citizen,   Morganton,   N    C  ,  now    86  years  old. 

Watson,  Cyrus  B.,  Sergeant •  ■     y-    -ioQi.^^""  ^^ 

State   Senator  1889,   1891;   Dem.   Candidate  for  Governor  1896, 
Lawyer,  Winston,  N.  C. 

Webb,  Lewis  H.,  Captain ■ IV-355 

Franklin,    Va.    Died   8   February,    1902. 

Webb,  Robert  F.  ,  Colonel I^  ~^^'^ 

Farmer,  Durham  County.    Died  1890. 

Weston,  James  A.,  Major /•,;•;.•  •  • '  V  '  'A  '  W  ^^~^^^ 

Minister  Episcopal  Church;   Author  of   "Marshall   Ney  in   North  Car- 
Wharton,  Rufus  W,,  Lieutenant  Colonel .111—703    IV— 225 

Member    State    Board    of    Agriculture;    Farmer.    Washington, 

N.   C. 
Wheeler,  Woodbury,  Captain    IV— 315 

L,awyer,    Washington,   D.    C.    Died  1900. 

Whitaker,  Spier,  Adjutant ■„;„  ■  •  •  -^  ~^' 

Judge  Superior  Court  1890-4;  Major  6th  U.  S.  Vols.  1898  (Span- 
ish War).     Died  June,  1901. 

White,  B.  F.,  Captain V— 581 

Merchant,   Alamance  County,   N.   C. 

White,  John,  Commissioner V— 453 

Merchant,  Warrenton,  N.  C.    Died  . 

XXVI  Historians  and  Contributors, 

Wiggins,  Octavius  A 11—658 

In  business,  Wilmington,  N.  C. 

Williams,  Arthur  B.  ,  Captain I—  537 

Mnyoi-   Fayettevilie   1875;   Chairman   Co.    Commrs;    in   buciness, 
Fayetteville,   N.   C. 

Williams,  J.   Marshall,  Lieutenant Ill — 267 

Fanner,    Fayetteville,    N.    C. 

Williams,  R.  S  ,  Captain 1—653 

Farmer,    Guilford   County. 

Wynns,  Jas.  M. ,  Lieutenant-Colonel. IV— 365 

Member  Gen.   Assembly,   Merchant,   Murfreesboro,   N.   C. 

Yellowly,  E.  C,  Lieutenant-Colonel V— 55 

Lawyer,    Greenville,    N.    C.    Died    1885. 

Young,  Louis  G  ,  Captain IV— 555,    V— 113 

Merchant,   Savannah,   Georgia. 

The  Editor I— v,  xi,  xiii,  xiv;  IV— 1,  65,  69,  97, 

107,  129,  133,  224,  270,  301,  302,  338, 
339,  383,  397.  398,  399,  400,  401,  403, 
407,  435,  649;  V— iii,  vii,  xix,  1,  3, 
8,   17,    71,  298,  573,  587,  626. 


By  the  editor. 

By  the  Adjutant-General's  report  19  J^ovember,  1864,  it 
appears  as  follows: 

Transferred  to  Confederate  States  by  original  rolls  on  file 64,636 

No.  of  conscripts  to  30  September,  18,585,   bnt  report  of  General 

Holmes  9  Febrnary,  1865 21,348 

Enlisted  number  of  recruits  since  1862 21,608 

Number  of  North  Carolinians  serving  in  other  States 3,100 

Number  of  detailed  men  (in  three  regiments  and  one  battalion) .  .  3,117 

Number  Junior  Reserves 4,207 

Number  Senior  Reserves    5,686 

Number  in  State  Troops   3,203 

Total    126,905 

Additions  by  coming  of  Military  age  after  19   November,   1864, 

and  other  additions,  probably 2,000 

Total    128,905 

Besides  nine  regiments  of  reorganized  Home  Guai'ds  1864-'65.  .  .  .     5,000 

Grand  total 133,905 

Which  is  sliglitly  in  excess  of  Major  Gordon's  estimate  in 
Vol.  1  of  this  work,  at  page  10. 

The  total  enrollment  in  the  li.ome  Guards  in  the  Spring 
of  1864  was  25,098.  This  embraced  men  from  45  to  50, 
and  5,589  militia  officers,  magistrates  and  other  civil  officers 
exem})t  from  Confederate  service  and  other  exemptions  and 
those  exempt  from  physical  disability.  This  latter  class  was 
reported  to  the  Confederate  Congress  at  7,885.  It  is  proba- 
ble that  the  exemptions  of  all  kinds  from  the  Home  Guards 
vere  one-half,  leaving  12,500  in  Home  Guards.  Of  this 
numl)er  6,000  were  later  taken  into  Confederate  service  as 
Senior  Reserves,  leaving  the  Home  Guards  only  6,500,  of 
whom,  however,  when  finally  ordered  out  not  more  than  5,000 
(as  above  stated)  got  to  the  front.  The  number  of  officers, 
1,312,  which  were  not  very  excessive  before  the  Home  Guard 
was  depleted  by  taking  out  the  Senior  Reserves,  became 
nearly  one-fourth  of  the  force  when  mobilized,   as  appears 


2  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

from  the  official  returns  of  the  three  Home  Guard  Kegiments 
at  Kinston  September-November,  1864,  and  their  number  an 

In  the  early  part  of  the  war  the  ''State  Troops"  consisted  of 
the  first  ten  regiments  and  the  Thirty-third,  which  were  en- 
listed at  the  start  "for  three  years  or  the  war,"  the  others  being 
twelve  months  men  or  "Volunteers."  But  the  State  Troops 
in  above  table  are  the  Sixty-seventh  and  Sixty-eighth  Regi- 
ments, the  First  Heavy  Artillery  Battalion  (herein  styled 
iVintli  Battalion),  the  Fifteenth  Battalion  (cavalry),  and 
Fourteenth  Battalion  (cavalry),  which  later  was  raised  to  a 
regiment,  the  Seventy-ninth  (or  Eighth  Cavalry).  These 
commands  were  never  turned  over  to  the  Confederacy,  having 
been  raised  for  service  in  the  State,  though  they  served  under 
Confederate  Generals,  like  all  others. 


As  a  matter  of  interest,  the  following  table  is  here  given 

of  exemptions  in  this  State  which  were  reported  to  the  Con- 
federate Congress  in  February,  1865.  129  Off.  Rec.  TJnion 
and  Confed.  Armies,  1101 : 

Physical  disability 7,885 

State  officers  (including  in  this  2,650  militia  officers)  5,589 

Ministers  of  the  Gospel 400 

Editors 21 

Newspaper  employees  99 

Apothecaries 31 

Physicians   374 

Presidents  and  College  Professors    173 

Presidents,  etc..  Deaf,  Dumb  and  Blind    5 

Overseers  and  Agriculturists  ...    246 

Railroad  officers  and  employees 967 

Mail  contractors 100 

Mail  drivers 47 

Non  combatants  (Quakers) 342 

Foreigners 167 

Special  exempts 49 

Agricultural  details 329 

Shoemakers,  tanners,  etc 437 

Total 17,261 

The  State  also  furnished  a  large  number  of  negroes  from 
time  to  time  to  work  on  fortifications  under  Confederate  au- 


mnm  cflROLiNfl. 

By  the  editor. 

The  total  number  of  Confederate  troops  was  between  600,- 
000  and  050,000.  The  troops  from  North  Carolina  in  Con- 
federate service  as  above  was  over  125,000,  or  about  one-fifth. 

The  Confederacy  appointed  the  following  General  Officers 
{20  So.  Hist.  Papers,  111): 

Full  Generals    6 

Full  Generals   (temporary) 2 

Of  these  none  from  North  Carolina. 
Lieutenant-Generals   21 

From  North  Carolina  two  or  one-tentJi. 
Major-Generals 99 

From  North  Carolina  6  (or  including  J.  F.  Gilmer  7) 
instead  of  20,  her  quota. 
Brigadier-Generals    480 

From  North  Carolina  25  (or  including  General  Rains,  26) 
instead  of  ho'  quota,  96. 

Of  her  twenty-five  Brigadiers,  four  were  temporary  ap- 
pointments and  two  of  them  were  returned  to  their  former 
rank  as  Colonels  after  a  few  weeks  service,  and  of  her 
Major-Generals,  also  one  was  a  temporary  appointment. 
Of  her  two  Lieutenant-Generals,  one  had  his  appointment 
withdraAvn  after  rendering  distinguished  services  in  com- 
mand of  his  Corps  at  Chickamauga,  and  the  Senate  had  no 
chance  to  confirm  him  as  Lieutenant-General. 

Investigation  shows  that  Brigadier-General  Gabriel  J. 
Rains  and  Major-General  Jeremy  F.  Gilmer  were  appointed 
from  this  State  and  should  be  added  to  the  list  of  Generals 
given  in  the  preface  to  Vol.  1.  Neither,  however,  com- 
manded North  Carolina  troops.     General  Rains  commanded 

4  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

an  Alabama  Brigade  in  1862  and  thereafter  was  in  the  En' 
gineer  Corps.  General  Gilmer  was  Chief  of  Engineer  Bu- 
reau, and  for  a  while  Chief  of  Staff  in  the  Army  of  the  West. 
After  the  war  he  settled  in  Georgia  and  General  Eains  in  Ar- 

With  Generals  Rains  and  Gilmer  added  and  including  the 
temporary  appointments  above  mentioned,  out  of  008  Gen- 
eral Officers  appointed  by  the  Confederacy,  this  State  had 
only  35  instead  of  122,  which  would  have  been  her  one-fifth, 
in  proportion  to  troojjs  furnished. 

Governor  Vance's  letter  books  show  repeated  protests  by 
him  against  this  discrimination.  It  is  not  too  much  to  say 
that  by  common  consent  in  the  army  Peflder,  Hoke,  and  Pet- 
tigrew  were  entitled  to  command'  Corps  or  even  Armies,  and 
we  doubtless  had  others  who  would  have  proven  themselves 
competent  for  high  conunands  if  opportunity  had  been  fur- 
nished them. 

It  was  only  by  urgent  representations  that  Governor 
Vance  secured  the  brigading  of  North  Carolina  troops  to- 
gether in  Lee's  army  and  that  most  of  the  commanders  of 
North  Carolina  brigades  were  North  Carolinians.  As  to  the 
Arm}^  of  the  West,  that  was  never  done,  though  the  Legisla- 
ture in  1864  passed  a  resolution  requesting  that  the  North 
Carolina  regiments  in  that  army  should  be  brigaded  together 
and  a  North  Carolinian  made  Brigadier.  In  fact,  Colonel 
David  Coleman,  of  tlie  Thirty-ninth,  for  a  long  time  com- 
manded Ector's  Brigade,  in  which  was  that  regiment  and 
the  Twenty-ninth,  but  he  never  received  his  merited  promo- 
tion. The  Junior  Reserves  Brigade  12  March,  1865,  peti- 
tioned (unknown  to  Colonel  Coleman)  that  he  be  promoted 
Brigadier-General  and  assigned  to  command  them,  but  the 
application  was  not  granted. 

The  same  discrimination  against  this  State  in  the  appoint- 
ment of  General  Officers  was  shown  in  the  Revolution  and 
even  in  the  recent  war  with  Spain. 

THE  n; 




1.  Walter  Gvvynn,  Brigadier-General. 

2.  Jno.  W.  McElroy,  Brigadier-General. 
^.  David  Clark,  Brigadier-General. 

4.  Collett  Leventhorpe,  Brig'r-General. 

.5.  James  G.  Martin,  Ad.iutant-General. 

6.  Daniel  G.  Fowle,  Adjutant-General. 

7.  R.  C.  Gatlin,  Adjutant-General. 

8.  John  F.  Hoke,  Adjutant-General. 


By  Lieutenant  E.  A.  THORNE,  Ordnance  Officer,  Ransom's 

During  the  war  there  were  eight  Brigadier-Generals  under 
State  commission,  who  commanded  troops  at  the  front  or  oth- 
erwise rendered  active  service. 

1.  Brigadier-General  John  F.  Hoke,  Adjutant-General  of 
the  Militia.  Through  him  the  volunteer  regiments  were  or- 
ganized down  till  his  election  as  Colonel  of  the  Twenty-third 
Regiment,  when  he  resigned.  Later  he  resigned  as  Colonel 
of  that  regiment  and  in  1864  was  elected  Colonel  of  the  Sev- 
c-ntj'-third  Ttegiment  (First  Senior  Reserves)  and  in  Octo- 
ber, 1864,  was  placed  in  command  as  Senior  Colonel  of  a 
brigade  consisting  of  the  Seventy-third,  Seventy-fourth  and 
Seventy-sixth  Regiments  (First,  Second  and  Third  Senior 
Reserves),  which  were  in  Confederate  service  and  assigned 
to  duty  guarding  Federal  prisoners  at  Salisbury  and  scouring 
the  three  adjacent  Congressional  Districts  for  deserters. 

2.  Brigadier-General  James  G.  Martin,  who  was  Adju- 
tant-General under  the  act  to  raise  the  eleven  regiments  called 
^^State  Troops,"  who  enlisted  in  the  beginning  for  "three 
years  or  the  war."  After  the  resignation  of  Adjutant- 
General  Hoke  he  was  Adjutant-General  of  the  entire  service 
of  raising  and  equipping  troops  and  likewise  charged  with 
the  defence  of  the  State.  It  was  on  his  suggestion  that  Gov- 
ernor Vance  began  the  importation  of  army  supplies  through 
the  medium  of  the  Ad-Vancc.  In  May,  1862,  he  was  ap- 
pointed Brigadier-General  in  the  Confederate  States  service 
and  some  months  later  a  question  being  raised  as  to  his  right 
to  hold  both  commissions,  he  resigned  the  State  appointment 
and  took  command  of  a  brigade  in  the  field.  In  1864  he 
was  sent  to  Asheville  and  placed  in  command  of  that  depart- 
ment, surrendering  at  Waynesville  10  May,  1865,  the  last 
surrender  this  side  the  Mississippi. 

6  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

3.  On  General  Martin's  resignation,  Daniel  G.  Fowle  was 
appointed  Brigadier  and  Adjutant-General,  but  held  the  posi- 
tion only  a  short  time,  being  soon  elected  to  the  Legislature 
from  Wake  County.  Previous  to  this  appointment  he  had 
been  Lieutenant-Colonel  of  the  Thirtj^-first  Regiment  and  had 
been  captured  at  Roanoke  Island.  In  1888  he  was  elected 

4.  Brigadier-General  Walter  Gwyun  was  an  Engineer 
officer  of  high  repute  and  was,  on  the  outbreak  of  the  war,  as- 
signed by  the  State  to  the  supervision  of  our  coast  defences. 
His  reports,  still  on  file,  are  valuable  and  show  that  if  his 
suggestions  had  been  followed  we  should  not  have  lost  Hat- 
teras  and  thus  opened  the  door  to  the  host  of  evils  which  beset 
Eastern  Korth  Carolina  the  remainder  of  the  war.  With 
Hatteras  securely  held  all  Eastern  North  Carolina  would 
have  been  exempt  from  invasion  as  fully  as  the  Cape  Fear 
country  was  till  the  loss  of  Fort  Fisher.  He  resigned  in 

5.  On  the  resignation  of  Adjutant-General  Fowle,  Richard 
C.  Gatlin,  who  was  the  senior  Brigadier-General  from  North 
Carolina  in  the  Confederate  service,  resigned  and  was  ap- 
pointed Brigadier  and  Adjutant-General  in  State  service. 
He  rendered  most  efficient  duty  organizing  the  Home  Guards, 
assisting  the  conscript  service,  and  supervising  the  State 
Troops,  which  were  the  Sixty-seventh  and  Sixty-eighth  Regi- 
ments, the  First  Heavy  Artillery  Battalion,  the  Fifteenth 
(cavalry)  Battalion  (Wynns'),and  Fourteenth  Battalion  (cav- 
alry) later  Seventy-ninth  Regiment,  for  none  of  these  were 
ever  turned  over  to  the  Confederacy.  The  Sixty-eighth  was 
raised  entirely  from  men  w^ithin  the  territory  occupied  by  the 
Federals.  General  Gatlin's  letter  and  order  books  show  the 
great  range  of  his  work  and  the  faithfulness  and  ability  with 
which  he  executed  it. 

6.  Brigadier-General  David  Clark  in  January.  1862,  was 
assigned  to  the  command  of  the  defences  of  Roanoke  river, 
not  so  much  by  virtue  of  his  command  of  a  brigade  of  militia 
(from  Halifax,  Northampton  and  Warren)  as  by  special  ap- 
pointment from  the  Governor  by  reason  of  his  knowledge  of 
that  section.      The  militia  of  Bertie,  Washington,  Edgecombe 

Generals  Commissioned  by  the  State.  7 

and  Martin  were  also  placed  under  his  orders,  and  authority 
was  given  him  to  impress  slaves,  teams  and  supplies  for  his 
purpose.  On  the  fall  of  Roanoke  Island  he  assembled  his 
militia  at  Plymouth,  subsequently  falling  back  to  William- 
ston.  These  orders  were  renewed  by  General  S.  G.  French 
and  General  T.  H.  Holmes,  who  successively  came  in  charge 
of  the  department.  The  Thirty-fourth  Regiment  under  Col- 
onel Leventhorpe  and  the  Thirty-eighth  under  Colonel  W.  J. 
Hoke  were  sent  to  his  assistance,  but  he  was  not  relieved  of 
the  command  till  late  in  April  when  Colonel  Leventhorpe  suc- 
ceeded him.  This  is  the  only  instance  of  a  General  of  Mili- 
tia being  in  active  service  during  that  war  in  this  State — 
though  it  was  common  practice  in  the  Revolution  and  in 
1812-15- — and  this,  as  just  stated,  was  rather  a  special  as- 
signment to  duty  than  by  virtue  of  his  previous  commission. 

7.  Brigadier-General  John  W.  McElroy  was  appointed  by 
Governor  Vance  19  September,  1863,  under  the  act  of  7  July, 
1863,  to  establish  a  "Guard  for  Home  Defence" — commonly 
called  Home  Guards.  He  and  General  Leventhorpe,  ap- 
pointed a  year  later,  were  the  only  two  Generals  of  the 
''Home  Guards."  General  McElroy  was  assigned  to  duty  in 
charge  of  Home  Guards  of  several  counties  adjacent  to  his 
headquarters  at  Burnsville  to  protect  that  section  against 
raids  from  East  Tennessee  and  was  on  duty  till  the  surrender 
of  Johnston. 

8.  Brigadier-General  Collett  Leventhorpe  had  served  as  a 
Captain  in  the  English  army.  He  was  successively  Colonel 
of  the  I'hirty-fourth  and  Eleventh  ^orth  Carolina  Regiments 
and  was  wounded  at  Gettysburg.  In  1804  he  was  appointed 
by  Governor  Vance  Brigadier-General  and  assigned  to  com- 
mand the  three  Home  Guard  regiments  which  were  assembled 
at  Kinston  in  September,  1864.  On  3  February,  1865,  he 
was  ap]iointed  Brigadier-General  in  the  Confederate  service 
but  remained  in  command  of  these  troops.  He  was  at 
Greensboro  14  April,  1865,  and  notified  General  Beaure- 
gard on  that  date  that  his  troops  were  leaving  for  home.  100 
Off.  Rec.  Union  and  Confed.  Armies,  800.  But  the  same 
thing  was  taking  place  at  that  time  among  all  the  troops,  for 
it  was  plain  to  all  alike  that  our  hope  of  success  had  passed. 


By  the  editor. 

By  General  Orders  20  December,  1862,  12S  Off.  Records 
Union  and  Confed.  Armies,  2JfS,  there  was  established  nine 
permanent  military  courts,  one  for  each  corps.  Each  court 
consisted  of  a  presiding  judge  and  two  associates,  all  of  the 
rank  of  Colonel,  and  a  Judge  Advocate. 

jSTorth  Carolina  was  represented  on  these  courts  as  follows : 

On  court  for  Jackson's  Corps,  Colonel  David  M.  Carter, 
Associate  Judge. 

On  court  for  E.  Kirby  Smith's  Corps,  Colonel  Thomas 
Ruffin,  Presiding  Judge. 

On  court  for  G.  W.  Smith's  Corps,  Colonel  William  B. 
Rodman,  Presiding  Judge. 

Out  of  the  thirty-six  officers  of  the  nine  courts,  North  Car- 
olina had  only  these  three  representatives,  though  at  the  time 
fully  one-fifth  of  the  troops  under  arms  were  from  this  State. 


By  Lieutenant  E.  A.  THORNE,  Ordnance  Officer,  Ransom's  Brigade. 


Major-General  William  D.  Pender. 
"  "        Stephen  D.  Ilamseur. 

"       W.  H.  C.  Whiting. 
Brigadier-General  L.  O'B.  Branch. 
''  "        Junius  Daniel. 

"  "        James  B.  Gordon. 

"       G.  B.  Anderson. 
"  "        J.  J.  Pettigrew. 

"       Arch.  C.  Godwin. 


Montford  S.  Stokes,  First  Regiment. 

Charles  C.  Tew,  Second  Begiment. 

Gaston  H.  Meares,  Third  Begiment. 

Geo.  B.  Anderson,  Fourth  Regiment,  promoted  to  Brig- 
adier-General and  killed. 

James  H.  Wood,  Fourth  Regiment. 

Thos.  M.  Garrett,  Fifth  Regiment. 

Charles  F.  Fisher,  Sixth  Regiment. 

Isaac  E.  Avery,  Sixth  Regiment. 

Wm.  D.  Pender,  Sixth  Regiment,  promoted  Major-Gen- 
eral  and  killed. 

Reuben  P.   Campbell,   Seventh  Regiment. 

Henry  M.  Shaw,  Eighth  Regiment. 

James  B.  Gordon,  Ninth  Regiment,  promoted  Brigadier- 
General  and  killed. 

James  A.  J.  Bradford,  Tenth  Regiment,  died  in  service. 

Junius  Daniel,  Fourteenth  Regiment,  promoted  Brigadier- 
General  and  killed. 

Philetus  W.  Roberts,  Fourteenth  Regiment,  died  in  ser- 

10  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Kobert  M.  McKinney,  Fifteenth  Regiment. 

Champ  T.  N.  Davis,  Sixteenth  Regiment. 

Thos.  J.  Purdie,  Eighteenth  Regiment. 

Solomon  Williams,  Nineteenth  Regiment. 

Matthew  L.  Davis,  Nineteenth  Regiment. 

Clinton  M.  Andrews,  Nineteenth  Regiment. 

J.    Johnston    Pettigrew,    Twenty-second  Regiment,   pro- 
moted Brigadier-General  and  killed. 

Daniel  H.  Christie,  Twenty-third  Regiment. 

Charles  C.  Blacknall,  Twenty-third  Regiment. 

Henry  K.  Burgwyn,  Twenty-sixth  Regiment. 

Wm.  H.  A.  Speer,  Twenty-eighth  Regiment. 

Edward  C.  Brabble,  Thirty-second  Regiment. 

L.  O'B.  Branch,  Thirty-third  Regiment,  promoted  Briga- 
dier-General and  killed. 

Clark  M.  Avery,  Thirty-third  Regiment. 

Richard  H.  Riddick,  Thirty-fourth  Regiment. 

John  G.  Jones,  Thirty-fifth  Regiment. 
^  Charles  C.  Lee,  Thirty-seventh  Regiment. 

William  M.  Barber,  Thirty-seventh  Regiment. 

George  B.   Singletary,  Forty-fourth  Regiment. 

J.  Henry  Morehead,  Forty-fifth  Regiment,  died  in  service. 

Samuel  H.  Boyd,  Forty-fifth  Regiment. 

Robert  C.  Hill,  Forty-eighth    Regiment,  died  in  service. 

Stephen   D.    Ramseur,    Forty-ninth   Regiment,    promoted 
Major-General  and  killed. 

James  K.  Marshall,  Fifty-second  Regiment. 

Marcus  A.  Parks,  Fifty-second  Regiment. 

Wm.  A.  Owens,  Fifty-third  Regiment. 

A.  C.  Godwin,  Fifty-seventh  Regiment,  promoted  Briga- 
dier-General and  killed. 

Peter  G.  Evans,  Sixty-third  Regiment. 

James  H.  McNeil,  Sixty -third  Regiment. 

Alex.  D.  Moore,  Sixty-sixth  Regiment. 

W.  C.  Walker,  Eightieth  Regiment. 


Walter  vS.  Stallings,  Second  Regiment. 
William  M.  Parsley,  Third  Regiment. 

General  and  Field  Officers  Killed.  11 

Junius  L.  Hill,  Seventh  Regiment. 

Thomas  Ruffin,  iSFinth  Regiment. 

Francis  W.  Bird,  Eleventh  Regiment. 

George  S.  Lovejoy,  Fourteenth  Regiment,  died  in  service. 

John  C.  Lamb,  Seventeenth  Regiment. 

R.  K.  Pepper,  Twenty-first  Regiment. 

Saunders  Fuller,  Twenty-first  Regiment. 

Franklin  J.  Faison,  Twentieth  Regiment. 

Robert  H.  Gray,  Twenty-second  Regiment,  died  in  service. 

C  C.  Cole,  Twenty-second  Regiment. 

John  T.  Jones,  Twenty-sixth  Regiment. 

Thomas  L.  Lowe,  Twenty-eighth  Regiment,  died  in  service. 

William  W.  Sellers,  Thirtieth  Regiment. 

Oliver  C.  Petway,  Thirty-fifth  Regiment. 

John  A.  Graves,  Forty-seventh  Regiment,  died  in  prison. 

John  A.  Flemming,  Forty-ninth  Regiment. 

James  T.  Davis,  Forty-ninth  Regiment. 

John  R.  Murchison,  Fifty-first  Regiment. 

Caleb  B.  Hobson,  Fifty-first  Regiment. 

James  C.  S.  McDowell,  Fifty-fourth  Regiment. 

M.   Thomas  Smith,  Fifty-fifth  Regiment. 

Edmund  Kirby,  Fifty-eighth  Regiment. 

James  T.  Weaver,  Sixtieth  Regiment. 

Edward  J.  Mallett,  Sixty-first  Regiment. 

Elias  F.  Shaw,  Sixty-third  Regiment. 

Clement  G.  Wright,  Sixty-sixth  Regiment. 

H.  L.  Andrews,  Second  Battalion. 


Tristam  L.  Skinner,  First  Regiment. 

John  Howard,  Second  Regiment. 

A.  K.  Simonton,  Fourth  Regiment. 

John  C.  Badham,  Fifth  Regiment. 

Henry  McRae,  Eighth  Regiment,  died  in  service. 

John  H.  Whitaker,  ISTinth  Regiment. 

Thomas  N.   Grumpier,  Ninth  Regiment. 

Egbert  A.  Ross,  Eleventh  Regiment. 

Edward  Dixon,  Fourteenth  Regiment,  died  in  service. 

Lucius  J.  Johnson,  Seventeenth  Regiment,  died  in  service. 

12  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

John  S.  Brooks,  Twentieth  Regiment, 

Alexander  Miller,  Twenty-first  Regiment,  died  in  service. 

W.  J.  Pfohl,  Twenty-first  Regiment. 

Laban  Odell,  Twenty-second  Regiment. 

E.  J.  Christian,  Twenty-third  Regiment. 

William  S.  Grady,  Twenty-fifth  Regiment. 

Abner  B.  Carmichael,  Twenty-sixth  Regiment. 

Thomas  W.  Mayhew,  Thirty-third  Regiment. 

Eli  H.  Miller,  Thirty-fourth  Regiment. 

George  M.   Clark,  Thirty-fourth  Regiment. 

John  M.  Kelly,  Thirty-fifth  Regiment. 

Owen  ]Sr.  Brown,  Thirty-seventh  Regiment. 

Thomas  McGee  Smith,  Forty-fifth  Regiment. 

Benjamin  R.  Huske,  Forty-Eighth  Regiment. 

John  Q.  Richardson,  Fifty-second  Regiment. 

James  J.  Iredell,  Fifty-third  Regiment. 

James  A.  Rogers,  Fifty-fourth  Regiment. 

James  S.  Whitehead,  Fifty-fifth  Regiment,  died  in  service. 

A.  T.  Stewart,  Fifty-eighth  Regiment. 

Thos.  W.  Harris,  Sixty-third  Regiment. 

Charles  M.  Roberts,  Seventy-ninth  Regiment. 

John  W.  Woodfin,  Woodfin's  Battalion. 

E.  A.  Thobne. 

AlRLIE,    N.    C, 

9  April,  1901. 

21    NOVEnBER,  1861, 

By  brigadier-general  JAMES  G.  MARTIN. 

First  Regiment,  Matliias  Point,  Virginia. 
•   Second  Kegiment,  Fredericksburg,  Virginia. 

Third  Eegiment,  Acquia  Creek,  Virginia. 

Fourth,  Fifth  and  Sixth  Regiments,  Manassas,  Va. 

Seventh  Regiment,  Bogue  Island,  near  Fort  Macon,  j^.  C 

Eighth  Regiment,  Roanoke  Island,  JSTorth  Carolina. 

Ninth  Regiment,  near  Centreville,  Virginia. 

Tenth  Regiment,  Companies  B,  II  and  F,  heavy  artil- 
lery. Fort  Macon,  North  Carolina ;  Company  C,  light  battery, 
near  New  Bern,  North  Carolina ;  Company  G,  light  battery, 
near  Fort  Macon ;  Company  D,  light  battery,  near  Centre- 
ville, Virginia ;  Company  E,  light  battery,  near  Port  Royal, 
South  Carolina;  Company  A,  light  battery,  Smithfield,  Vir- 
ginia ;  Company  I,  heavy  artillery,  near  New  Bern,  North 
Carolina ;  Company  R,  prisoners  of  war  taken  at  Hatteras. 

''Bethel"  Regiment,  disbanded  13  November. 

Twelfth  Regiment,  Norfollv,  Virginia. 

Thirteenth  and  Fourteenth  Regiments,  Smithfield,  Va. 

Fifteenth  Regiment,  Yorktown,  Virginia. 

Sixteenth  Regiment,  en  route  to  Manassas  from  Western 

Seventeenth  Regiment,  the  field  officers  and  Companies  D, 
F,  G,  H,  and  I,  were  taken  prisoners  of  war  at  Hatteras,  the 
balance  of  the  regiment  is  at  Roanoke  Island  and  in  Hyde 
County,  North  Carolina. 

Eighteenth  Regiment,  near  Port  Royal,  South  Carolina. 

Nineteenth  Regiment,  Companies  D,  E,  F,  I  and  K,  are  at 
Edenton,  North  Carolina,  not  mounted ;  A,  C  and  H  at  New 
Bern,  North  Carolina,  mounted ;  B  and  G  at  Washington, 
North  Carolina. 

14  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

Twentieth  Tiegiment,  Forts  Johnston  and  Caswell,  N.  C. 

Twentj-first  and  Twenty-third  Regiments,  Manassas,  Va. 

Twenty-second  Regiment,  Evansport,  Virginia. 

Twenty-fourth  Regiment,  ordered  from  Western  Virginia 
to  Petersburg,  Virginia. 

Twenty-fifth  Regiment,  near  Port  Royal,  South  Carolina. 

Twenty-sixth  Regiment,  Bogue  Island,  near  Fort  Macon. 

Twenty-seventh  Regiment,  Companies  A,  B  and  G  at  Fort 
Macon ;  the  balance  at  Fort  Lane,  near  New  Bern,  N.  C. 

Twenty-eighth  Regiment,  near  Wilmington,  N.  C. 

Twenty-ninth  Regiment,  at  Raleigh  under  marching  ordets 
to  Jonesboro,  Tennessee. 

Thirtieth  and  Thirty-first  Regiments,  near  Wilmington, 
N.  C. 

Thirty-second  Regiment,  Companies  G,  H,  I  and  K  taken 
prisoners  at  Hatteras ;  the  other  six  companies  are  stationed 
near  Norfolk,  Virginia. 

Thirty-third  Regiment,  Companies  A,  B  and  C  in  Hyde 
County ;  the  balance  in  this  city  getting  equipped. 

Thirty-fourth  Regiment,  at  High  Point,  North  Carolina. 

Thirty-fifth  Regiment,  at  Raleigh  without  arms. 

Thirty-sixth  Regiment,  the  six  companies  on  the  coast  of 
North  Carolina. 

Thirty-seventh  Regiment,  organized  at  High  Point  to-day. 
No  arms. 

Two  more  regiments  can  be  organized  soon  if  arms  can  be 
furnished  for  them. 

The  above  does  not  incliide  the  battalion  and  companies 
that  have  tendered  their  services  to  the  Confederacy.     They 
would  form,  at  least,  two  regiments. 
I  am  very  respectfully, 

J.  G.  Martin. 

Kaleigh,  N.  C, 

21  November,  1861. 

Note. — The  above  is  report  of  Adjutant  General  Martin,  21  November, 
1861,  to  Adjutant  General  Samuel  Cooper,  C.  S.  A. 


By  D.  H.  hill,  Lieutenant-Generau 

There  were  at  least  six  instances  in  the  siege  of  Petersburg 
in  which  shells,  with  burning  fuse  attached,  were  picked  up 
and  thrown  over  the  breastworks.  On  inquiry,  each  of  these 
brave  men  were  from  North  Carolina  and  their  names  and 
commands  were  as  follows : 

1.  Captain  Stewart  L,  Johnston,  Company  II,  Seventeenth 
Xorth  Carolina  liegiment,  says:  '"A  shell  from  one  of  the 
enemy's  mortars  fell  in  the  midst  of  the  company,  and  while 
it  was  s])inning  round  like  a  top  and  the  fuse  still  burning. 
Private  William  dames  Auslxni  picked  it  up  and  cast  it  over 
tlie  breastworks  where  it  immediat(dy  exploded.  General 
Beauregard  in  genei'al  orders  directed  his  name  to  ho  ])laced 
on  the  Roll  of  Honor  and  that  he  be  ])rescnted  with  a  silver 

2.  Colonel  J  no.  E.  Brown,  Ptjrty-second  Xorth  Candina 
liegiment,  says:  '^Private  Frank  Campbell,  Company  F, 
of  this  regiment,  though  belonging  to  the  Drum  Corps,  was 
frequently  on  the  firing  line.  On  one  occasion  a  loaded  shell 
fell  into  the  trenches  at  Petersburg.  Campbell  caught  it  up 
immediately  and  threw  it  outside,  before  it  could  explode, 
thereby  saving  the  lives  of  a  nund)er  of  his  comrades.  On  an- 
other occasion  he  threw  water  upon  a  shell  for  a  like  purpose. 
lie  was  from  Davie  CViunty  and  survived  the  war." 

?>.  Captain  T.  J.  Adams,  Company  K,  Forty-ninth  Xorth 
C'^i'olina  Pegiment,  says:  ''Private  William  Guffey,  of  my 
company,  while  rubbing  up  his  field  piece,  as  he  was  pleased 
to  call  his  rifle,  had  the  misfortune  to  have  it  smashed  by  a 
mortar  shell.  Seeing  the  shell,  with  the  fuse  burning  rap- 
idly and  almost  ready  to  explode,  he  cried  out,  'Why,  there  is 
the  darned  old  thing  frying  now,'  and  gTabbing  it  up,  threw 
it   over  the  breastworks." 

4.  Captain  li.  D.  Graham,  Company  D,  Fifty-sixth  Xorth 
Carolina  Pegiment,  writes:  "On  18  June,  1864,  the  next 
dav  after  the  terrific  nieht  liattle  of  17  June,  a  batterv  to  the 

10  XoRTii    Cakoi.ika    Tkoops..    ]8G1-'G5. 

light  of  tlie  Baxter  road  tlirew  a  shell  into  a  ditch  where  the 
'Crater'  afterwards  exploded  on  30  July,  which  ditch  was 
crowded  with  men  from  our  regiment.  Its  explosion  would 
have  caused  a  great  loss  of  life,  but  quick  as  thought,  Private 
John  Alvis  Parker,  of  my  company,  had  it  upon  his  spade 
and  threw  it  over  the  breastworks,  saying,  "Get  out  of  here." 
It  exploded  as  it  went  over.  There  was  no  braver  deed  dur- 
hig  the  war.  I  heard  that  the  same  thing  was  done  by  a 
member  of  Pegram's  Battery  the  same  day." 

5.  Adjutant  W.  L.  Faison,  Sixty-first  North  Carolina  Reg- 
iment, says:  "I  send  you  the  name  of  Sergeant  Thomas  L. 
Graves,  Company  A,  of  this  regiment,  as  one  of  the  six  'name- 
less heroes.'  On  3  June,  1864,  at  Cold  Harbor,  while  the 
enemy  was  shelling  our  works,  a  shell  fell  in  the  trench  oc- 
cupied by  our  regiment,  in  a  smoking  condition  and  almost 
ready  to  burst.  It  was  at  once  seized  by  this  brave  man  and 
thrown  over  the  parapet." 

6.  Captain  Jas.  D.  Cumming,  Cumming's  Battery,  Com- 
pany C,  Thirteenth  [N'ortli  Carolina  Battalion,  writes: 
"While  Butler  was  'bottled  up'  at  Bermuda  Hundreds,  during 
a  heavy  cannonade  on  3  June,  1864,  a  shell  from  a  32-pound 
battery,  just  opposite  our  position,  fell  into  our  trenches  and 
rolled  under  the  trail  of  a  gun  by  which  I  was  standing.  Pri- 
vate J.  P.  Pierce,  from  Columbus  County,  IST.  C,  of  my  bat- 
tery, raised  the  shell  and  threw  it  over  the  jiarapet.  General 
Beauregard  in  a  general  order  complimented  his  bravery  and 
]n-esence  of  mind." 

D.  H.  Hii.T.. 

Charlotte.  N.  C. , 

9  April,   18G7. 

Note  —The  above  is  taken  from  Vol  2,  Ltind  We  Love  ( 1866-67)  edited 
by  General  Hill,  in  which  mnch  valuable  material  for  the  history  of  the 
War  is  preserved,  which  is  also  true  of  Colonel  Stephen  D.  Pool's  valuabe 
volumes  Our  Lmiuj  and  our  Dead.  There  is  no  record  of  all  those  who  cap- 
tured flags  from  the  enemy,  but  in  69  Of.  Bee.  Union  and  Confed  Armies 
806  is  an  official  report  of  the  capture  12  May,  1864,  of  the  flag  of  the  51st 
Penn.  regiment  by  Lieutenant  O.  A.  Wiggins,  Co.  E,  37th  N.  C.  regi- 
ment; of  the  flag  of  the  17th  Michigan  by  Lieutenant  J.  M.  Grimsley, 
Co.  K.  37th  regiment,  N.  C,  and  of  a  brigade  guidon  by  Private  James 
H.  Wheeler,  Co.  E.  Eighteenth  N.  C.  regiment.  It  is  to  be  regretted 
that  a  complete  list  of  the  brave  men  from  this  State  who  thus  captured 
Hags  from  the  enemy  can  not  now  be  made. 


By  the  editor. 

Among  the  many  other  deeds  of  striking  gallantry  are  the 
following  whose  memory  has  been  preserved  to  us  by  reso- 
lutions of  thanks  by  the  General  Assembly,  for  they  are  not 
mentioned  in  any  of  the  articles  in  these  volumes. 

On  4  July,  18G3,  the  General  Assembly  passed  a  resolu- 
tion of  thanks  to  "Captain  John  Elliott,  of  Pasquotank 
county,  his  officers  and  men,  for  the  gallant  manner  in  which 
they  captured  the  two  Federal  steamers,  Arroiv  and  Emily, 
(mail  boats),  the  former  in  Albemarle  and  Chesapeake  canal, 
the  latter  in  North  river,  and  bringing  the  same  through  Al- 
bemarle Sound  and  up  the  Chowan  and  Blackwater  rivers 
and  placing  them  safely  under  our  guns  at  Franklin,  Va.,  a 
distance  of  120  miles  from  the  place  of  capture,  and  that, 
too,  while  nmuorous  gnn-boats  were  cruising  the  same  route.'^ 

On  7  'Tuly,  18(33,  the  General  Assembly  passed  a  resolu- 
tion of  thanks  to  a  "detachment  of  six  men,"  of  Ca])tain  S. 
C.  Barringlon's  company,  of  iMajor  Jno.  N.  Whitford's  Bat- 
talion, "for  their  gallant  and  daring  conduct  in  boarding  and 
capturing  the  crew  of  one  of  the  enemy's  boats  (the  Seabird) 
on  the  waters  of  Neuse  river,  and  in  burning  and  destroying 
said  boat  and  cargo,"  and  requested  that  Major  Wliitford 
should  "forward  a  list  of  the  names  of  the  brave  men  who 
have  thus  distinguished  themselves"  that  they  might  be 
placed  on  the  roll  of  honor. 

Captain  Barrington's  company  was  from  Craven  and  when 
Whitford's  Battalion  was  increased  and  became  the  Sixty- 
seventh   Regiment,   it  was   Company  B,   of  that  command. 

On  recent  investigation  by  Major  Graham  Daves  these 
facts  are  learned: 

"The  schooner  Seabird  was  captured  at  the  mouth  of  South 
river,  off  the  Garbacon  Shoals,  and  far  within  the  Federal 
lines.  The  names  of  the  scouting  party,  'a  detachment  of  six 

18  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

men,'  are,  or  rather  were — for  all  except  the  first  mentioned 
are  now  dead — Eobert  F.  Stillej,  James  M.  Carmady,  Benj. 
JF.  Edwards,  Frank  Howard,  Cyrus  J.  Mayo  and  Wiley 
Tlowe.  Stilley  was  in  command  of  the  party.  All  were  of 
Craven  County." 

Captain  Jno.  T.  Elliott's  became  later  Company  A,  of  the 
Sixty-eighth  Regiment,  and  was  from  Pasquotank  County. 
The  incidents  connected  with  the  above  captures  by  his  com- 
pany should  noAv  be  hunted  up  and  the  names  of  the  brave 
participants  preserved  if  these  lines  should  strike  the  eye  of 
any  having  knowledge  of  the  facts.  The  same  should  be  done 
as  to  the  acts  which  caused  the  General  Assembly  to  pass  a  res- 
olution of  thanks  23  December,  1864,  "to  Captain  John  A. 
Teague,  Twenty-ninth  Regiment  Xorth  Carolina  Troops,  and 
t(.  the  brave  officers  and  men  under  his  command  for  the  ef- 
ficient manner  in  which  they  have  discharged  their  duties  in 
defending  the  western  border  of  our  State  from  the  inroads 
of  the  enemy  and  depredations  of  bands  of  lawless  men." 

The  capture  in  ISTeuse  river  of  the  steamer  Mystic  5  April, 
1865,  and  of  the  side-wheel  steamer  Minquas  and  two  barges 
on  Y  April,  1865,  by  small  detachments  of  the  Sixty-seventh, 
then  operating  in  Sherman's  rear,  is  told  in  Vol.  3  of  this 
w^ork  on  p.  710,  and  the  capture  of  a  steamer  in  New  River 
28  November,  1862,  by  Company  A,  of  the  Forty-first  regi- 
ment (Third  (^avalry),  and  a  section  of  Adams'  battery  is 
narrated  in  Vol.  2,  p.  774.  Doubtless  there  were  other  inci- 
dents of  a  similar  kind  creditable  alike  to  the  courage  and 
enterprise  of  our  troops  whose  memory  should  be  preserved 
by  surviving  comrades  before  it  is  too  late. 


By  colonel  STEPHEN  D.  POOL,  Tenth  Regiment  (1  Art/ 
North  Carolina  Troops. 

ISTews  had  been  received  at  headquarters  at  Kinston  in  No- 
vember, 18G2,  that  two  Generals  of  the  Federal  army — one 
of  them  commanding  in  North  Carolina,  would,  on  a  certain 
day,  pass  from  Morehead  to  New  Bern.  It  was  advisable, 
in  view  of  certain  contemplated  movements,  to  capture  the 
train  and  secure  the  officers.  At  10  o'clock  p.  m.,  I  received 
orders  to  proceed  at  once  to  Trenton,  take  a  detail  of  men 
from  Major  Nethercutt's  command,  and,  if  possible,  on  the 
day  named,  capture  the  train.  At  2  a.  m.,  I  reached  Trenton 
io  find  Major  Nethercutt  absent  on  one  of  his  usual  scouting 
expeditions.  Awaiting  his  return  at  daylight,  I  made  my- 
self comfortable,  and  was  about  to  indulge  in  a  morning  nap, 
when  the  clatter  of  the  feet  of  a  horse,  at  full  gallop,  caused 
me  to  step  to  the  door  of  the  court  house  to  see  what  was  in 
the  wind.  The  sentinel  upon  duty  had  halted  the  rider,  and 
was  receiving  from  him  a  paper  to  be  immediately  delivered 
to  the  officer  in  command.  To  my  astonishment,  the  note 
bore  no  address,  and  upon  being  opened  the  blank  page  of 
half  a  sheet  of  letter  paper  was  all  that  met  my  eye.  The 
rider,  an  elderly  countryman,  unknown  to  me,  was  breathing 
his  jaded  horse  preparatory  to  return;  but  could  give  me  no 
other  information  than  this:  About  1  o'clock  a.  m.,  he  was 
aroused  from  his  slumbers  and  on  going  to  his  door,  found  a 
lady  on  horseback  who  gave  him  the  note,  and  told  him  to 
take  it  at  full  speed  to  Trenton  and  give  it  to  any  Confederate 
officer  he  should  find  on  duty  there,  as  it  contained  important 
information.  In  a  few  moments  thereafter,  I  was  in  the  pri- 
vate room  of  a  citizen  of  Trenton,  and  his  kind  wdfe  was 
warming  an  iron,  for  my  use.  Applied  to  the  seemingly 
blank  sheet  of  paper,  heat  soon  enabled  me  to  see  what  I  de- 

20  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

sired.  Foster  had  returned  two  days  sooner  than  anticipated 
and  was  to  leave  that  very  morning  with  a  force  most  accu^ 
rately  detailed  on  the  sheet  before  me,  on  an  expedition, 
having,  in  my  opinion,  the  railroad  bridge  at  Weldon  for  its 
objective  point.  The  object  of  my  expedition  being  thus 
frustrated,  I  returned  immediately  to  Kinston,  and  gave  the 
information  I  had  procured  through  the  intrepid  daring  of 
one  of  New  Bern's  daughters  to  the  officer  in  command. 
Steps  were  promptly  taken  by  the  General  commanding  the 
department,  and  such  an  array  of  troops  were  placed  in  front 
and  upon  the  flanks  of  the  Federal  General  as  caused  him 
rapidly  to  retrace  his  steps.  The  lady's  name  appended  to 
that  note  has  never  been  told — her  secret  has  been  locked  in 
my  breast — my  superior  officer,  respecting  my  motive  in  de- 
siring to  keep  it,  only  requiring  my  pledge  that  the  writer 
was  worthy  of  credit.  I  doubt  if  the  writer  of  that  note 
knew  into  whose  hands  it  fell  or  the  good  it  accomplished. 
Wlien  I  state  that  she  was  a  young  lady,  tenderly  reared, 
and  then  in  the  very  morning  of  her  maidenhood,  her  night 
ride  at  great  personal  risk,  to  convey  useful  information,  can 
be  properly  appreciated. 

Stephen  D.  Pool. 

Note.— The  above  is  taken  from  Vol.  4,  p.  123  of  "Our  Living  and 
Our  Dead, "  Recent  investigation  shows  that  a  young  lady  living  in  New 
Bern  sent  the  letter  out  (written  probably  with  milk,  which  a  hot  iron 
will  disclose)  by  another  lady  living  in  the  country  who  could  pass  the 
pickets,  and  she  delivered  it  to  the  messenger  in  the  manner  stated. 
Both  ran  great  risk. — Ed. 

Captures  and  Battles, 


10   JANUARY,    1861. 

By  JOHN  L.  CANTWELL,    Colonel  Fifty-First  Regiment,  N.  C.  T. 

The  fact  that  the  State  of  North  Carolina  was  slow  to  fol- 
low the  secession  movement  of  her  more  Southern  sister  States 
was  the  cause  of  much  chafing  among  her  people  in  the  east- 
ern counties,  and  especially  along  the  seacoast,  where  it  was 
urged  that  the  Federal  Government  was  likely,  at  any  mo- 
ment, to  garrison  the  forts  commanding  Cape  Fear  river,  and 
Beaufort  harbor. 

Thepeople  of  Wilmington  were  particularly  exercised  over 
the  possibility  of  such  a  step  being  taken,  and  it  is  likely  that 
the  knowledge  of  this  strong  feeling,  and  the  impression  that 
it  would  be  regarded  as  an  act  of  coercion,  alone  deterred  the 
Washington  Government  from  sending  down  strong  garrisons 
and  am])le  munitions  of  war. 

Fort  Caswell,  commanding  the  main  entrance  to  Cape 
Fear  river,  was  a  bastioned,  masonry  fort  of  great  strength, 
and  in  thorough  order,  but  without  mounted  guns.  Once  oc- 
cupied and  armed  it  would  have  been  impossible  for  the  Con- 
federates, without  command  of  the  sea,  to  have  retaken  it, 
and  the  port  which  afterwards  proved  of  such  inestimable 
value  to  them  would  have  been  effectually  sealed.  The  Fed- 
eral fleets  having  free  entrance  there,  would  have  held  the 
shores  on  either  side  of  the  river  for  some  distance  up,  and 
commanded,  from  a  safe  interior  base,  the  entrance  through 
ISTew  Inlet,  for  the  defence  of  which  Fort  Fisher  was  after- 
wards built,  and  that  historic  and  epoch-making  earthwork 
would  ]ivobably  never  have  been  constructed. 

In  the  State  at  large  the  union  sentiment  was  at  this  time 
slightly  in  the  ascendent.  In  the  lower  Cape  Fear  section 
the  secessionists  were  probably  in  the  majority.      These  re- 

24  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

garded  delays  as  dangerous,  and  anticipated  with  forebodings 
the  occupation  of  the  forts  by  the  Union  forces. 

Early  in  January,  1861,  alarmed  by  the  condition  of  af- 
fairs in  Charleston  harbor,  they  determined  to  risk  no  longer 
delay.  A  meeting  of  the  citizens  of  Wilmington  was  held  in 
the  court  house,  at  which  Robert  G.  Raukin,  Esq.,  presided, 
who  afterwards  gave  his  life  for  the  cause  on  the  battle  field 
of  Bentonville.  A  Committee  of  Safety  was  formed,  and  a 
call  made  for  volunteers  to  be  enrolled  for  instant  service  un- 
der the  name  of  "Cape  Fear  Minute  Men."  The  organiza- 
tion was  speedily  effected,  John  J.  TIedrick  being  chosen  com- 

On  10  January  Major  Hedrick  and  his  men  embarked  on 
a  small  schooner  with  provisions  for  one  week,  the  Commit- 
tee of  Safety  guaranteeing  continued  support  and  supplies, 
each  man  carrying  such  private  weapons  as  he  possessed. 
Arriving  at  Smithville  (now  Southport)  at  3  p.  m.,  they  took 
possession  of  the  United  States  barracks  known  as  Fort  John- 
son, and  such  stores  as  were  there  in  charge  of  United  States 
Ordnance  Sergeant  James  Reilly,  later  Captain  of  Reilly's 
Battery.  'J'he  same  afternoon  Major  Hedrick  took  twenty 
men  of  his  command,  reinforced  by  Captain  S.  1).  Tliruston, 
commander  of  the  "Smithville  Guards,"  and  a  number  of  his 
men  and  citizens  of  Smithville,  but  all  acting  as  individuals 
only,  and  proceeded  to  Fort  Caswell,  three  miles  across  the 
bay,  where  they  demanded,  and  obtained,  surrender  of  the 
fort  from  the  United  States  Sergeant  in  charge. 

Major  Hedrick  assumed  command  and  prepared  to  make 
his  position  as  secure  as  was  possible.  About  twenty-five 
strong,  armed  only  with  shotguns,  but  sure  of  ample  rein- 
forcements should  occasion  arise,  these  brave  men  determined 
to  hold  Fort  Caswell  at  all  hazards.  In  bitter  cold  weather 
they  stood  guard  on  the  ramparts  and  jiatroled  the  beaches, 
reckoning  not  that,  unsustained  even  by  State  authority,  their 
action  was  treasonable  rebellion  jeo})ardizing  their  lives  and 
property.  There  were  only  two  2-t-])ounder  guns  mounted, 
one  on  the  sea  face  and  one  on  the  inner  face,  both  carriages 
being  too  decayed  to  withstand  their  own  recoil,  but,  such  as 
they  were,  with  them  thev  determined  to  defy  the  armv  and 

A  Capture  Before  the  War.  25 

navy  of  the  United  States.  The  smoke  of  an  approaching 
steamer  being  once  descried  below  the  horizon  the  alarm 
was  signaled,  and,  believing  it  to  be  a  man-of-war,  the  brave 
men  of  Smitliville  flew  to  arms,  and  soon  the  bay  was  alive 
with  boats  hurrying  them  to  the  aid  of  their  comrades  within 
the  fort.  Women,  as  in  the  old  days,  armed  sons  and  fath- 
ers, and  urged  them  to  tlie  front.  But  the  steamer  proved  to 
be  a  friendly  one. 

Upon  recei])t  of  unofficial  information  of  this  movement, 
Governor  John  W.  Ellis,  as  Captain-General  and  Command- 
er-in-Chief of  the  JSTorth  Carolina  Militia,  11  January,  1861, 
addressed  a  letter  to  Colonel  John  L.  Cantwell,  commanding 
the  Thirtieth  Hegiment  JSTorth  Carolina  Militia,  at  Wil- 
mington, in  which,  after  stating  his  belief  that  the  men  were 
"actuated  by  patriotic  motives,"  he  continued : 

"Yet,  in  view  of  the  relations  existing  between  the  Gen- 
eral Government  and  the  State  of  ISTorth  Carolina,  there  is 
no  authority  of  law,  under  existing  circumstances,  for  the 
occupation  of  United  States  forts  situated  in  this  State.  I 
cannot,  therefore,  sustain  the  action  of  Captain  Thruston, 
however  patriotic  his  motives  may  have  been,  and  am  com- 
pelled, by  an  im})erative  sense  of  duty,  to  order  that  Fort  Cas- 
well be  restored  to  the  ])ossession  of  the  authorities  of  the 
United  States. 

"You  will  proceed  to  Smitliville  on  receipt  of  this  commu- 
nication and  communicate  orders  to  Captain  Thruston  to 
withdraw  his  troops  from  Fort  Caswell.  Y^ou  will  also  in- 
vestigate and  report  the  facts  to  this  department. 

"By  order  of  John  W., 

" C aptain-General  and  C ovimander-in-Cliief 
"GEAriAiM  Daves,  "North  Carolina  Militia." 

"Private  Secretary  and  Acting  Adiutant-General." 

Upon  receipt  of  this  order  on  the  12th,  Colonel  J.  L.  Cant- 
well  notified  the  Governor  that  he  would  proceed  at  once  to 
Fort  Caswell,  accompanied  by  Robert  E.  Calder,  Acting  Ad- 
jutant, and  William  Calder,  Acting  Quartermaster,  two  staff 
officers  temporarily  appointed  for  that  duty.  Transporta- 
tion facilities  between  Wilmington  and  Smithville  were  then 

26  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

very  limited.  Colonel  Cantwell  and  his  aids  embarked  on  a 
slow  sailing  sloop  which  became  becalmed  within  four  miles- 
of  Smithville.  They  were  put  into  shallow  water  from 
whence  they  waded  and  walked  to  Smithville,  where  they 
secured,  with  difficulty,  because  the  populace  was  almost 
unanimously  opposed  to  their  supposed  mission,  a  pilot  boat 
in  which  they  sailed  to  Fort  Caswell,  arriving  there  after 

After  some  parleying,  and  not  without  reluctance,  they 
were  admitted  and  conducted  to  Major  Hedrick,  to  whom  the 
following  order  was  delivered : 

"To  Major  John  J.  Hedrick',  Commanding  Fort  Caswell: 

"Sir: — In  obedience  to  the  order  of  His  Excellency,  John 
W.  Ellis,  Governor,  Etc.,  a  copy  of  which  I  herewith  trans- 
mit, it  becomes  my  duty  to  direct  that  you  withdraw  the 
troops  under  your  command  from  Fort  Caswell,  and  restore 
the  same  to  the  custody  of  the  officer  of  the  United  States^ 
whom  you  found  in  charge.      Respectfully, 

"John  L.  Cantwell^, 
"Colonel  Thirtieth  North  Carolina  Militia. 
"Robert  E.  Caeder. 

"Acting  Adjutant." 

The  garrison  asked  until  the  next  morning  to  consider 
what  repl}'  should  be  made  and,  on  the  morning  of  the  13th 
this  was  returned : 

"Colonel  John  Tj.  Cantwell: 

"Sir: — Your  communication,  with  the  copy  of  the  order 
of  Governor  Ellis  demanding  the  surrender  of  this  post,  has 
been  received.  In  reply  I  have  to  inform  you  that  we,  as 
North  Carolinians,  will  obey  his  command.  This  post  will 
be  evacuated  to-morroAv  at  9  o'clock,  a.  m. 

"John  J.  Hedrick^ 
"George  Wort  mam,  "Major   Commanding. 

"Acting  Adjutant." 

The  fort  was  evacuated  on  the  next  day.  Colonel  Cant- 
well  and  his  Aides  returned  to  Wilmington  and  reported  the 

A  Capture  Before  the  \Var.  27 

facts  to  Governor  Ellis.  The  United  States  Sergeant  again 
assumed  control  of  the  Government  property. 

Thus  matters  remained  in  this  section  nntil  AjDril  of  the 
same  year,  the  State  in  the  meantime  drifting  steadily  to- 
wards secession  and  war,  and  the  people  sternly  arming  and 
preparing.  The  local  military  companies  in  Wilmington 
were  frilly  recruited,  and  the  former  "^Minute  Men"  per- 
manently organized  as  the  "Cape  Fear  Light  Artillery,"  un- 
der which  name  they  served  through  the  war. 

On  14  April  came  the  firing  upon  Fort  Sumter,  followed 
on  the  ir)th  l)y  a  call  from  the  Secretary  of  War  upon  the 
Governor  of  North  Carolina  for  "two  regiments  of  military 
for  immediate  service."  Immediately  the  Governor  tele- 
graphed orders  to  Colonel  J.  L.  Cantwell,  at  Wilmington, 
"to  take  Forts  Caswell  and  Johnson  without  delay,  and  hold 
them  until  further  orders  against  all  comers."  Colonel 
Cantwell,  as  commander  of  the  Thirtieth  Regiment  North 
Carolina  Militia,  promptly  issued  orders  to  "the  officers  in 
command  of  the  Wilmington  Light  Infantry,  the  German 
Volunteers,  and  the  Wilmington  Rifle  Guards,  to  assemble 
fully  armed  and  equipped  this  afternoon"  (15th),  which 
was  promptly  obeyed. 

On  the  morning  of  the  16th  the  Governor  telegraphed 
Colonel  Cantwell  to  proceed  at  once  to  the  forts  "and  take 
possession  of  the  same  in  the  name  of  the  State  of  North 
Carolina.  This  measure  being  one  of  precaution  merely, 
you  will  observe  strictly  a  peaceful  policy,  and  act  only  on 
the  defensive."  The  force  under  Colonel  Cantwell's  orders 
moved  promptly.  It  consisted  of  the  Wilmington  T>ight  In- 
fantry, Captain  W.  L.  DeRosset ;  the  German  Volunteers, 
Captain  C.  Cornehlson ;  the  Wilmington  Rifle  Guards,  Cap- 
tain O.  P.  Meares ;  and  the  Cape  Fear  Light  Artillery,  Lieu- 
tenant James  M.  Stevenson,  commanding.  At  4  p.  m., 
United  States  Sergeant  James  Reilly  surrendered  the  post  at 
Fort  Johnson,  where  Lieutenant  Stevenson  was  left  in  com- 
mand with  his  company.  The  remainder  of  the  battalion, 
under  Colonel  J.  L.  Cantwell,  proceeded  to  Fort  Caswell  and 
took  possession  at  6  :20  p.  m.,  Sergeant  Walker,  of  the  United 
States  Army,  being  placed  in  close  confinement  in  his  quar- 

28  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

ters  "in  consequence  of  the  discovery  of  repeated  attempts  to 
communicate  with  his  government." 

Officers  and  men  worked  with  vigor  to  mount  guns  and  pre- 
pare for  defence,  and  the  work  never  ceased  until  the  fall  of 
Fort  Fisher  in  18G5,  and  the  necessary  abandonment  of  the 
defences  of  the  lower  harbor.  The  Wilmington  Light  In- 
fantry were  soon  after  sent  to  Federal  Point,  where,  in  Bat- 
tery Bolles,  they  began  the  first  defensive  works  which  af- 
terward grew  into  Fort  Fisher,  and  its  outlying  batteries. 

Thus  was  war  inaugurated  in  North  Carolina  more  than 
a  montli  prior  to  the  act  of  secession,  and  it  is  a  noteworthy 
fact  that  the  news  of  the  act  dissolving  its  connection  with  the 
Union,  and  the  call  upon  her  sons  to  arm  themselves  was  first 
made  known  to  the  pioneer  troops  of  the  Cape  Fear  on  the 
parade  ground  at  Fort  Caswell. 

John  L.  Cantwell. 

Wilmington,  N.  C, 

10  January,  1901. 

THE  BATTLE  OF  Mfl^flSSflS. 

21    JULY,    1861. 

By  brigadier-general  THOMAS  L.  CLINGMAN. 

On  that  (lay,  General  Beauregard  was  kind  enough  to  lend 
me  one  of  his  horses,  and  during  the  entire  battle,  I  was 
either  with  him  or  General  Joseph  E.  Johnston.  I  will  now 
confine  my  statement  to  the  narration  merely  of  some  facts 
connected  with  the  conduct  of  Colonel  Fisher's  regiment 
Between  two  and  three  a.  m.,  our  army  seemed  to  be  most 
pressed,  the  enemy  then  having  gotten  farthest  in  his  ad- 
vance, on  our  left  flank.  Besides  large  masses  of  the  enemy 
which  had  driven  back  our  small  force  there  engaged,  Rick- 
ett's  six-gun  battery  was  pushed  far  forward  to  a  point  on 
the  left  of  General  Johnston's  position,  concealed,  however, 
by  a  skirt  of  pine  trees.  Its  shots  passed  by  us  and  went 
many  of  them  nearly  a  mile  to  the  rear.  Its  rapid  firing 
from  this  advanced  position,  indicated  to  every  one  the  ad- 
vantage our  adversaries  had  gained,  and  the  situation  seemed 
most  critical.  I  felt  confident  that  if  the  enemy  could  long 
maintain  that  position,  our  center  would  give  way.  General 
Johnston  evidently  impressed  with  the  gravity  of  the  situa- 
tion, exclaimed  in  a  loud,  earnest  voice,  ''If  I  just  had  three 
regiments!     Just  three  regiments!" 

I  looked  to  the  rear  through  the  open  field  and  said,  "Here 
they  are.  General."  He  took  a  hasty  glance  to  the  rear  and 
said,  '"They  are  too  far  ofi".  I  want  them  now!"  The  near- 
est of  the  regiments  v>^as  within  less  than  a  quarter  of  a  mile. 
The  men  were  bending  forw^ard,  marching  up  the  hill  as  fast 
as  possiWe.  They  passed  seventy  or  eighty  yards  to  the  left 
and  entered  the  pines,  moving  by  the  flank,  directly  towards 
Rickett's  Battery.  The  other  two  regiments  were  slower  in 
getting  forward,  and  passed  some  hundreds  of  yards  to  our 
left.  As  the  regiment  which  had  marched  so  near  went  out 
of  view  among  the  pines,  an  ofiicer  left  it  and  came  up  to  me. 

30  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

He  was  Dr.  Caldwell,  the  Surgeon,  and  informed  me  that  it 
was  Colonel  Fisher's  regiment  that  had  gone  in.  I  expressed 
to  him  my  regret  that  I  had  not  known  it,  that  I  might  have 
spoken  to  the  Colonel  and  other  officers.  I  waited  anxiously 
the  result.  The  enemy  were  still  pressing  on ;  this  battery 
and  others  were  .incessantly  throwing  their  shot  far  to  our 
rear,  while  the  musketry  fire  on  our  side  was  slack. 

It  ought  to  he  stated,  that  as  the  enemy  had  turned  our 
left  flank  with  the  larger  part  of  his  active  fighting  force 
earl}'  in  the  day,  as  fast  as  our  regiments  could  be  gotten  up 
they  went  in,  and  the  collision  was  accompanied  by  heavy 
musketry  discharges  on  both  sides.  As  our  troops  were,  how- 
ever, very  greatly  outnumbered  by  the  masses  of  the  enemy, 
and  outflanked,  they  were  forced  back  wdth  much  loss,  and 
there  would  be  a  slackening  of  the  musketry  fire.  The  en- 
emy thus,  by  overlajiping  our  left,  was  able  to  make  a  steady 
advance,  and  was  then  getting  in  the  rear  of  our  center,  or 
rather  might  soon  have  been  there. 

Within  fifteen  minutes  or  less  after  Fisher's  regiment 
passed  out  of  view,  suddenly  the  crash  of  musketry  was 
louder  than  it  had  been  at  any  time  during  the  day.  That 
battery  suddenly  become  silent.  It  did  not  fire  another  gun 
that  dav.  The  heavy  musketry  fire  continued  for  more  than 
half  an  hour  and  gradually  become  fainter.  At  length  there 
was  a  dead  pause  for  some  moments.  Believing  the  battle 
was  over,  1  took  out  my  watch.  It  was  then  precisely  4 
^'clock.  There  was  no  other  musketry  firing  that  day,  till 
late  in  the  evening  near  Centreville. 

I  will  now  briefly  state  what  had  occurred.  Colonel  Fisher 
moved  his  regiment  by  the  flank  into  the  pines.  Immedi- 
ately in  front  of  them,  and  on  his  right  as  he  marched  ob- 
liquely towards  the  left  of  our  line,  there  was  an  open  field. 
In  it,  about  sixty  yards  from  the  woods,  Rickett's  Battery 
was  stationed.  From  it,  towards  the  woods,  the  ground 
slightly  rose,  so  that  he  was  obliged  to  elevate  his  guns  a  lit- 
tle, that  his  shot  might  pass  over  the  ridge  at  the  border  of  the 
field.  Outside  of  the  field  the  ground  descended  into  the 
wood.  Colonel  Fisher  at  the  head  of  his  regiment  passed 
just   inside  the  wood,   below  the  crest  of  the  ridge,   along 

The  Battle  of  Manassas.  31 

gromid  which  was  rising  a  little.  Thus  he  did  not  see  the 
battery  until  he,  with  some  companies,  had  rather  passed  it. 
Captain  Isaac  Avery's  company  was  just  opposite  the  bat- 
tery. Finding  themselves  in  this  dangerous  proximity,  his 
•company  and  others  near  them  fired  suddenly  into  the  bat- 
tery, only  sixty  yards  distant.  This  fire  killed  most  of  the 
cannoneers  as  well  as  their  horses.  The  men  ran  down  on 
them,  and  finished  the  survivors  with  their  muskets  and 
bowie  knives.  Immediately  after  this.  Colonel  Fisher, 
having  passed  over  the  battery,  received  a  ball  in  the  brain 
and  fell  dead  about  thirty  yards  in  the  rear  of  the  battery 
they  had  taken.  Captain  Isaac  xVvery  stated  to  me  that 
while  he  Avas  sitting  for  a  moment  on  one  of  the  captured 
pieces,  he  saw  Colonel  Fisher,  who  had  moved  forward  to  re- 
connoitre seemingly,  but  was  waving  his  rifle  above  his  head 
triumphantly.  After  his  death,  the  regiment  was  obliged  to 
abandon  the  guns,  not  by  the  enemy's  fire,  but  by  that  of  our 
own  men. 

There  was  a  regiment  they  thought  from  Alabama,  on 
their  left,  but  about  two  hundred  yards  in  their  rear,  which 
continued  to  fire  on  them.  It  was  this  fire  that  killed  young 
Mangum  and  several  others.  IMany  think  it  probable  that 
Colonel  Fisher  himself  was  thus  killed.  As  his  regiment 
had  gotten  so  far  in  front,  and  was  on  ground  so  lately  occu- 
pied by  the  enemy  in  heavy  force,  the  mistake  was  made. 
The  regiment  was  thus  obliged  to  abandon  the  battery,  but 
it  was  never  used,  or  ever  retaken  by  the  enemy.  I  saw  Lieu- 
tenant Douglas  Ramsey  Ijdng  dead  among  the  guns  at  the 
close  of  the  fight,  while  the  Captain  (Rickett),  wounded,  was 
carried  oft'  a  prisoner  by  our  men. 

I  can  vouch  for  the  accuracy  of  the  above  statements, 
partly  from  what  I  saw,  and  also  chiefly  from  conversations, 
which  I  had  on  that  day  and  the  succeeding  one,  with  officers 
and  privates  well  known  to  me.  The  official  reports  of  Bar- 
ry, the  Chief  of  the  Federal  artillery,  and  of  General  Heint- 
zelman,  both  confirm  the  truth  of  these  statements.  They 
said  that  this  battery  of  Rickett's  was  pushed  forward  far  in 
advance,  and  that  a  regiment  on  our  side  come  up  within 
sixty  or  seventy  yards  of  it,  and  by  a  well  directed  fire  disa- 

32  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

bled  it.  Captain  Kickett  himself,  while  a  j^risoiier,  I  was 
told  about  that  time,  said  that  as  soon  as  he  saw  this  regiment, 
he  directed  his  guns  to  be  lowered  so  that  he  could  fire  into 
it,  but  that  before  his  order  could  be  executed  the  regiment 
fired  and  disabled  hiin,  killed  Lieutenant  Ramsey  and  most 
of  his  gunners.  This  declaration  of  his  confirms  what  sev- 
eral members  of  Captain  Avery's  company  from  Yancey 
told  me  at  the  time.  They  said  "that  battery  would  have 
ruined  us  but  they  were  firing  over  our  heads."  Captain 
Avery  told  me  that  as  soon  as  he  saw  the  battery,  he  without 
waiting  orders,  directed  his  men  to  fire. 

It  may  be  asked  why  these  facts  so  honorable  to  Colonel 
Fisher  and  his  regiment  have  not  been  officially  or  publicly 
recognized  '.  Colonel  Fisher  was  himself  killed  and  his  only 
field  officer  then  with  the  regiment,  w^as  Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Lightfoot,  who  unfortunately,  was  not  in  the  battle. 
He,  with  the  two  rear  companies,  was  by  some  means  sepa- 
rated from  the  balance  of  the  regiment,  as  it  was  marching 
into  battle.  I  saw  him,  and  these  two  companies  in  the  rear, 
after  the  battle  had  ended.  The  officers  stated  that  while 
under  his  immediate  conmiand,  as  the  regiment  was  march- 
ing forAvard  into  the  battle,  they  were  separated  from  the 
other  eight  companies.  Lightfoot,  in  their  presence,  for 
it  was  a  general  conversation,  complained  very  much  of  Col- 
onel Fisher  l^ecause  he  carried  the  regiment  into  action  by  the 
flank.  He  gave  no  other  reason  for  not  being  in  the  en- 
gagement. Some  days  afterwards,  when  I  urged  him  to 
make  such  a  reiDort  as  would  do  justice  to  Colonel  Fisher  and 
the  regiment,  he  merely  reiterated  his  complaints  about  the 
regiment  being  carried  into  battle  by  the  flank.  ^Not  having 
been  in  the  battle  himself,  his  report  was  not  of  such  a  char- 
acter as  to  afford  a  proper  knowledge  of  the  affair. 

I  appealed  to  General  Jos.  E.  .Johnston  and  requested  him 
to  have  tlie  facts  made  public,  l)ut  he  replied  that  in  making 
out  his  report  he  could  only  give  such  statements  as  come  up 
to  him  from  the  reports  of  his  subordinates. 

The  service  of  Colonel  Fisher  and  his  regiment  can  not  be 
over  estimated  on  this  occasion.  Let  it  be  admitted  that  it 
was  a  mere  accident  that  he  should  have  thus  moved  up  by 

The  Battle  of  Manassas.  S3 

the  flank  (the  best  mode  in  which  he  conld  have  moved), 
and  thus  gotten  just  to  the  place  where  he  ought  to  have  been. 
The  opportunity  thus  afforded  was  rightly  used,  and  most 
fortunately  for  the  success  of  our  army.  Xeither  then,  nor 
at  any  time  since,  have  I  doubted  that  this  movement  saved 
the  day  to  the  Confederacy.  If  the  gallant  and  noble  Fisher, 
by  this  dasli,  lost  his  life,  who  did  more  during  the  long  and 
arduous  struggle  I  Having  from  that  day  to  this  determined 
to  endeavor  to  have  justice  done  to  his  splendid  and  heroic 
action,  I  avail  mvself  of  this  occasion  to  sav  something  in 
that  behalf.  I  saw  him  for  the  last  time  two  weeks  before 
his  death,  and  his  bright  looks  and  generous  words  of  thanks 
to  me,  for  a  slight  service  I  had  been  able  to  render  him  and 
his  command,  are  too  vividly  before  me  to  allow  me  to  let  the 
occasion  pass  by  without  a  brief  tribute  to  his  memory. 

Tkos.  L.  Clingman. 

ASHEVILLE,    N.    C, 

21  July,   1874. 


29   AUGUST,    1561. 

Diary  of   MAJOR   THOMAS   SPARROW,  Tenth  Regiment,  (1  Art.) 
North  Carolina  Troops. 

Portsmouth,  X.  C,  27  August,  Tuesday.  The  privateer 
steamer  Goixlon  ran  into  the  inlet  some  time  in  the  afternoon, 
and  put  David  Ireland  and  two  others  of  the  crew  on  the 
shore.  They  re])orted  in  camp,  the  appearance  of  a  fleet  of 
United  States  steamers,  seen  off  Hatteras,  after  they  left  that 
inlet.  This  news  corresponded  with  a  letter  previously  re- 
ceived by  Captain  W.  T.  Muse,  of  the  navy,  giving  notice  of 
the  expedition. 

Captains  Tamb  and  Clements  were  at  Portsmouth  from 
Hatteras  attending  a  court-martial.  These  gentlemen  ex- 
j^ressed  their  desire  to  return  to  their  commands  at  Hatteras 
that  night.  I  detailed  Privates  Wm.  H.  Hanks  and  Wood- 
ley  to  take  the  steaiuer  ]\[.  E.  Downing  to  carry  them.  They 
left  in  the  steamer  about  10  o'clock. 

Dnring  the  afternoon  I  went  to  Fort  Ocracoke  with  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel G.  W.  Johnston,  Major  H.  A.  Gilliam,  Cap- 
tains Luke,  Company  D ;  John  C.  Lamb,  Company  A,  and 
Clements,  and  took  with  me  vSergeant  William  H.  Von  Eber- 
stein  to  assist  in  the  defence  of  the  fort,  and  to  act  as  Ord- 
nance Officer.  Lie  went  immediately  to  work  preparing  car- 
tridges and  putting  things  in  order. 

August  28,  Wednesday. — I  rose  and  dressed  at  reveille  and 
went  on  drill  with  the  company  on  the  parade  ground,  near 
the  church.      Drilled  two  hours. 

On  return  from  the  drill.  Major  Gilliam  called  me  to  the 
front  fence  and  stated  that  Colonel  Martin  had  sent  a  dis- 
patch, ordering  all  the  forces  at  Ocracoke  to  Hatteras,  and 
requesting  me  to  go.  (I  had  been  released  from  service  in 
the  Seventeenth  Regiment,  and  was  expecting  orders  to  join 
Colonel  Tew's  Regiment  in  Virginia.)      I  at  once  gave  or- 

36  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

ders  for  the  men  to  get  breakfast,  prepare  two  days'  provis' 
ions,  pack  their  knapsacks,  take  tent  flys  (for  they  had  no 
tents),  and  prepare  to  embark. 

I  aj)pointed  T.  Hardenburgh  a  lance  Sergeant,  and  left 
him  in  charge  of  the  camp,  giving  him  written  orders. 
Among  these  was  one,  that  he  shonld  request  Mr.  B.  J.  Hanks 
to  take  certain  of  my  coimmand  expected  from  Washington, 
on  the  steamer  Col.  Hill,  to  Hatteras  in  the  afternoon.  An- 
other was  on  the  approach  of  an  enemy  to  take  all  the  valua- 
ble baggage  and  the  remaining  men  in  camp  to  Fort  Ocracoke, 
and  if  defeated  in  an  attempt  to  do  this,  then  to  make  the 
best  of  his  way  up  the  sound  to  Washington. 

The  Washington  Grays,  forty-nine  in  number,  exclusive 
of  conmiissioned  officers,  were  in  line,  uniformed  and  equips 
ped  at  10  o'clock.  I  marched  to  the  wharf,  and  embarked 
them  for  Hatteras,  on  the  schooner  Pantheon. 

The  Morris  Guards,  Tar  River  Boys,  and  Hertford  Light 
Infantry,  embarked  in  other  vessels. 

The  Morris  Guards  took  a  vessel  at  Beacon  Island,  and  so 
had  several  hours  advantage.  The  others  were  towed  by  the 
steamer  Ellis.  Captain  Muse  embarked  on  her.  So  they 
had  an  advantage. 

Wind  and  tide  being  against  us,  we  took  a  longer  route 
round  Royal  Shoals,  and  so  were  the  last  to  arrive  at  Hat- 
teras. The  Ellis,  with  her  tow,  was  only  a  half  mile  or  so 
ahead  of  us  when  we  arrived. 

When  within  ten  or  twelve  miles  from  the  inlet,  we  began 
to  see  the  fleet  off  the  fort,  first  from  the  rigging,  then  from 
the  deck.  As  we  drew  nearer  we  began  to  count  them —  one, 
two,  four,  ten,  thirteen !  There  is  a  large  fellow — there  three 
others — there  the  small  ones !  Occasionally  a  gun  was  heard, 
then  another — then  three  or  four  in  quick  succession. 

The  breeze  freshened  and  favored  us,  and  we  began  to 
make  the  fort  and  all  about  it  very  plainly.  The  decks 
and  gunwales  became  crowded  with  men  eager  to  see  the  bom- 
bardment, insomuch  that  the  helmsman,  a  negro,  could  hardly 
see  to  steer  the  vessel.  I  had  to  order  them  constantly  to 
trim  the  vessel. 

We  soon  had  the  fleet  and  both  forts  in  full  view.     The 

The  Fall  of  Hatteras.  37 

Tar  Kiver  Boys  were  just  ahead  of  us,  towed  in  by  the 
steamer  Ellis.  The  Morris  Guards  were  in  a  schooner  at 
anchor  near  the  Swash.     We  followed  hard  after  the  Ellis. 

We  had  an  uninterrupted  view  of  the  fight.  It  was  be- 
yond description.  There  lay  the  formidable  fleet  of  large 
and  small  vessels  off  Forts  Clark  and  Hatteras,  and  seem- 
ingly in  the  inlet,  was  a  steamer  of  moderate  dimensions,  af- 
terwards known  to  be  the  Monticello. 

Part  of  the  fleet  were  firing  upon  Fort  Clark,  and  part 
upon  Fort  Hatteras,  but  the  principal  engagement  seemed  to 
be  between  Hatteras  and  the  Monticello.  We  could  trace 
every  shot  fired  at  the  latter,  and  see  every  gun  fired  by  her. 
Souie  fell  to  the  right  of  her,  but  a  number  we  could  see  went 
into  her.  Fight  struck  her  hull,  and  several  penetrated 
through  and  thi-ough.  We  thought  from  our  position  that 
both  forts  returned  the  fire.  This  we  afterwards  learned  to 
be  a  mistake.  Fort  Clark  did  not  reply,  being  at  that  time 
in  possession  of  the  enemy.  It  was  hard  sometimes  to  dis- 
tinguish bet\\een  the  bursting  of  a  shell  in  the  fort,  and  a 
gun  fired  from  it.  Almost  every  shot  was  remarked  by  the 
eager  men  on  board.  There  goes  the  big  fort — there  goes 
the  little  fort — that  shot  was  too  high — that  too  far  to  the 
right—  -that  one  plugged  her  in  the  side,  good  for  that,  boys. 
There  goes  a  broadside  from  the  big  steamer!  How  the 
shell  burst  over  the  fort!  What  beautiful  white  clouds  of 
smoke  they  make  I  Such  were  some  of  the  oft-repeated  re- 
marks made  by  the  men  around  me. 

I  had  never  before  seen  a  shell  explode.  It  was  sometime 
before  I  got  to  understand  the  thing.  I  saw  from  time  to 
time  beautiful  little  puft's  of  white,  silvery  smoke  hanging 
over  the  fort  without  at  first  being  able  to  account  for  them. 
I  soon  learned  to  know  tliat  it  was  where  a  shell  had  burst  in 
the  air,  leaving  the  smoke  or  gas  behind  it,  while  the  frag- 
ments had  descended  on  their  mission  of  destruction.  As 
remarked  before,  there  was  such  a  continual  roar  of  artillery, 
that  we  could  not  at  our  distance  of  one,  two  and  three  miles 
distinguish  the  bursting  of  a  shell  from  the  firing  of  a  gun. 

At  three-quarters  of  a  mile  from  shore  the  Ellis  grounded. 
The  schooner  in  tow  of  her,  containing  the  Tar  River  Boys. 

38  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

was  then  detached  to  come  to  an  anchor.  The  schooner  with 
Captain  Gilliam's  company,  was  at  anchor  outside  of  all  of 
us.  We  had  passed  her.  This,  as  well  as  I  could  judge,  was 
near  5  o'clock.  My  pilot  did  not  know  the  way  through  the 
channel  to  the  fort. 

About  this  time  the  firing  had  almost  ceased  on  both  sides, 
and  the  Monticello  had  hauled  off  the  inlet. 

What  was  to  be  done  'I  I  came  to  anchor,  had  the  boat 
lowered,  and  went  off  to  the  Ellis.  Captain  Muse  informed 
me  (by  hail)  that  Fort  Clark  had  surrendered,  and  that  two 
men  had  been  killed.  He  offered  me  a  pilot,  Mr.  Mayo,  and 
put  him  in  my  boat.  I  returned  immediately  to  the  Fan- 
ilu'ou,  ordering  the  anchor  to  be  Aveighed  before  I  boarded. 

Just  then  two  boats  with  Captain  Muse,  Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Johnston,  and  others,  pulled  from  the  Ellis  towards  the 
shore.  T  was  off  in  a  few  moments,  beating  up  the  channel, 
towards  Fort  Hatteras.  When  this  was  discovered  by  the 
enemy,  they  began  to  fire  rifle  shot  and  shell  at  u:*.  The 
shells  fell  short,  but  the  rifle  shot  flew  by  us  in  quick  succes- 
sion. T  had  to  make  great  exertions  to  keep  my  men  below 
decks,  out  of  the  way  of  the  shots.  I  remained  on  deck  near 
the  galley.  Soon  we  discovered  crowds  of  men  sitting  on  the 
outside  of  the  fort.  We  knew  not  what  to  make  of  it.  No 
flag  was  flying  in  the  fort,  and  I  began  to  think  that  all  was 

I  ordered  two  hands  in  the  boat,  and  pulled  for  the  shore. 
The  shot  continued  to  fly  over  and  beyond  us,  but  none  took 
effect.  Landing,  I  gave  orders  that  the  vessel  should  go  close 
to  the  shore,  and  disemliark  the  men  as  soon  as  possible.  I 
then  hastened  to  the  fort,  and  entered  through  the  sally-port. 

The  soldiers  sitting  on  the  outside  of  the  parapet,  and  on 
each  side  of  the  sally-port,  looked  fatigued  and  care-worn, 
but  their  faces  lighted  up  as  I  saluted  them,  gave  them  a 
word  of  encouragement  and  passed  into  the  fort.  I  found 
the  men  standing  about  in  various  directions,  some  with 
arms,  others  with  muskets  stacked,  and  all  lookina;  glad  that 
the  day's  fight  was  over,  and  that  reinforcements  had  arrived. 
They  openly  expressed  joy  at  this  latter  occurrence.  Cap- 
tain Lamb  greeted  me  shortlv  after  I  entered.      He  was  as 

The  Fall  of  Hatteras.  39 

cheerful  as  usual  and  said  he  had  defended  Fort  Clark  during 
the  morning  until  he  had  shot  away  nearly  every  pound  of 
powder.  On  the  front  of  the  fort  facing  the  ocean  leaning 
against  a  traverse,  I  fouiid  Colonel  Martin,  Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Johnston  and  Captain  Clements.  The  Colonel  seemed 
feeble  and  worn  out.  All  expressed  the  opinion  that  we 
should  be  attacked  at  night  by  the  enemy's  forces  in  posses- 
sion of  Fort  Clark.     Estimated  at  about  eight  hundred. 

The  PanfJieon  containing  the  Washington  Grays,  sailed 
close  into  the  shore  and  soon  landed  the  men.  I  ordered 
Jesse  Liverman,  one  of  the  cooks,  to  be  sent  up  to  assist  in  pre- 
paring coffee  and  food  for  tlio  soldiers.  A  Yankee  cook, 
from  one  of  the  prize  schooners  (the  Samuel  Chase),  I  or- 
dered to  be  kept  on  board,  fearing  that  he  might  desert,  and 
communicate  with  the  enemy.  I  also  ordered  E.  Harvey  and 
A.  Buckstarf  to  be  kept  on  board  to  guard  the  vessel  and  pre- 
vent the  hands  from  running  her  off.  I  did  not  allow  the 
knapsacks  of  the  company  to  be  landed,  fearing  they  might 
fall  into  the  bands  of  the  enemy.  For  the  same  reason  I  did 
not  allow  the  tent  flys  to  be  lauded. 

I  anticipated  rhe  result  before  leaving  Portsmouth,  and 
wrote  a  letter  to  my  wife  prejiaring  her  for  the  worse.  I 
knew  the  enemy  could  shell  us  from  the  ocean,  and  that  the 
armament  of  tlie  fort  was  not  sufficient  for  a  successful  re- 
sistance. I  told  the  Adjutant-General  this  in  Raleigh  the 
last  time  1  was  in  that  city. 

All  the  men  in  the  fort  were  in  want  of  nourishment,  my 
own  men  and  self  included.  We  got  a  little  bread  and  coffee, 
but  this  was  not  general. 

The  Winsloir,  Confederate  States  steamer,  arrived  after 
dark,  bringing  Commodore  Barron,  Lieutenants  Murdaugh 
and  Wise,  of  the  navy.  Major  AV.  S.  G.  Andrews,  Captain 
Muse  and  several  of  liis  midsln]mien  and  sailors  also  came 
into  the  fort. 

Cjolonel  ]\[artin  and  Major  Andrews  voluntarily  surren- 
dered the  command  to  Commodore  Barron,  who  thereupon, 
assumed  it. 

Lieutenant-Colonel  Johnston  had  entered  the  fort  a  little  in 
advance  of  myself.      Major  Gilliam  arrived  after  dark. 

40  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

Tlie  night  was  somewhat  advanced  before  the  Morris 
Guards    and    Hertford    Light    Infantry    got    into    the    fort. 

It  became  difficult  after  dark  to  find  an  officer  until  by 
common  consent  the  tent  of  Captain  Calioon,  in  the  south 
angle  of  the  fort,  towards  Fort  Clark,  became  headquarters 
and  remained  so  for  the  balance  of  the  time,  until  the  sur- 


A  sort  of  consultation  was  held  on  the  steps  near  the  navy 
gun,  by  Commodore  Barron  and  the  superior  officers,  at  which 
I  chanced  to  be  present. 

Lieutenant-CJolonel  Johnston  remarked  to  me  that  he  in- 
tended to  take  "that  concern,"  meaning  Fort  Clark,  during 
tlie  night.  This  project  was  discussed  and  inquiry  made  as 
to  the  number  of  the  enemy  on  the  beach.  The  impression  I 
derived  from  the  answers  of  Captains  Clements,  Lamb  and 
others,  were  that  they  numbered  from  seven  hundred  to  eight 
hundred.  They  had  landed  howitzers  and  ritie  guns,  and 
had  possession  of  two  field  pieces  abandoned  by  our  forces 
that  morning.  The  forces  in  the  fort  w^ere  worn  down  with 
fasting  and  fatigue.  Part  only  of  the  forces  from  Ocracoke 
were  landed,  and  it  was  well  in  the  night  before  all  were  on 

We  were  short  of  shell,  powder  and  shot,  provisions  and 
water.  All  these  had  to  be  got  into  the  fort.  We  had  to 
send  off  for  candles,  as  not  one  was  to  be  had  in  the  fort. 
These  were  needed  for  the  Ordnance  Officer  to  make  up  car- 
tridges for  the  morrow's  use.  It  was  concluded  that  we 
might  hold  the  fort  another  day,  and  that  on  the  night  fol- 
lowing we  should  take  Fort  Clark.  It  was  also  resolved  that 
we  should  waste  no  ammunition,  and  should  fire  only  when 
we  could  so  do,  with  effect. 

T  was  ordered  to  detail  an  officer  to  take  charge  of  a  picket 
guard  of  one  hundred  men  and  to  select  thirty  men  from  my 
own  company  for  this  duty.  I  named  Lieutenant  James  J. 
Whitehurst  to  take  charge  of  the  guard,  and  ordered  him  to 
select  from  our  company  thirty  men,  which  he  did.  I  was 
also  ordered  by  Major  Andrews  to  select  a  force  from  the 
various  companies,  and  to  get  a  10-inch  Columbiad  from  the 

The  P'all  of  Hatteras.  41 

sound  side  into  the  fort,  and  to  put  it  into  position  during 
the  night.  I  detailed  ten  men  frum  my  company,  ten  from 
Captain  Sharp's,  and  five  each  from  four  other  companies 
for  this  duty.  I  gave  charge  of  the  whole  to  Private  Wil- 
liam B.  Willis,  who  was  a  ship  carpenter,  and  had  handled 
heavy  guns  successfully  at  Ocracoke. 

There  was  no  block  and  tackle,  nor  anything  of  the  sort, 
and  no  shears  that  could  he  used  in  moving  or  handling  the 
guns.  We  succeeded  in  getting  a  line  and  some  pieces  of 
scantling  for  slides. 

I  was  engaged  at  the  shore  iu  a  seemingly  vain  effort  to 
move  the  Columbiad,  with  our  imperfect  means,  A\hen  I  was 
ordered  to  desist  by  Major  Andrews,  he  alleging  as  a  reason 
for  the  order  that  "there  were  neither  10-inch  shot  nor  shell 
in  the  fort,  and  therefore  the  gun  would  be  useless  if 


Besides  such  of  my  men  as  were  on  picket  duty,  and  other 
duty,  some  of  them  with  Lieutenant  Shaw,  were  occupied  in 
landing  men,  water  and  ammunition  a  good  part  of  the  night. 
This  left  hut  few  in  the  fort,  not  on  duty.  These  I  left  with 
Sergeant  Bobbins  behind  the  second  traverse  from  the  sally- 
port, facing  the  inlet,  where  they  remained  during  the  night. 
They  leaned  with  their  muskets  against  the  traverses  and  slept 
upon  the  gun  platforms  as  best  they  could,  without  blankets 
or  covering  of  any  sort. 

There  came  u]i  a  little  scud  of  rain  in  the  night,  and  to 
protect  their  muskets  the  men  generally  turned  them  butt  up- 
wards, with  the  bayonets  in  the  sand. 

The  soldiers  were  some  in  the  bomb-proof,  some  against 
the  bomb-proof  on  the  outside,  some  behind  the  traverses, 
some  <ui  the  ])latforms,  and  some  in  the  tents. 

I  slept  but  little — not  half  an  hour  in  all.  I  sat  in  Cap- 
tain Cahoon's  tent  with  Colonel  Martin  at  times,  tried  to 
sleep  in  my  chair  a  little,  and  would  go  tlience  to  where  my 
few  men  were.      I  always  found  Sergeant  Bobbins  awake. 


Washington  Grays,  Captain  Sparrow,  four  officers  and 
forty-seven  men.      (Company  G,  Seventeenth  jST.  C.  T.) 

42  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861 -'65. 

Independent  Grays,  Captain  Cahoon,  four  officers  and  six- 
ty-nine men. 

Roanoke  Guards,  Captain  Jno.  C.  Lamb,  three  officers  and 
ninety-eight  men.      (Company  A,  Seventeenth  N.  C.  T.) 

Morris  Guards,  Captain  Gilliam,  four  officers  and  sixty- 
four  men. 

Hamilton  Guards,  Captain  Clements. 

Tar  River  Boys,  Captain  Johnston. 

Hertford  Light  Infantry,  Captain  Thos.  H.  Sharp,  three 
officers  and  sixty-four  men.  (Company  C,  Seventeenth  N.  C.) 

Preston  Guards,  Captain  Duke,  three  officers  and  sixty- 
six  men. 

North  Carolina  Defenders,  Captain  Luke,  three  officers 
and  forty-seven  men.    (Company  D,  Seventeenth  N".  C.  T.) 

Lenoir  Braves,  Captain  Sutton,  three  officers  and  —  men. 


Just  before  day,  while  it  was  yet  dark,  a  body  of  men  were 
seen  to  approach  the  fort  from  the  direction  of  the  inlet.  In 
the  dusk  of  the  morning  it  looked  like  a  large  force.  I  at 
once  took  it  to  be  the  returning  pickets,  but  others  insisted 
that  it  looked  too  large.  Quite  a  stir  was  made  in  the  fort. 
All  tlie  men  were  called  to  arms,  the  guns  bearing  on  the 
inlet  and  on  the  sally-port  were  shotted  with  grape,  and  the 
men  stood  readv  to  fire.  I  could  not  understand  how  so  larg-e 
a  force  could  have  passed  the  pickets  without  creating  an 
alarm,  but  then  they  might  have  landed  in  the  inlet.  It 
Avas  well  enough  to  be  cautious.  .V  man  was  sent  out  to 
challenge  the  force,  but  no  answer  was  heard.  The  excite- 
ment grew  quite  intense.  Soon  I  recognized  the  voice  of 
Lieutenant  Whitehurst  and  called  out  that  it  was  the  picket 
guard.  This  did  not  at  first  give  satisfaction.  Finally  all 
became  assured,  and  the  guard  came  into  the  fort  and  re- 

They  had  advanced  to  within  a  few  yards  of  Fort  Clark 
and  had  seen  no  signs  of  the  enemy.  We  learned  afterwards 
that  only  a  small  force  was  left  there,  and  that  they  got  drunk 
on  the  whiskey  found  there  and  went  to  sleep.      This  is  told 

The  Fall  of  Hatteras.  43 

me  by  one  of  the  free  negroes  who  remained  there.      The  fort 
might  have  been  retaken  had  the  fact  been  known. 


August  :20,  Thursday. — The  cooks  had  been  kept  busy  all 
night  providing  food  and  coffee  for  the  men.  Some  time 
after  daylight,  all  got  some,  but  not  much.  Fasting,  want  of 
sleep,  and  anxiety  had  quite  exhausted  me.  A  cup  of  coffee 
and  a  little  whiskey  and  sugar  given  me  by  Captain  Clem- 
ents quite  revived  me. 

The  companies  that  had  come  from  Ocracoke  were  to  man 
the  guns,  while  the  men  who  ]iad  been  on  duty  the  day  be- 
fore were  to  be  relieved. 

I  was  ordered  to  form  four  detachments  from  my  com- 
pany, of  eight  men  each  and  a  gunner.  They  were  to  have 
charge  of  the  guns  bearing  on  the  inlet,  one  a  32  and  one  an 
8-inch  howitzer.  The  detachments  were  to  be  in  charge  of 
one  of  my  Lieutenants,  and  I  was  ordered  to  visit  them  in 
person  during  the  fight.  I  appointed  the  following  gunners : 
Sergeant  Potts,  Private  Willis,  Engineer  Cornell  and  C.  K. 
Gallagher  (a  volunteer). 

Gallagher  came  in  port  from  tlie  brig  //.  C.  Brooks,  on 
which  he  was  bound  for  Liverpool.  He  was  fond  of  gun- 
nery, was  drilled  at  Beacon  Island  and  I  gave  him  a  gun 
first  assigned  to  W.  W.  Cordon.  He  was  not  called  upon  to 
fire  it. 

I  gave  the  first  detachment  to  Lieutenant  W.  Shaw,  and 
the  second  to  Lieutenant  A.  J.  Thomas,  who  was  to  relieve 
the  first  every  two  hours. 

The  Tar  lliver  Boys  had  charge  of  two  32-pounders  on 
the  same  face  of  the  fort  as  my  two,  facing  the  inlet,  and  to 
the  left  of  mine. 

IMy  first  two  detachments  and  the  Tar  River  Boys  pi-ac- 
ticed  at  the  drill  of  their  guns,  and  received  special  instruc- 
tions from  Major  Andrews  as  to  the  elevation  of  their  guns. 

The  Morris  Guards  were  assigned  to  two  guns  which  bore 
on  the  enemy,  to-wit :  The  8-inch  howitzer  in  the  pancoup 
(or  angle)  bearing  on  the  inlet  and  ocean  (southeast),  and 
the  Basket  32  near  this.      A  traverse  was  between  them. 

44  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

The  32  on  the  left  of  this  was  mounted  on  a  ship  carriage, 
on  an  elevated  platform  and  was  very  slightly  protected  by 
the  parapet.  This  gun  was  in  charge  of  Lieutenant  Mur- 
daugh,  and  a  force  from  the  naval  steamer  Ellis. 

Stewart  Johnson  had  charge  of  the  howitzer  in  the  angle. 
Lieutenant  Grimes  the  32  left  of  the  traverse. 

These  three  guns  were  the  only  ones  fired  during  the  en- 

The  Hertford  Light  Infantry  liad  charge  of  a  32-pounder 
on  the  face  of  the  fort  looking  towards  Hatteras  woods,  and 
Fort  Clark.  During  the  night  pal't  of  the  traverse  had  been 
taken  down,  so  as  to  bring  this  gun  to  bear  on  the  rear  of 
Fort  Clark.      Captain  Sharp  commanded  here  in  person. 


It  was  determined  that  only  those  on  duty  should  remain 
in  the  fort.  The  detachments  to  man  the  guns  were  to  re- 
main near  them,  and  the  reliefs  were  to  stay  in  the  bomb- 
proof until  called  for. 

All  the  men  not  on  duty  were  ordered  outside  of  the  par- 
apet facing  the  sound  for  their  protection.  I  was  ordered 
not  to  fire  a  gun  until  the  enemy  should  come  within  full 
range  of  our  g-uns. 

Just  to  the  right  of  my  guns  was  a  traverse,  already  spoken 
of  as  the  one  where  my  men  slept  during  the  night.  Just  be- 
hind this  I  posted  my  men,  so  as  to  be  in  readiness  to  man  and 
fire  their  guns  when  called  upon.  Here  I  remained  some 
time  before  and  in  the  early  part  of  the  bombardment.  Here 
not  a  man  was  wounded. 

Before  the  action  commenced  I  was  standing  on  the  para- 
pet near  the  pancoup  facing  the  inlet  and  ocean,  with  Com- 
modore Barron,  Colonel  Bradford  and  others,  when  bang, 
bang,  went  some  rifles  at  Fort  Clark,  and  at  the  same  time  the 
balls  went  whistling  over  our  heads.  The  Germans  there 
seeing  us  on  the  walls,  took  us  as  a  target  for  their  pieces. 
We  got  out  of  the  way,  of  course.  They  continued  to  fire  at 
the  fort  for  some  time  without  doing  any  harm. 

When  guns  were  assigned  to  me,  the  first  thought  that  oc- 
curred to  me  was  that  owing  to  the  position  the  enemy's  ships 

The  Fall  of  Hatteras.  45 

had  taken,  there  was  no  protection  for  my  men,  as  they  would 
be  subjected  to  a  raking*  fire  from  them. 

Ivooking  from  my  guns  seaward,  I  could  see  the  broadside 
of  the  Minnesota  between  the  rear  of  the  two  traverses  at 
that  angle  of  tlie  fort.  It  was  obvious  that  they  would  be  un- 
protected at  their  guns. 

I  immediately  took  Commodore  Barron,  Colonel  Martin, 
and  Major  Andrews  to  the  parapet  and  pointed  out  to  them 
this  defect.  Orders  were  immediately  issued  to  Mr.  Allen, 
the  engineer,  to  take  down  a  traverse  in  the  rear  of  the  fort 
and  extend  one  in  the  angle  named  (at  right  angles  to  the 
face  fronting  the  inlet)  so  as  to  protect  the  guns  manned  by 
my  men.  It  was  only  half  completed  when  the  firing  com- 
menced, so  the  guns  were  unprotected.  In  the  engagement 
both  were  disabled  by  shells  from  the  Minnesota. 

The  large  vessels  had  steamed  oif  some  distance  from  the 
shore  at  night,  and  the  smaller  ones  took  shelter  in  a  bight 
under  the  cape  near  the  shore. 

At  early  dawn  their  heavy  outlines  could  be  descried  off 
the  bar  to  seaward,  in  all  their  formidable  array.  As  the 
morning  wore  away  about  7  o'clock,  a  signal  was  fired  from 
the  flag-ship  Minnesota,  and  soon  the  fleet  were  in  motion  for 
the  shore.  They  moved  in,  took  their  positions  with  appar- 
ent deliberation  and  came  to  anchor.  The  bombarding  fleet 
consisted  of  the  following  vessels:  Flag-ship  Minnesota,  74 
gims;  Susquehannah,  74  guns;  Cumberland,  74  guns;  Wa- 
hash,  74  guns ;  Harriet  Lane,  7  guns. 

The  Cwinherland  came  into  action  after  the  rest  had  begun 
to  fire.  The  Harriet  Lane  joined  them  but  did  not  confine 
herself  to  one  position. 

The  action  lasted  three  hours  and  twenty  minutes.  Such 
a  bombardment  is  not  on  record  in  the  annals  of  war.  Xot 
less  than  three  thousand  shells  were  fired  by  the  enemy  during 
the  three  hours.  As  many  as  twenty-eight  in  one  minute 
were  known  to  fall  within  and  about  the  fort. 

It  was  like  a  hailstorm,  and  how  so  many  escaped  is  known 
only  to  Providence,  who  sheltered  and  preserved  us.  On 
this  subject  see  the  official  reports  of  Commodore  Barron, 

4§  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

Major  Andrews  and  Colonel  Martin,  which  with  the  reports 
of  Commodore  Stringhani,  I  have  preserved. 

How  shall  I  describe  the  bombardment — how  give  an  idea 
of  what  was  going  on  in  various  parts  of  the  fort — how  ex- 
press my  ideas  and  imjiressions  upon  such  a  subject  ?  It 
would  be  a  hopeless  task. 

J  was  standing  with  my  men  behind  the  traverse  spoken 
of,  near  the  inlet,  when  the  first  shot  was  fired.  This  was 
according  to  our  time  twenty  minutes  before  8  o'clock.  Ac- 
cording to  Commodore  Stringham's  account  it  was  8  o'clock. 
We  were  all  ready  and  expecting  it.  As  the  report  reached 
us,  some  one  called  out,  ''There  they  go,  look  out !"  and  all 
instinctively  leaned  closely  against  the  traverse.  The  next 
moment  the  sharp,  shrill  whistle  of  the  shell  was  heard.  It 
came  from  the  direction  of  the  Susquehannah  and  passed 
right  over  us.  It  was  followed  in  rapid  succession  by  others, 
which  fell  in  all  sorts  of  directions,  some  of  them  falling 

The  flag  was  planted  on  the  traverse  next  to  the  sally-port, 
just  beyond  us,  under  my  directions.  It  was  found  to  afford 
a  mark  for  the  enemy  and  in  about  an  hour  was  taken  down. 
I  sent  John  Blount  to  do  it,  but  he  called  on  W.  B.  Wil- 
lis, who  mounted  the  parapet,  flaunted  it  at  the  enemy  and 
then  brought  it  down.     It  was  in  the  hottest  of  the  fight. 

The  place  where  I  was  standing  was  very  much  crowded 
and  I  concluded  to  seek  shelter  elsewhere  in  a  position  con- 
venient to  my  guns.  I  was  told  not  to  fire  without  orders, 
unless  an  attempt  was  made  to  force  the  inlet.  I  therefore 
sought  the  entrance  to  the  magazine,  a  few  feet  distant,  and 
directly  opposite  my  guns.  Lieutejiant  Carraway  was  in  the 
magazine  passing  out  the  powder  as  it  was  called  for.  In  the 
entrance  v/ith  me  were  J^ieutenant  JSTorman,  Colonel  Martin 
and  part  of  the  time  Lieutenants  Whitehurst,  Thomas,  Shaw 
and  others.  It  was  a  vei'y  dangerous  place,  but  oflicers  and 
men  were  continually  coming  and  going.  It  was  close  and 
intolerably  hot.  We  had  to  keep  our  hats  going  as  fans  to 
keep  up  a  circulation  of  air. 

The  naval  gun  commanded  by  Lieutenant  Murdaugh,  and 
the  guns  commanded  by  Lieutenants  Johnson  and  Grimes, 

The  Fall  of  Hatteras.  47 

returned  the  lire  of  the  enemy,  but  it  was  discovered  that  the 
greatest  elevation  we  could  get,  our  guns  did  not  reach  the 
enemy.  Tt  was  therefore  a  one-sided  business.  It  became  a 
question  of  endurance  on  our  ])art.  Could  we  hold  out  during 
the  day  we  would  tiike  the  enemy  in  Fort  Clark  at  night. 

While  in  the  magazine  I  could  readily  distinguish  be- 
tween the  enemy's  guns,  the  ex^dosion  of  their  shells  and  our 
guns.  When  we  fired  the  concussion  shook  the  entire  bomb- 
proof. We  could  tell  when  every  sliell  was  falling.  Many 
of  the  fragments  fell  at  the  door.  Had  a  shell  fallen  there 
we  would  have  all  been  killed.  We  could  hear  them  fall  and 
explode  all  around  and  about  us.  Some  came  so  near  that 
I  became  alarmed  for  the  safety  of  the  magazine.  The  door 
beyond  us  had  to  be  kept  open  to  give  air  to  Lieutenant  Cara- 
way, and  to  enable  him  to  pass  out  the  powder  as  it  was  called 

While  here,  the  news  of  the  killing  of  one,  and  the  wound- 
ing of  another  would  be  brought  in  by  the  men.  Here  I 
heard  of  Lieutenant  Murdaugh's  misfortune,  and  that  Com- 
modore Barron  was  killed.  This  ])roved  to  be  a  mistake. 
When  a  shell  or  ball  would  strike  the  bomb-proof  or  a  tra- 
verse, it  would  be  with  a  very  peculiar  thud  and  all  would 
listen  for  the  explosion.  In  this  we  would  some  times  be 
disappointed.  It  was  because  some  of  the  shells  did  not  ex- 
])lode  as  they  fell. 

During  all  this  ])art  of  the  engagement  W.  B.  Willis  had 
stood  by  his  gnu,  and  could  not  l)e  induced  to  leave  it.  Col- 
onel Martin  once  ordered  him  to  leave.  He  stood  upon  the 
carriage  and  gave  notice  to  the  men  whenever  a  shell  was 
coming,  fearless  as  to  himself. 

My  men  and  Captain  Johnston's  were  all  ordered  to  leave 
their  guns,  and  take  care  of  themselves  as  best  they  could. 
They  all  remained  behind  the  traverses.  One  of  John- 
ston's men  was  killed,  and  one  of  mine  knocked  down  behind 
one  of  these. 

On  leaving  the  magazine  (having  been  there  nearly  an 
hour),  I  went  where  Grimes  was  firing  his  gun,  on  the  front 
of  the  work.  The  shells  were  flying  rapidly.  I  took  shelter 
beneath  the  parapet.      In  a  few  seconds  I  was  covered  with 

48  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

sand  and  earth.  A  shell  struck  the  parapet  just  over  me 
and  covered  uie.  I  got  up  and  retreated  to  the  end  of  the  ad- 
joining" traverse,  where  were  Lieutenant  Moore  and  others. 
I  held  my  head  down  and  brushed  the  dirt  from  my  neck  and 

I  went  next  to  the  end  of  a  traverse  near  the  southeast 
angle  of  the  fort  (towards  Fort  Clark),  and  hack  of  Captain 
Cahoon's  tent  already  spoken  of. 

Here  were  Commodore  Barron,  Major  Andrews  and  oth- 
ers. The  tents  were  all  on  this  (east)  side  of  the  fort,  and 
the  enemy  made  a  mark  of  them  as  afterwards  learned.  The 
shells  now  fell  with  fearful  eifect  in  all  parts  of  the  fort,  and 
on  the  bomb-proof,  but  more  especially  on  this  side.  The 
tents  and  wood  kitchens  were  literally  torn  to  pieces. 

I  remained  at  the  traverse  during  the  rest  of  the  bombard- 
ment, some  times  in  front  of  it,  and  once  between  it  and  the 
parapet.  It  was  while  I  was  there  that  it  was  damaged  by 
tliree  shells,  and  the  top  torn  all  to  pieces. 

While  here  there  came  over  me  a  feeling  of  perfect  secu- 
rity, not  to  say  indifference.  1  could  tell  every  shot  that 
was  to  pass  by  and  every  one  that  was  to  fall.  The  one  had  a 
rapid,  sharj^,  shrill  sound ;  the  other  a  dull,  hoarse  sound,  as 
if  ahnost  exhausted.  We  would  hear  them  strike  with  a  thud 
and  in  a  second  look  and  listen  for  the  explosion.  Looking 
up  I  would  see  many  of  them  fly  rapidly  over  seemingly  on 
an  eager  mission  of  destruction,  fall  just  beyond  the  parapet, 
and  send  into  the  air  a  column  of  sand  and  water.  Here  the 
men  were  huddled  together.  I  saw  many  pass  in  this  way. 
The  only  uneasiness  I  felt  was  on  account  of  the  men,  several 
hundreds  of  whom  were  on  the  outside  unprotected,  where 
most  of  the  shells  were  falling  and  exploding.  Almost  every 
minute  some  one  was  brought  in  from  there  Avounded,  and 
taken  to  the  bomb-proof,  where  the  surgeon  was  dressing 
wounds.  More  persons  were  wounded  here  than  anywhere 

I  was  standing  at  one  time  at  the  corner  of  the  traverse, 
and  stooped  down  to  say  a  word  to  Major  Andrews.  At  that 
instant  a  rifle  shot  from  Fort  Clark  passed  through  the  cor- 
ner of  the  traverse  where  my  head  had  been  but  a  second 

The  Fall  of  Hatteras.  49 

before.  It  made  a  beautiful  clean,  round  hole.  It  was 
while  here  that  a  shell  exploded  on  the  traverse  above  me,  and 
a  fragment  tore  my  coat  from  my  left  shoulder  and  pene- 
trated to  the  tail,  tearing  it  badly.  While  lying  on  one  side 
of  this  traverse,  leaning  on  my  elbow,  very  much  at  ease,  a  • 
large  fragment  of  shell  fell  from  the  air  on  the  platform  at 
my  side,  when  there  had  been  no  explosion  for  some  seconds. 
It  came  like  an  aerolite,  seemingly  without  cause  and  very 
much  surprised  me.  While  here  another  shell  struck  a  gvm 
near  by,  glanced  off,  bounded  over  the  parapet,  exploded,  and 
sent  up  an  awful  column  of  sand  and  water. 

I  was  at  one  time  in  conversation  with  the  officers  in  com- 
mand at  the  end  of  the  traverse,  when  a  bomb  fell  with  tre- 
mendous noise  and  force  near  our  feet  and  exploded.  I  fell 
round  the  end  of  the  traverse  and  all  the  rest  huddled  to- 
gether,     ^o  one  was  hurt. 

For  the  last  hour  the  enemy  seemed  to  have  got  our  range 
exactly,  and  almost  every  shot  fired  from  their  ships  fell  into 
a7id  about  the  fort.  We  had  long  ceased  to  fire,  as  we  could 
not  reach  the  enemy,  and  to  man  the  guns  was  a  useless  ex- 
posure of  the  men.  It  became  apparent  that  in  an  hour  or 
tA\'o  every  man  must  be  either  killed  or  wounded. 

It  was  now  nearly  11  o'clock  and  matters  were  becoming 
momentarily  worse.  Commodore  Barron  called  a  council 
of  all  the  staff  officers  and  Captains,  at  the  end  of  the  para- 
pet I  have  so  long  been  speaking  about.  He  said  :  "You  see 
hoAv  it  is.  We  cannot  do  the  enemy  any  harm.  Our  guns 
do  not  reach  them.  Our  men  are  all  exposed  and  we  cannot 
protect  them.  What  shall  be  done  ?"  We  discussed  the 
propriety  of  a  retreat.  All  favored  this  if  it  were  practica- 
ble, in  preference  to  a  surrender.  There  were  serious  doubts 
of  this.  All  the  vessels  were  a  mile  or  more  from  us  and  we 
had  no  boats.  They  would  be  exposed  to  the  enemy's  shells 
if  they  came  in,  and  the  men  would  suffer  dreadfully  in  get- 
ting to  them.  Commodore  Barron  and  Colonel  Martin  were 
both  very  reluctant  to  surrender. 

In  deference  to  their  wishes  it  was  at  first  resolved  to  try 
to  effect  a  retreat,  and  to  spike  the  guns.      Lieutenant  John- 
ston was  ordered  to  make  a  signal  from  the  top  of  the  bomb- 

50  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

proof  to  the  vessels  and  steamers  in  the  sound  to  come  in. 
He  performed  this  duty,  and  reported  that  the  signal  had 
been  answered  by  Captain  Mnse.  Lieutenant  Johnston  was 
then  ordered  witli  such  means  as  were  at  his  command  to 
S]iike  the  gnus.  He  went  to  ;i  gun  <in  the  east  side  of  the 
fort  tn\v;ii(U  the  Wood,  ;ind  began  liis  work,  ninl  was  ordered 
to  desist. 

-Fust  at  this  stage  of  affairs  it  was  I'ciiorled  that  the  mag- 
azine was  on  tire.  Tlie  men  came  pouring  out  of  the  bomb- 
])roof  ])anic  stricken.  It  is  said  that  they  ran  over  the 
wounded  in  getting  out.  I  saw  just  here  Wm.  H.  Harvey, 
one  of  my  men,  ])icked  u])  dead  as  1  tbonght.  It  turned  out 
otlierwise,  as  his  hi])  was  only  dislocated.  It  was  in  this 
stage  of  affairs  tliat  the  council  i-esolved  that  it  wouhl  be  the 
best  to  surrender.  All  were  nnanimous  in  this  final,  but 
reluctant  conclusion.  Accordingly  a  white  Hag  was  ordered 
to  be  raised  upon  the  ])ara])et.  Lieutenant  Johnston,  I 
think  it  was,  got  a  piece  of  while  canvas  or  sheet — a  sort  of 
feti'camer.  and  waved  it  on  the  ]iarai)ei  fronting  the  ocean. 
No  notiee  of  it  was  taken  by  the  encMiiy.  Some  one  then 
got  a  large  Confederate  flag,  tore  all  but  the  white  bar  from 
it,  attached  this  to  a  pole  and  jdanted  it  on  the  l)omb-proof. 
Two  shots  only  from  the  enemy  were  tire(l  after  this.  Both 
fell,  1  think,  into  the  fort.      The  firing  then  ceased. 

The  bomb-proof  was  not  on  fire,  but  a  shell  had  penetrated 
through  one  of  the  ventilators  and  exploded,  falling  among 
the  men  below.  The  smoke  caused  them  to  think  it  was  on 
fire.      It  fell  between  two  of  my  men.      X(uie  were  injured. 

A  feeling  of  sadness  ]n'evailed  on  e\'ery  countenance  after 
the  firing  had  ceased.  Lieutenant  Carraway,  Ordnance  Of- 
ficer, of  Martin  County,  raved  like  a  nuul  man.  He  swore 
he  wanted  to  die  right  there  and  never  surrender.  Two 
of  my  men,  Schenck  and  Hall,  both  Northerners,  wept  like 
children.  Many  would  have  run  for  the  shore  to  escape,  but 
T  forbade  them.      E.  B.  Shaw  and  W.  J.  Pedrich  did  so. 

As  soon  as  the  firing  ceased  the  land  forces  at  Fort  Clark, 
under  Colonel  ^lax.  Weber  and  Hawkins,  both  Germans, 
came  over  the  beach  with  the  ''Star  Spangled  Banner"  to- 
wards Fort  Hatteras.      They  ])lanted  their  two  flags  in  the 

The  Fall  of  Hattekas.  51 

sand  and  formed  alxnir  them  at  the  distance  from  the  fort  of 
several  hundred  yards. 

General  Bnth'r,  in  the  steamer  Faimy.  carrying  two  rifle 
o-nns,  ran  into  the  inlet  and  fired  a  gun  at  the  WinsJmv. 
Til  is  ir((s  an  oiifra(/e.  as  it  was  tahing  undue  advantage  of  a 
flag  of  Truce.  Had  the  negotiation  failed  he  never  would 
have  got  out  again. 

During  the  morning  the  Colonel  Hill  had  come  down  from 
Portsmouth  l)efore  the  firing  began,  but  not  in  time,  I  sup- 
pose, to  land  more  of  my  men,  who  were  no  doubt  on  board. 
After  the  surrender  she  with  the  Winslow  and  all  the  other 
steamers  and  vessels  made  the  best  of  their  way  up  the  sound. 
They  were  spectators  of  the  whole  bombardment,  and  a  very 
grand  s])ecta(de  it  must  have  been  to  them. 

Colonel  ]\Iartin  and  Major  Andrews  went  out  to  the  near- 
est flag  of  the  enemy  to  bear  Commodore  Barron's  terms  to 
them.  It  Avas  a  \*)u<x  time  before  an  answer  was  received,  as 
they  had  to  send  to  the  tlag-ship  to  General  Butler  and  Com- 
modore Stringham. 

In  the  meantime  the  enemy  sauntered  about  the  lieach  in 
some  order,  and  our  oflicers  and  men  strolled  about  the  fort 
looking  at  the  damage  done  in  various  quarters.  A  cut  of 
this  in  one  of  the  pictorial  papers  of  Xew  York  is  tolerably 

During  this  interval  the  (Jhaplain  from  Fortress  Monroe, 
C.  W.  Denison  l)y  name,  was  going  about  the  fort,  notebook 
in  hand,  examining  everything,  asking  questions  of  oflicers 
and  men,  picking  up  and  begging  relics,  and  talking  very 
patriotically.  There  was  a  wounded  man  in  one  of  the  tents, 
thought  to  be  dying  (as  lie  was),  and  for  him  this  Chaplain 
offered  up  a  prayer,  a  crowd  around  him.  He  told  me  he 
was  a  special  corresytondent  of  the  New  York  Tribune.  The 
articles  in  that  paper  are  no  doubt  from  his  pen.  Like  every 
man  connected  with  the  press  North,  he  deals  in  falsehoods, 
knowing  them  to  be  such. 

Finally  Colonel  Max.  Weber,  a  tall,  sharp-featured  Dutch- 
man, that  could  hardly  speak  English,  came  into  the  fort, 
went  into  the  oflficers'  tent  and  carried  General  B.  F.  Butler's 
answer.      It  was  a  refusal  to  grant  our  terms. 

52  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

Commodore  Barron  called  a  council  of  officers  and  siibmit- 
ted  the  matter.  He  drew  a  final  proposal  and  submitted  it. 
We  discussed  it.  There  was  no  alternative  but  to  surrender 
unconditionally,  except  that  we  were  to  be  treated  as  prison- 
ers of  war.      The  terms  were  to  be  arranged  on  the  flag-ship. 

Commodore  Barron,  Colonel  Martin  and  Major  Andrews 
were  taken  by  one  of  the  smaller  steamers  off  to  the  Minnesota 
to  arrange  the  particulars.  They  then  surrendered  their 
swords  to  Commodore  Stringham  and  did  not  return  to  the 

GENERAL   B.    F.    BL'TI.EE. 

This  worthy,  with  his  blue  coat  and  brass  buttons,  his  lop- 
eyelids,  and  swaggering,  fussy,  waddling  mien,  came  to  re- 
ceive the  surrender  of  the  fort  and  to  embark  the  prisoners. 

The  Adelaide  and  another  large  passenger  boat  came  into 
the  inlet  for  this  purpose,  besides  several  of  the  tug  boats. 

I  -was  introduced  to  General  Butler  at  the  door  of  the  of- 
fiers'  tent.  Forgetting  myself,  and  indulging  in  my  usual 
politeness,  I  said,  when  shaking  his  hand,  "I  am  glad  to  see 
you,  sir."  He  replied  in  a  familiar  manner,  *'That  is  not 
true;  you  are  not  glad  to  see  me."  "Oh!  no,"  said  I,  slap- 
ping him  on  the  shoulder,  "I  forgot  myself.  I  am  not  glad 
to  see  you.      1  beg  your  pardon." 

Major  Andrews  (who  had  returned)  ordered  all  the  Cap- 
tains to  form  their  companies  for  the  General's  inspection, 
and  to  stack  arms.  We  formed  on  the  parapet  facing  the 
inlet  near  the  sally-port.  Formed  in  two  ranks  and  stacked 
arms.  Companies  formed  in  different  parts  of  the  forts. 
The  enemy  landed  near  a  thousand  of  their  forces  and  formed 
from  the  sound  side  up  to  the  sally-port,  on  one  side  of  the 

The  General  (Butler)  inspected  my  men,  as  also  the  rest. 
I  offered  him  my  sword.  He  refused  to  receive  it,  and  told 
me  to  hang  it  on  the  muskets,  which  I  did.  The  other  officers 
did  the  same. 

Some  one  asked  him  if  he  were  not  going  to  march  his 
men  in  before  we  marched  out.  His  reply  was,  "No,  I  will 
never  take  possession  until  the  men  who  have  made  so  gallant 

The  Fall  of  Hatteras.  53 

a  defence  have  marched  out."  The  only  honorable  senti- 
ment I  have  ever  heard  attributed  to  him.  I  heard  the  re- 

My  company  was  about  the  second  that  left  the  fort.  We 
also  formed  in  two  ranks  in  the  causeway  from  the  sally-port 
to  the  sound.  The  gun-boat  Fanny  was  at  the  landing  to  re- 
ceive us  and  take  us  to  the  Adelaide,  anchored  in  the  road- 
stead. General  Butler  superintended  the  embarkation  him- 
self— stood  at  the  landing — passing  and  giving  orders,  boat- 
swain's mate  or  boss  Avorkman  totally  destitute  of  all  dignity 
or  propriety. 

It  was  an  hour  before  we  were  all  on  board.  While  stand- 
ing in  line  I  gave  C.  K.  Gallagher  my  torn  coat  to  carry 
home,  and  v/rote  a  hasty  note  to  my  wife.  He  had  been  re- 
leased by  General  Butler  and  they  promised  to  set  him  across 
the  inlet.  This  they  never  did,  but  took  him  as  prisoner  to 
Fortress  Monroe. 

As  we  embarked  on  the  Farmy  the  German  mercenaries 
marched  in.  They  raised  the  Stars  and  Stripes  in  several 
places  on  the  bomb-proof,  and  formed  on  the  parapet  from 
sally-port  to  sally-port,  one  dense  mass.  Cheer  after  cheer 
rent  the  air,  and  they  fired  a  salute  of  thirteen  guns,  some  of 
them  as  they  had  been  shotted  by  ourselves.  I  saw  the  grape 
scatter  across  the  water  from  one  on  that  face  of  the  fort. 

The  Adelaide  is  one  of  the  oSTorfolk  and  Baltimore  bay 
steamers,  a  fine  boat  and  the  one  on  which  I  traveled  with 
my  family  on  the  way  to  Illinois.  She  was  anchored  about 
half  a  mile  from  the  shore.  The  forces  were  taken  on  the 
gun-boat  Fanny  and  taken  off  to  her,  I  went  in  the  first  boat. 
The  men  were  confined  to  the  lower  deck,  and  the  officers  and 
wounded  were  assigned  to  the  upper  or  berth  saloon. 

Ofileers  and  men  had  been  without  food  since  early  morn- 
ing, and  were  very  hungry,  an  unfortunate  circumstance,  as 
no  arrangements  had  been  made  to  feed  us  on  the  Adelaide, 
Even  water  was  scarce,  and  this  we  were  greatly  in  need  of. 
Servants  were  scarce,  there  being  only  one  man  servant  for 
the  whole  force.  After  an  hoiir  or  tAvo  we  had  a  tolerable 
supper,  rather  scant,  and  the  men  had  to  be  content  with  a 
little  bread.      They  were  glad  to  get  this. 

54  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

General  Butler  busied  himself  iu  chuckling  and  talking 
familiarly  to  the  officers  in  the  after  saloon.  His  aim  seemed 
to  be  to  make  himself  free  and  easy  with  everybody,  aoid  to 
a])pear  to  be  very  clever. 

The  wounded  were  brcjught  to  the  after  part  of  the  upper 
saloon,  and  arranged  iu  beds  as  comfortable  as  possibly,  with 
passage  ways  between.  There  were  fourteen  or  fifteen,  some 
of  them  very  badly  wounded.  Only  one  made  much  ado, 
most  of  them  lying  perfectly  quiet.      They  were  heroes. 

The  state-rooms  were  assigned  to  the  officers,  l)ut  it  was  a 
late  hour  before  many  of  them  could  get  to  bed.  The  one 
servant  having  riKU'e  than  he  could  do.  When  I  got  hold  of 
him  there  was  not  a  room  to  be  had.  The  servant,  however, 
told  mo  to  follow  him.  I  did  so,  through  various  apartments 
of  llie  ship,  an<l  finally  found  myself  in  the  ladies  sleeping 
saloon,  where  the  berths  and  sheets  were  very  nice.  An  old 
negro  ^\•oman  was  there  in  her  night  clothes  and  seemed  very 
much  astduished  at  our  advent.  She  rul)bed  her  eyes  and 
shifted  her  quarters.  Lieutenant  Allen,  Ordnance  Officer, 
was  with  me.  We  wei-e  soon  asleep,  and  had  a  good  night's 

Thomas  Spakrow. 

Hatteras,  N.  C, 

29  August,   1861. 

Note.— At  the  date  of  this  action  Major  Sparrow  was  Captain  Company 
G,  Seventeenth  Regiment  N.  C.  T.— Ed. 


4   OCTOBER,     1361. 

By  E.  C.  yellow LY,  Lieutenant-Colonel   Sixty-Eighth   Regiment 
North  Carolina  Troops. 

"Sure  enuuiih  oli"  we  went  Friday  morning  last.  We  got 
<»n  Ijoard  nur  steamers  and  transjxirts  the  evening  before  and 
lay  at  anchor  off  the  island  until  i  o'clock  next  morning. 
Our  forces  consisted  of  the  Second  Georgia  and  our  regiment, 
and  a  small  detacliment  of  the  Seventh  Xorth  Carolina  Vol- 
unteers (later  Seventeenth  IJegiment.  Ed.),  all  under  com- 
mand of  C'oloncd  A.  R.  Wright,  of  the  Georgia  Regiment,  as 
senior  officer.  ■  At  daylight,  we  were  in  sight  of  Chicamacom- 
ico,  where  it  was  supposed  that  the  enemy  was  encamped.  Our 
steamers,  commanded  hy  (-ommodore  Lynch,  took  position 
about  three  and  a  half  miles  from  the  shore,  as  near  as  he  could 
get,  and  commenced  firing  towards  the  woods  with  his  rifled 
cannon  to  drive  the  enemy  from  cover.  This  fi.ring  was  kept 
up  for  an  hour,  when  Colonel  Wright,  Avith  his  Georgians  on 
some  boats,  commenced  td  land.  The  enemy  saw  him  coming 
and  began  to  run,  leaving  everything  licliind  tliem,  except 
their  arms  and  accoutrements.  We  took  everything,  besides, 
they  bad.  Their  tents,  cam])  equipages,  haversacks,  blan- 
kets. ])r()visions,  etc.  This  ])a])er  1  am  writing  on  was  taken 
from  them.     You  must  keep  it  as  a  relic. 

Our  boys  found  Bibles,  likenesses,  pajier  and  a  great  many 
things  of  like  character.  They  found  great  numbers  of  let- 
ters, which  they  kept  and  read.  Some  were  funny,  some 
vulgai-,  some  from  sweethearts,  fathers,  mothers,  sisters, 
brotbers   and   friends.      And   some   written   bv   the   soldiers, 

Note. — At  the  time  Yellowly  was  Captain  Company  G,  Eighth  Regi- 
ment. He  was  promoted  to  Major,  August,  \>*&?>  and  to  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Sixty  eighth  Regiment  October,  1863.  He  was  a  leailing  lawyer 
in  Greenville.  N.  C,  and  died  some  years  since.  This  article  is  taken 
from  a  letter  he  wrote  to  a  relative  8  October,  1861,  four  days  after  the 
events  he  narrates. — Ed. 

56  North  Carolina  Troops,   ]861-'65. 

which  they  did  not  have  time  to  finish  and  maiL      They  all 
breathed  hostility  to  the  South. 

Our  regiment  tried  to  head  off  the  enemy.  We  could  not 
get  nearer  to  the  land  where  we  were  sent,  than  two  miles. 
We  got  out  of  our  boats  and  tried  to  get  ashore,  but  after 
wading  about  a  mile,  the  water  got  too  deep,  and  we  had  to 
go  back.  Our  boys  hated  to  go  back.  We  were  close  to  Hat- 
teras  light  house,  and  in  sight  of  the  enemy's  shipping  at 
Fort  Hatteras.  Night  overtook  us  by  the  time  we  re-em- 
barked and  we  could  not  try  to  land  any  more  that  day.  We 
were  about  twenty-five  miles  distant  from  the  Yankees'  camp 
at  Chicamacomico.  The  Yankees  had  named  it  Live  Oak 
Camp.  They  were  the  Twentieth  liegiment  of  Indiana 
troops,  commanded  by  Colonel  Brown.  We  heard  next  day 
that  they  saw  our  regiment  tiying  to  land,  and  being  broken 
down  running  from  the  Georgians.,  who  were  pursuing  them, 
they  prepared  to  surrender  to  us,  15y  stopping  and  shooting 
off  their  guns.  The  people  on  the  island  told  this.  They 
got  rested  before  the  Georgians  came  up  with  theui  and  went 
on  and  were  reinforced  from  Fort  Hatteras  next  day.  Had 
we  landed,  we  would  have  taken  them  all  prisoners  and  blown 
up  Hatteras  light  house.  Bad  generalship  on  the  part  of 
Colonel  Wright  prevented  it.  He  had  made  boats,  but  would 
not  let  us  have  them  to  land  in.  He  kept  them  to  make  good 
his  retreat.  Next  day  the  Pawnee  steamship  came  up  from 
Hatteras  and  commenced  firing  at  the  Georgians.  We  could 
see  it  all  from  our  boats  out  in  Pamlico  Sound.  She  fired 
about  200  guns  at  them,  but  never  killed  a  man.  The  bombs 
would  sometimes  fall  among  them,  but  did  not  burst.  Colo- 
nel Wright  got  back  at  night  and  all  his  men  got  off  safely 
except  one,  who  died  from  fatignie.  It  was  a  warm  day. 
We  got  back  here  on  Sunday  night  last,  hungry,  dirty  and 
greatly  fatigued.  We  had  the  enemy  completely  in  our 
powei",  but  owing  to  his  bad  management  and  want  of  mili- 
tary skill,  we  failed  to  catch  them." 

E.  C.   Yellowly. 
Roanoke  Island, 
8  October,  1S61. 



astor,  lenox  and 
tilDEn  foundations. 

BATTLE   OF  ROANOKE  ISLaNK.  FEB.  8,  1862. 


8    FEBRUARY,    1562. 

Report  of  Investigating  Committee  Confederate  Congress. 

The  committee  to  whom  was  referred  a  resolution  of  the 
House  of  Eepresentatives,  instructing  them  to  inquire  and  re- 
port the  cases  and  circumstances  of  the  capitulation  of 
Roanoke  Island,  have  had  the  same  under  consideration  and 
have  ffiven  all  the  facts  and  circumstances  connected  with 
the  defences  of  said  Island  and  its  adjacent  waters,  and  of  the 
capitulation  on  8  February,  a  most  elaborate  investigation. 
The  conunittee  find  that  on  21  August,  1861,  Brigadier-Gen- 
eral Gatlin  was  ordered  to  the  command  of  the  Department 
of  Xorth  Carolina  and  the  coast  defences  of  that  State.  On 
29  September  Brigadier-General  D.  H.  Hill  Avas  assigned  to 
duty  in  Xorth  Carolina  and  charged  with  the  defences  of 
that  portion  of  said  State  lying  between  Albemarle  Sound 
and  the  iSTeuse  river  and  Pamlico  Sound,  including  those 
waters,  and  was  directed  to  report  to  Brigadier-General  Gat- 
lin. On  16  November  Brigadier-General  L.  O'B.  Branch 
was  directed  to  relieve  Brigadier-General  Hill  in  command  of 
his  district  in  Xorth  Carolina.  On  21  December  that  part 
of  the  North  Carolina  coast  east  of  the  Chowan  river,  to- 
gether with  the  counties  of  Washington  and  Tyrrell,  was,  at 
the  request  of  the  proper  authorities  of  Xorth  Carolina,  sepa- 
rated from  the  remainder  and  constituted  into  a  military  dis- 
trict under  Brigadier-General  II.  A.  Wise,  and  attached  to 
the  command  of  Major-General  Huger,  commanding  the  De- 
partment of  Xorfolk. 

At  the  time  therefore  of  the  surrender  of  Roanoke  Island 
on  8  February,  18(>2,  it  was  within  the  military  district  of 

Note.— This  is  the  report  made  by  the  Roanoke  Island  Investigating 
Committee  by  its  Chairman,  Hon.  Burgess  S.  Gaither,  to  the  House  of 
Representatives  in  the  Confederate  Congress. — Ed. 

58  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

Brigadier-General  Wise  and  attached  to  the  command  of 
Major-General  linger. 

The  military  defences  of  Roanoke  Island  and  its  adjacent 
waters  on  the  said  8  Febrnary,  1862,  consisted  of  Fort  Bar- 
tow, the  most  southern  of  the  defences  on  the  west  side  of  the 
island,  a  sand  fort  well  covered  with  turf,  having  six  long  32- 
ponnd  guns  in  embrasure  and  three  32-pounders  en  barbette. 

The  next  is  fort  Blanchard,  on  the  same  side  of  the  island, 
about  U\'<)  and  a  half  miles  from  Fort  Bartow,  a  semi-circular 
sand  fort,  turfed,  and  mounting  four  32-pounders  en  barbette. 

Next  on  the  same  side  and  about  1,200  yards  from  Fort 
Blanchard,  is  Fort  Huger.  This  is  a  turfed  sand  fort,  run- 
ning along  the  line  of  the  l>each  and  closed  in  the  rear  by  a 
low  breastwork  with  a  banquette  for  infantry.  It  contained 
eiglit  21-ponnd  gnins  in  embrasure,  two  rifled  32-pounders  en 
l:)arbette  and  two  32-pounders  en  barbette  on  the  right. 

About  three  miles  beloAv  Fort  Bartow  on  the  east  side  of 
the  island  was  a  battery  of  32-pound  guns  en  barbette,  at  a 
]ioint  known  as  ^Midgett's  llannnock.  In  the  center  of  the 
island  about  two  miles  from  Fort  Bartow  and  a  mile  from 
IMidgett's  Hammock,  was  a  redoubt  or  breastwork  thrown 
across  the  road,  about  70  or  SO  feet  long,  with  embrasures 
for  Three  guns,  on  the  right  of  which  was  a  swamp,  on  the- 
left  a  marsh,  the  redoubt  reaching  nearly  between  them  and 
facing  to  the  south.  On  the  Tyrrell  side  on  the  main  land 
nearly  o]){)osite  to  Fort  linger,  was  fort  Forrest,  mounting 
seven  32-pounders. 

In  addition  to  these  defences  on  the  shore  and  on  the 
island,  rherc  was  a  l)arrier  of  ]>iles  extending  from  the  east 
side  of  Fulker  Shoals  towards  the  island.  Its  object  w^as  to 
com]3el  vessels  ])assing  on  the  west  of  the  island  to  approach 
within  reach  of  the  shore  batteries,  but  up  to  8  February  there 
was  a  span  of  1,700  yards  open  opposite  Fort  Bartow.  Some 
vessels  had  been  sunk  and  piles  driven  on  the  west  side  of 
Fulker  Shoals  to  obstruct  the  canal  between  that  shoal  and 
the  main  land,  which  comprised  all  the  defences,  either  upon 
the  land  or  in  the  waters  adjacent. 

The  entire  military  force  stationed  upon  the  island  prior 
to  and  at  the  time  of  the  late  engagement  consisted  of  the 

LoBB  OF  Roanoke  Island.  59 

Eighth  Regiment  North   Carolina   State  Troops  under  the 
command  of  Colonel  H.  M.  Shaw ;  the  Thirty-first  Regiment 
of  North  Carolina  Volunteers,  under  the  command  of  Colonel 
J.  V.  Jordan ;  and  three  companies  of  the  Seventeenth  Regi- 
ment North  Carolina  Troops  under  the  command  of  Major 
G.  H.  Gill.     After  manning  the  several  forts,  on  7  February, 
there  were  but  1,024  men  left  and  '200  of  them  were  upon  the 
sick  list.      On  the  morning  of  7  February,  Brigadier-General 
Wise  sent  from  Nag's  Head,  under  command  of  Lieutenant- 
Colonel   Henderson,    a    reinforcement   numl)ering  some   450 
men — this  does  not  include  the  commands  of  J^ieutenant-Col- 
onel  Green  and  Major  Fry,  both  of  whom  reached  the  scene 
of  action  after  the  battle  was  closed.      The  committee  do  not 
think  there  was  any  intentional  delay  in  the  landing  of  the 
commands  of  Colonel  Green  and  Major  Fry.      The  former. 
Colonel  Green,  exhibited  great  anxiety  to  get  into  the  fight, 
when  he  did  land,  and  acted  with  great  gallantry  in  the  skir- 
mish be  (lid  bavc  witli  tbe  enemy  in  the  vicinity  of  the  camps. 
The  whole  was  under  the  command  of  Brigadier-General  Wise 
who,  upon  7  and  8  February  was  at  Nag's  Head,  four  miles 
distant  from  the  island,  confined  to  a  sick  bed  and  entirely 
disabled  from  ])articipating  in  the  action  in  person.      The  im- 
mediate command,  therefore,  devolved  upon  Colonel  H.  M. 
Shaw,  the  senior  officer  present. 

On  0  February  it  Avas  discovered  that  the  enemy's  fleet  was 
in  Pamlico  Sound,  sonth  of  Roanoke  Island,  and  apparently 
intending  to  attack  the  forces  upon  the  island.  Colonel  Shaw 
immediately  communicated  the  fact  to  Brigadier-General 
Wise,  and  issued  orders  for  the  disposition  of  his  troops  pre- 
paratory to  an  engagement.  The  points  at  which  it  was 
supposed  the  enemy  would  attempt  to  land  troo])s  were  Ash- 
by's  and  Pugh's  Landings.  Ashby's  is  situated  on  the  west 
side  of  the  island  about  two  miles  south  of  Fort  Bartow,  and 
Pugh's  on  the  same  side  about  two  miles  south  of  Ashby's. 
On  the  night  of  the  6th,  or  early  on  the  morning  of  the  7th, 
a  detachment  of  one  piece  of  artillery  was  sent  to  Pugh's 
Landing  and  one  with  two  pieces  of  artillery,  was  sent  to 
Ashby's,  and  the  remainder  of  the  forces  was  stationed  in 
the  immediate  vicinitv  of  Ashbv's.      On  the  morninc;  of  the 

60  North  Carolina  Tkoops,   1861-65. 

7tli,  the  enemy's  fleet  passed  by  both  of  the  landings  and  pro- 
ceeded towards  Fort  Bartow,  and  the  detachment  of  infantry 
stationed  at  Piigh's  immediately  fell  back  to  the  vicinity  of 
Ashby's  Landing  and  joined  the  detachments  there,  all  un- 
der the  command  of  Colonel  J.  V.  Jordan. 

In  the  sound  between  Roanoke  Island  and  the  main  land, 
upon  the  Tyrrell  side,  Commodore  Lynch  with  his  squad- 
ron of  seven  vessels  had  taken  position,  and  at  11  o'clock  the 
enemy's  fleet  consisting  of  about  thirty-nine  gun-boats  and 
schooners,  advanced  in  ten  divisions,  the  rear  one  having  the 
schooners  and  transports  in  tow.  The  advance  and  attacking 
division  again  subdivided,  one  assailing  the  squadron  and 
the  other  firing  upon  the  fort,  with  9-inch,  10-inch  and  11- 
incli  shell,  spherical  case,  a  few  round  shot  and  every  variety 
of  rifled  projectiles.  The  fort  replied  with  but  four  guns, 
v-liich  were  all  that  could  be  brought  to  bear,  and  after  s+ril<:- 
ing  the  foremost  vessels  several  times,  the  fleet  fell  back  so 
Ps  to  mask  one  of  the  guns  of  the  fort,  leaving  but  three  to 
reply  to  the  fire  of  the  whole  fleet.  The  bombardment  was 
continued  throughout  the  day  and  the  enemy  retired  at  dark. 
The  squadron  under  command  of  Commodore  Lynch,  sus- 
tained their  jiosition  most  gallantly,  retired  only  after  ex- 
hausting all  their  ammunition,  and  having  lost  the  steamer 
Curlew  and  the  Forrest  disabled.  Fort  Bartow  sustained 
considerable  damage  from  the  fire  of  the  day,  but  the  injuries 
were  jiartially  re]>aired  by  the  next  morning,  and  the  fort  put 
in  a  state  of  defence.  About  3  :80  o'clock  on  the  evening  of 
the  7th,  the  enemy  sent  off  from  their  transports  about  twenty- 
five  men  in  a  launch,  apparently  to  take  soundings,  who  were 
fired  u])on  and  retreated.  Whereupon,  two  large  steamers 
having  in  tow,  each  thirty  boats  filled  with  troops,  approached 
the  island  under  the  protection  of  their  gun-boats,  at  a  point 
north  of  Ashby's  Landing,  know^n  as  Haymon's,  and  did  ef- 
fect a  landing.  The  point  selected  was  out  of  the  reach  of 
the  field  pieces  at  Ashby's,  and  defended  l)y  a  swamp  from 
the  advance  of  our  infantry,  and  protected  by  the  shot  and 
shell  thrown  from  their  gun-boats.  Our  whole  force  there- 
upon withdrew  from  Ashby's  and  took  position  at  the  re- 
doubt or  breastwork,  and  placed  in  battery  the  three  field 

Loss  OF  Roanoke  Island.  61 

pieces  with  the  necessary  artillerymen,  under  the  respective 
commands  of  Captain  Schermerhorn,  Lieutenants  Kinney 
and  Selden.  Tavo  companies  of  the  Eighth  and  two  of  the 
Thirty-first  were  placed  at  the  redoubt  to  support  the  artil- 
lery ;  three  companies  of  the  Wise  Legion  deployed  to  the 
right  and  to  the  left  as  skirmishers — the  remainder  of  the 
infantry  in  position  300  yards  in  the  rear  of  the  redoubt  as  a 

The  enemy  landed  some  15,000  men  with  artillery,  and  at 
7  o'clock  a.  m.  of  the  8th,  opened  fire  upon  the  redoubt,  which 
was  replied  to  immediately  with  great  spirit  and  the  action 
soon  became  general  and  was  continued  without  interrup- 
tion for  more  than  five  hours,  when  the  enemy  succeeded  in 
deploying  a  large  force  on  either  side  of  our  line,  flanking 
each  wing.  The  order  was  then  given  by  Colonel  Shaw  to 
spike  the  guns  in  the  battery  and  to  retreat  to  the  northern 
end  of  the  island.  The  guns  were  spiked  and  the  whole  force 
fell  back  to  the  camps. 

During  the  engagement  at  the  redoubt,  the  enemy's  fleet 
attempted  to  advance  up  Croatan  Sound,  which  brought  on 
a  desultory  engagement  between  Fort  Bartow  and  the  fleet, 
which  continued  up  to  12  :30  o'clock,  when  the  coimnanding 
ofiicer  was  informed  that  the  land  defences  had  been  forced 
and  the  position  of  the  fort  turned.  He  thereupon  ordered 
the  guns  to  be  disabled  and  the  ammunition  destroyed,  which 
was  done,  and  the  fort  abandoned.  The  same  thing  was  done 
at  Forts  Blanch ard  and  Huger,  and  the  forces  from  all  the 
forts  were  marched  in  good  order  to  the  camps.  The  enemy 
took  possession  of  the  redoubts  and  forts  immediately,  and 
proceeded  in  pursuit,  with  great  caution,  towards  the  north- 
ern end  of  the  island,  in  force,  deploying  so  as  to  surround 
our  forces  at  the  camps.  Colonel  Shaw  arrived  with  his 
whole  force  at  his  camps  in  time  to  have  saved  his  whole 
command,  if  transports  had  have  been  furnished,  but  none 
were  there,  and  finding  himself  surrounded  by  a  greatly  supe- 
rior force  upon  the  open  island,  with  no  field  works  to  protect 
him,  and  having  lost  his  only  three  field  pieces  at  the  redoubt, 
had  either  to  make  an  idle  display  of  courage  in  fighting  the 
foe  at  such  immense  disadvantage,  to  the  sacrifice  of  his  com- 

<62  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

jnand,  oi-  to  capitulate  and  surrender  as  prisoners  of  war. 
He  wisely  determined  upon  the  latter  alternative. 

The  loss  on  our  side  in  killed  and  wounded  and  missing,  is 
.as  follows:  Killed,  23;  wounded,  .58;  missing,  62.  The 
loss  of  the  Ft)rty-ninth  and  Fifty-ninth  Virginia  Volunteers 
is:  Killed,  6;  wounded,  28;  missing,  11);  that  of  the  Eighth 
and  Tliirty-tirst  North  Carolina  and  Second  Xorth  Caro- 
lina Battalion,  is  Ki  kiHed,  30  wounded,  43  missing.  Of 
the  engineer  department,  Lieutenant  Selden  killed,  who  had 
patriotically  volunteered  his  services  in  the  line  and  was  as- 
signed to  the  connnand  of  the  (J-pounder  which  he  handled 
with  so  much  skill  as  to  ]»roduee  immense  havoc  in  the  en- 
emy's ranks,  and  to  elicit  the  unbounded  admiration  of  all 
who  witnessed  it.  I'nhappily,  however,  that  gallant  officer 
received  a  rifle  ball  in  the  head  and  he  fell  without  a  groan. 

The  committee  are  satisfied  that  Colonel  Shaw  held  pos- 
session of  that  ])ost  as  long  as  he  could  have  done  without  use- 
less sacrifice  of  human  life ;  that  on  the  7th  and  8th  the  of- 
ficers and  men  in  Fort  Bartow  displayed  great  coolness,  cour- 
age and  persevering  efforts  to  s\istain  their  position  and  drive 
back  the  enemy's  fleet.  Tn  the  battle  of  8  February,  at  the  re- 
doubt, the  officers  and  men  exhibited  a  cool  and  deliberate 
<;ourage,  worthy  of  veterans  in  the  service,  and  sustained 
their  positions  under  an  uninterrupted  and  deadly  fire  for 
more  than  five  hours,  repulsing  the  enemy  in  three  separate 
and  distinct  charges,  and  only  withdrrnv  from  the  deadly  con- 
flict after  exhausting  their  ammunition  for  their  artillery, 
and  being  surrounded  and  flanked  by  more  than  ten  times 
their  number.  Instead  of  the  result  being  "deeply  hmnili- 
ating"  it  was  one  of  the  most  brilliant  and  gallant  actions  of 
the  war ;  and  in  the  language  of  their  absent  commanding 
general,  "both  oflicers  and  men  fought  firmly,  coolly,  ef- 
ficiently and  as  long  as  humanity  would  allow." 

Burgess  S.  Gaither^ 

Richmond,  Va., 

May,  1862. 


5    FEBRUARY,    1662, 

By  E.   R.  LILES,  Lieutenant-Colonei,  Thirty  Fikst  Regiment, 
North  Carolina  Troops 

About  two  weeks  before  the  enemy  made  his  ai)])earaiK'e, 
my  eompany  (B)  ami  the  Hatteras  Avengers  (Company  F), 
■Captain  Charles  W.  Knight,  of  ]\lartin  County  (both  of  the 
Thirty-first  Regiment),  were  ordered  to  Ashley's  Landing, 
r.  distance  of  eiglit  miles  from  oiir  camp,  and  nearly  two 
miles  below  our  lowest  battery,  Fort  Bartow.  Two  brass 
field  pieces.  12  and  18-])ounders,  were  put  in  my  charge, 
and  I  was  ordered  to  defend  the  T^anding  and,  at  crcry  haz- 
ivrd,  to  save  the  artillery.  An  officer  from  the  Eighth  Ueginient 
Avas  detailed  to  drill  scpiads  from  ('aptain  Ivnight's  and  my 
<^om})any  on  the  cannon,  but  he  only  visited  us  twice,  spend- 
ing each  time  about  half  an  hour.  All  that  our  men  really 
learned  of  artillery  was  taught  them  in  an  hour  by  Colonel 
Jordan  and  one  or  two  short  lessons  by  Lieutenant  Kinney,  of 
Wise's  Legion,  who  came  to  the  island  about  three  days  be- 
fore the  battle.  ]  had  no  horses,  and  the  mongrel  ''bank 
Ironies"  which  Colonel  Shaw  ordered  me  to  press  into  service 
were  untractable  and  of  little  use.  We  felt  that  our  posi- 
tion was  an  important  and  responsible  one.  This  landing, 
wliere  vessels  drawing  eight  feet  could  land  at  any  time,  had 
been  neglected  to  the  last  moment,  and  the  ninety  men,  badly 
prepared  as  above  shown,  were  placed  to  defend  it  as  long  as 
possible,  with  strict  orders  to  carry  away  the  artillery  in 
case  of  a  retreat  being  unavoidable.  On  Thursday  morning, 
^)  February,  at  a  very  early  hour,  W.  Riley  Diggs,  of  Compa- 
ny B,  being  on  the  lookout,  discovered  two  of  the  enemy's  ves- 
sels coming  up  the  Sound,  some  ten  or  twelve  miles  away. 
By  aid  of  a  glass,  I  soon  made  out  four  large  steamers,  and 
immediately  dispatched  a  message  to  convey  the  news  to 
<;amp.      One  by  one  the  vessels,  of  all  sorts  and  sizes,  rounded 

64  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

the  point  and  come  in  view  until  the  number  reached  sixty- 
four.  They  were  drawn  across  the  sound  in  a  long  line. 
One  of  our  little  gun-boats  went  down  to  take  observations, 
but  did  not,  of  course,  venture  within  shot.  There  they  lay, 
forming  a  picture  rare  and  beautiful,  though  probably  not  so 
fully  appreciated  by  us  as  it  might  have  been  under  different 
circumstances.  At  8  o'clock  on  Friday  morning,  they  began 
to  move,  and  coming  cautiously  along,  by  10  :30  o'clock  were 
nearly  abreast  of  us,  when  the  "ball  opened."  The  men  un- 
der my  command  were  ordered  to  keep  concealed,  so  as  not  to 
draw  the  enemy's  fire,  but  it  seemed  impossible  for  them  to 
do  so.  Loolc  ivc  must,  and  in  looking,  the  wuld  grandeur 
and  sublime  novelty  of  the  scene  drew  us  unconsciously  from 
our  hiding  places.  The  Yankee  vessels  lay  from  one  to  two 
and  a  half  miles  from  us,  and  a  few  shells  would  have  played 
havoc  with  us.  But  we  received  no  attention,  and  we  had 
nothing  to  do  for  several  hours,  but  eagerly  watch  the  con- 
flict. Fort  Bartow  replied  most  nobly  to  the  thunders 
directed  against  her,  and  our  little  fleet  did  good  service. 
From  my  position  I  could  see  the  effect  of  nearly  every  shot. 
I  saw  many  strike  the  vessels,  and  often  found  myself  hur- 
rahing for  the  gallant  Hill  and  the  men  at  the  fort. 

About  3  o'clock,  p.  m.,  Avhen  three  or  four  vessels  had  been 
disabled  and  hauled  off",  a  small  boat,  containing  some  twelve 
or  fifteen  men,  left  one  of  the  steamers  and  made  for  the 
shore  at  a  point  nearly  half  a  mile  above  us,  evidently  with 
a  vicAv  of  trying  the  soundings  and  the  landing,  which  had 
been  represented  to  us  as  utterly  insufficient  for  any  but  very 
small  boats.  Colonel  Jordan,  who  had  arrived  at  our  post 
some  time  before,  ordered  Lieutenant  Lindsay  and  myself  to 
take  twenty  men  each,  and  proceed  through  an  intervening 
swamp,  and  capture  or  kill  the  boat's  crew.  This  marsh  was 
almost  impassable,  but  we  got  through  at  last,  and  were 
advancing  cautiously,  in  sight  of  the  Yankees,  who  had  just 
landed,  when  two  men,  one  attached  to  the  Thirty-first  Reg- 
iment, and  the  other  unknown  to  me,  rtished  forward,  hal- 
looing loudly,  firing  their  guns  at  the  enemy,  and,  of  course, 
giving  them  the  alarm.  Lieutenant  L's  detachment  and  my 
own  (all  from  Company  B),were  now  together  and  within  100 

The  Fall  of  Roanoke  Island.  65 

yards  or  less  of  the  enemy,  and  but  for  this  piece  of  impru- 
dence, we  Avould  have  easily  captured  them.  As  they  turned 
to  flee,  we  rushed  through  mud  and  water,  firing  as  we  went, 
but  all  were  got  into  the  boat,  and  the  living  pushed  off,  and 
were  soon  out  of  range.  We  killed  four  and  wounded  two. 
We  immediately  fell  back  under  cover,  expecting  a  shelling, 
which,  hoAvever,  still  did  not  come.  On  the  arrival  of  the 
small  boat  at  the  flag-ship,  two  very  large  steamers  having 
some  thirty  small  boats  in  tow,  all  packed  with  men,  started 
for  the  landing  above  us.  Knowing  they  must  cut  us  off 
from  the  rest  of  our  forces,  it  being  impossible  to  get  the  ar- 
tillery through  the  marsh,  and  considering  it  folly  for  his- 
small  force  to  attack  the  thousands  of  the  enemy  with  uuis- 
ketry,  Colonel  Jordan  ordered  a  retreat.  Our  heaviest  gun 
was  hauled  off  by  two  ponies  and  two  old  mules,  the  other  we 
carried  off  by  hand  under  a  storm  of  shot  and  shell  from  ves- 
sels in  the  sound,  none  of  which,  however,  did  any  damag;e. 

We  retreated  about  one  mile  and  a  half  to  the  small  bat- 
tery, or  redoubt,  across  the  road,  and  placed  one  cannon,  to- 
gether with  a  brass  6-pounder,  in  battery.  It  was  near 
night,  raining  slowly,  the  men  were  weary  and  hungry.  We 
bivouacked  then  for  the  night,  having  some  refreshments  sent 
us  from  camp. 

Early  on  the  morning  of  the  8th,  the  advance  guard  of  the 
enemy  made  its  appearance,  the  Richmond  Blues  and  McCul- 
longh  Rangers  were  thrown  out  on  either  flank  as  skirmishers, 
and  firing  commenced.  Several  regiments  of  the  enemy 
were  now  drawn  up  at  three  or  four  hundred  yards  distance 
upon  which  our  artillery  opened,  and  as  they  came  nearer,  our 
small  arms.  There  were  in  the  battery  my  company,  num- 
bering forty-three ;  Captain  Knight's,  about  fifty  (including 
detachments  from  each  for  the  artillery)  ;  a  detachment  from 
the  Eighth  of  say  ten  in  charge  of  the  6-pounder,  and  about 
forty  Rangers  from  Wise's  Legion,  Colonel  ShaAv  in  com- 
mand, and  Colonels  Anderson,  Jordan  and  Price  being  also 
present.     Gallantly,  nobly  and  gloriously    did    every    man 

fight    (except  ,   who  ran  like  a  whipped  dog).      As 

far  as  the  eye  could  reach  the  enemy  stood  in  compact  mass, 
and  we  mowed  them  down  by  hundreds.  Often  did  they  at- 

66  North  Carolina  Troops,  J 861-65. 

tempt  to  advance,  but  as  often  was  death  spread  in  their 
ranks,  and  they  were  repulsed.  Like  a  hail  shower  their 
niinie  balls  fell  around  us  while  shell  and  shot  hurtled  over 
lis  going  wide  from  their  mark,  and  placing  our  reserve  force, 
portions  of  the  Thirty-iirst  and  Eighth,  half  a  mile  in  our 
rear,  in  more  danger  than  ourselves.  Xot  a  cheek  blanched 
among  us  with  fear,  and  as  I  watched  most  ])articularly  my 
own  gallant  boys,  not  a  trembling  hand  or  faltering  eye  could 
I  see. 

Nor  was  it  different  with  the  "Hatteras  Avengers,"  (Com- 
pany F),  who  fought  with  the  spirit  and  determination  of 
l>rave  men,  under  a  brave  leader,  and  a  braver  man  than  Cap- 
tain Knight  no  men  ever  fought  under.  His  voice  was  heard 
at  all  times  cheering  his  men,  and  his  example,  with  that  of 
his  First  Lieutenant,  S.  J .  T^atham,  inspired  all  with  courage. 
After  about  two  hours,  our  skirmishers  being  hard  pressed  by 
overwdielming  numbers,  were  gradually  falling  back  fighting 
most  gallantly,  when  the  lamented  Wise  fell.  His  men  bore 
him  off  and  I  saw  them  no  more.  The  enemy  pushed  regi- 
ment after  regiment  into  the  swamp  on  either  side  to  flank  us, 
Tout  tliey  were  for  a  long  time  driven  back.  For  over  three 
liours  the  numbers  above  mentioned  kept  at  bay  at  least  10,000 
of  the  enemy  ^  as  acknowledged  by  themselves),  and  when  at 
last  ^\'e  were  flanked,  as  a  Major  of  one  of  the  regiments  who 
did  it,  told  me,  they  crossed  that  miry  swamp  on  a  bridge  of 
dead  men.'^  Only  three  men  of  ours  were  killed  at  the  redoubt, 
one  of  them  the  brave  Seldon,  who  fell  near  me,  shot  through 
the  head.  He,  Captain  Schermerhorn  and  Lieutenant  Kin- 
ney (all  of  Wise's  Legion),  had  command  of  our  three  guns. 
Captain  f^chermerhorn,  who  has  been  fighting  ever  since  he 
was  old  enough,  and  has  five  balls  now  in  his  body,  had 
charge  of  Company  B  detachment  and  complimeiited  them 
very  highly,  ].)articu]arly  James  Flowers,  who,  he  said, 
though  much  exposed,  fought  with  the  firm  courage  and  un- 
flinchiiig  coolness  of  a  veteran.  A  compliment  from  such  a 
man  is  worth  something.     But  all  did  well,  and  their  country 

*  General  Burnside's  Official  Report  shows  his  loss  was  5  officers 
and  32  men  killed  ;  10  officers  and  204  men  wounded.  13  missing,  total 
264.— Ed. 

The  Fall  of  Roanoke  Island.  67 

ought  to  be  proud  of  them.  Probably  had  others  been  in 
their  places,  the  same  might  be  said  justly,  but  this  is  certain, 
the  "O.  K.  Boys,'-  of  Anson  County,  and  the  "Hatteras 
Avengers,"  of  Martin  County,  fought  four  hours  and  twenty 
minutes,  and  only  retreated  Avhen  the  whole  Yankee  force 
was  close  upon  them,  and  the  field  officers  had  left  our  bat- 
tery. In  ten  minutes  more  the  enemy  would  have  sur- 
rounded us  and  cut  us  to  pieces.  Just  before  the  retreat,  re- 
inforcements arrived,  swelling  our  numbers  to  probably  four 
hundred  men,  who  did  but  little  good.  The  retreat  was  con- 
ducted in  good  order,  no  guns  were  thrown  away,  as  has  been 
gtated.  and  our  whole  force,  except  a  few  stragglers,  pro- 
ceeded slowly  up  the  road  expecting  every  minute  to  hear  the 
order  to  "Fall  in"  for  another  fight,  than  which  no  order 
could  have  been  more  welcome.  But  this  came  not,  and  they 
went  sullenly  and  silently  to  our  old  encampment,  where 
about  an  hour  after  our  arrival,  we  saw  the  white  flag  borne 
by  us  to  meet  the  enemy.  The  surrender  of  all  the  forces  on 
the  island  was  made  and  a  strong  Federal  guard  placed 
around  us.  The  victorious  army  treated  us  with  kindness, 
particularly  General  Foster  and  the  officers  of  the  Eighth 
and  Fifty-first  New  York,  the  Pennsylvania,  New  Jersey 
and  Twenty-first  Massachusetts  Regiments.  We  were  de- 
prived of  all  small  arms,  upon  a  promise  of  having  them  re- 
turned whenever  we  were  exchanged,  which  promise  was  only 
partially  complied  with  on  our  release.  We  had  the  morti- 
fication of  seeing  many  of  the  articles  prepared  for  the  use  of 
our  sick  and  wounded  by  the  kind  w^omen  of  Anson,  seized 
by  the  rascally  Zouaves,  but  as  soon  as  complaint  was  made 
to  General  Reno,  he  promptly  ordered  any  man  trespassing 
thus  to  be  placed  in  irons. 

OwY  beautiful  flag  was  gallantly  borne  away  from  the  bat- 
tlefield by  Corporal  H.  M.  May,  but  to  our  great  regret  was 
taken  by  the  enemy  after  the  surrender,  and  by  Dr.  Cutler, 
Surgeon  of  the  Twenty-first  Massachusetts  Regiment,  was 
sent  as  a  present  to  the  Governor  of  that  State,  a  brother-in- 
law  of  my  informant.  It  was  never  disgraced,  and  bore 
many  marks  in  the  shape  of  bullet  holes.  We  remained  on 
the   Island   much   crowded    and   closely   guarded,    until   the 

68  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Wednesday  morning  following,  when  we  were  removed  (the 
officers  only),  to  the  steamer  Syauldiyig  in  the  sound,  fiilly 
expecting  to  start  immediately  for  New  York.  We  were 
allowed  to  take  our  baggage  and  servants.  The  ten  days 
following  were  the  most  miserable  I  ever  passed.  Confined 
to  the  damp,  dark  and  dirty  lower  deck  greatly  crowded,  fed 
on  hard  crackers,  fat  pork  (which  they  said  was  cooked  before 
leaving  the  North,  but  which  seemed  to  us  raw),  and  coffee 
tAvice  a  day,  you  may  imagine  our  condition.  On  Sunday, 
the  l(!th,  General  Burnside  came  aboard  and  announced  that 
we  could  all  be  released  on  a  parole  of  honor,  of  which  the 
following  is  a  copy : 

"Having  been  taken  a  prisoner  of  war  by  the  forces  of  Gen- 
eral A.  E.  Burnside,  on  Roanoke  Island,  I  do  solemnly  pledge 
my  sacred  word  and  honor,  that  if  released,  I  will  give  no  one 
any  information  I  may  have  derived,  or  mention  anything  I 
may  have  heard  or  seen  since  my  capture,  that  might  injure 
the  Government  of  the  United  States  of  Ameriea,  or  aid  their 
enemies  by  word  or  act  until  I  am  regularly  exchanged  ac- 
cording to  the  usages  of  war;  the  information  to  me,  of  said 
exchange  to  be  beyond  the  possibility  of  a  doubt." 

This  was  about  the  first  intiination  we  had  of  anything  of 
the  kind  and  upon  the  assurance  that  the  same  privilege 
should  be  offered  to  our  men,  we  gladly  accepted  the  proposi- 
tion. But  it  was  not  until  the  next  Thursday  that  they 
moved  with  us,  then  steamers,  bearing  all  the  prisoners 
taken,  started  for  Elizabeth  City  where,  on  Friday,  we  landed, 
and  after  a  tedious  process  of  verifying  rolls,  we  Avere  re- 
leased. The  meeting  here  between  officers  and  men  w^as  in 
some  instances  very  affecting.  You  may  be  sure  that  we 
gladl}^  took  up  our  line  of  march  homeward,  and  bore  the 
many  hardships  and  privations  of  the  journey  with  more 
cheerfulness  than  under  other  circumstances.  At  Ports- 
mouth we  were  furnished  with  a  good  meal.  At  Weldon, 
Colonel  O.  H.  Dockery  most  kindly  prepared  for  and  enter- 
tained my  company,  on  Tuesday  morning,  from  which  time 
until  our  arrival  at  Florence — thirty-six  hours — we  had  noth- 
ing to  eat.  At  the  latter  place  a  bountiful  repast  was  spread 
for    us,    Mr.    Gamble,    the    proprietor    of    the    hotel,    only 

The  Fall  of  Roanoke  Island.  69 

charging  us  half  price — to  his  credit  be  it  spoken.  We  are 
all  now  safely  at  homewwith  one  exception,  and  impatient  to 
hear  of  our  exchange.  Joseph  E.  Liles  has  not  been  seen  or 
directly  heard  from  since  the  fight,  though  we  have  the 
strongest  reasons  for  believing  that  he  was  alive  on  the  island, 
though  sick  when  we  left.  He  was  quite  unwell  with  the 
mumps  on  the  day  of  the  battle,  though  he  fought  most 
bravely,  and  was  with  us  when  Ave  started  to  retreat.  He 
was  doubtless  taken  prisoner,  and  I  fully  hope  and  believe, 
for  various  reasons,  that  he  will  soon  be  returned  to  his  home 
and  friends.  May  this  be  so — for  a  nobler  boy,  or  one  more 
beloved,  never  pulled  trigger  on  an  enemy.  I  had  several 
men  wounded,  though  none  seriously.  Our  whole  loss, 
killed  and  wounded,  is  about  forty — that  of  the  enemy  but 
little,  if  any,  under  two  thousand  killed,  and  I  know  not  how 
many  were  wounded.  This  information  was  gained  in  vari- 
ous ways,  as  it  was  most  studiously  kept  secret  by  most  of 
the  officers,  but  is  reliable.  Captain  Knight's  men  and  the 
others  in  the  battery,  fired  thirty  to  forty  rounds  of  buck  and 
ball  cartridges,  and  for  a  large  portion  of  the  time,  the  en- 
emy was  just  where  we  wanted  them  to  make  our  shots  tell, 
and  every  discharge  of  our  artillery  opened  a  perfect  lane 
through  the  enemy's  ranks.  Wlien  we  saw  them  advancing 
the  last  time  upon  us,  the  order  to  "Fix  bayonets"  was  given, 
and  I  never  saw  it  obeyed  more  cheerfully  on  drill — though 
every  man  expected  a  hand-to-hand  conflict.  All  those  pretty 
stories  about  crying  and  breaking  swords,  are  gammon.  I 
could  not  make  this  communication  shorter  and  do  the  l^orth 
Carolina  companies  engaged  justice. 

E.  R.  Liles. 

LiLESVILLE,    N.    C. , 

1  March,  1862. 

NoTK. — At  the  time  of  this  battle  E  R.  Liles  was  Captain  Company  B, 
and  later  Lieutenant-Colonel  of  the  Regiment.  His  estimate  of  the  ene- 
my's loss  is  very  far  above  the  mark  (see  Burnside's  report  above)  as 
perhaps  was  natural  at  the  time. — Ed. 


17   SEFTEHBER,    1862. 

By  WALTER  CLARK,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Seventieth  N.  C.   T, 

After  the  "seven  days  fight"  aroimd  Richmond  in  July, 
1862,  when  McCUellan  took  refuge  from  utter  destruction  in 
his  gun-boats  it  was  resolved  that  we  should  return  the  unso- 
licited visit  w^hich  had  been  made  us. 

A  few  weeks  later,  with  blare  of  bugles  and  roll  of  drums, 
we  set  our  faces  northward.  At  Cedar  Mountain  we  crushed 
the  enemy,  Chantilly  saw  our  victorious  columns  and  the  field 
of  Manassas  a  second  time  welcomed  us  to  victory.     When 

"  August  with  its  trailing  vines 
Passed  out  the  gates  of  Summer," 

we  were  in  full  march  for  the  Potomac,  which  was  crossed 
simultaneously  at  several  points,  the  bands  playing  ''Mary- 
land, My  Maryland."  Walker's  Division,  to  which  I  be- 
longed, with  McLaws'  and  A.  P.  Hills'  Divisions,  recrossed 
the  Potomac  to  surround  Harper's  Ferry,  while  the  rest  of 
the  army,  moving  towards  Hagerstown,  was  suddenly  attacked 
at  Boonsboro  14  September,  and  falling  back  the  hostile  lines 
again  confronted  each  other  about  noon  on  16  September,  the 
Federals  lining  Antietam  creek  while  the  Confederates  held 
the  village  of  Sharpsburg,  hence  the  double  name  of  this  fa- 
mous battle.  For  a  similar  reason  the  great  battle  known 
to  the  English-speaking  people  the  world  around  as  Waterloo, 
is  called  the  battle  of  Mont  St.  Jean  by  the  French  and  La 
Belle  Alliance  by  Germans. 

The  l)attle  of  Antietam  (commonly  known  at  the  South 
as  the  battle  of  Sharpsburg),  was  one  of  the  bloodiest  of  the 
whole  Civil  War.  It  was  fought  17  September,  1862,  be- 
tween the  Federal  army  commanded  by  General  George  B. 
McClellan,  and  the  Confederate  army  under  General  R.  E. 

72  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

The  Federal  army  was  composed  of  six  Corps :  First 
(Hooker's),  Second  (Sumner's),  Fifth  (Porter's),  Sixth 
(Franklin's),  A'^inth  (Burnside's),  Twelfth  (Mansfield's), 
besides  Pleasanton's  Cavalry  Division. 

On  the  Southern  side  were  two  Corps:  Longstreet's  and 
Jackson's,  with  Stuart's  Cavalry.  The  morning  reports  for 
that  day  of  the  Federal  army  show  101,000  "effective;"  but 
General  McClellan,  in  his  report  of  the  battle,  places  his 
number  of  men  in  line  at  87,000.  General  Lee,  in  his  re- 
port simply  ])uts  his  force  at  "less  than  40,000."  General 
Longstreet  estimates  them  at  37,000,  and  General  D.  H.  Hill 
at  31,000.  The  best  estimate  of  numbers  actually  in  line 
.vould  be  87,000  Federals  and  35,000  Confederates.  Of  the 
latter,  only  27,000  were  in  hand  when  the  battle  opened. 
The  arrival  of  the  divisions  of  McLaws  and  A.  P.  Hill  from 
Harper's  Ferry  during  the  battle,  raised  Lee's  total  to  35,000. 
Over  a  fourth  of  these  were  from  North  Carolina,  which  had 
thirty-two  regiments  and  three  batteries  there. 

The  battle  was  fought  in  a  bend  of  the  Potomac  river,  the 
town  of  Sharpsbuvg,  Md.,  being  the  center  of  the  Southern 
line  of  battle,  wlinse  right  flank  rested  on  the  Antietam  creek, 
just  al:)Ove  where  it  flows  into  the  Potomac,  and  the  left  flank 
on  the  Potomac  higher  u}).  General  Lee  had  braved  all 
rules  of  sti'ategy  by  dividing  his  army  in  the  presence  of  an 
enemy  treble  his  numbers.  He  had  sent  Jackson,  with 
nearly  half  the  army,  to  the  south  side  of  the  Potomac  to  in- 
vest Llarper's  Ferry,  while  with  the  other  ]iart  of  the  army 
he  himself  advanced  on  Hagerstown.  General  McClellan, 
who  slowly  and  with  caution  was  following  Lee's  movements, 
found  at  Frederick,  ]\ld.,  a  dispatch  from  Lee  to  General  D. 
H.  Hill,  which  had  been  dropped  in  the  latter's  encampment. 
This  disclosed  to  him  Lee's  entire  plan  of  campaign  and  the 
division  of  his  army.  With  more  than  his  usual  promptness, 
McClellan  threw  himself  (on  14  September),  upon  Turner's 
(Boonsl)oro)  and  (^ram])ton's  Gaps.  These  were  stubbornly 
lield  till  next  day,  when  Lee  fell  back  to  Sharpsburg.  For- 
tunately for  Lee,  Harper's  Ferry  surrendered  with  12,000 
prisoners  early  on  the  morning  of  the  15th,  releasing  the  be- 
sieti'ina,'  force.      Of  these.   Walker's  Division,   with   Jackson 

Sharpsburg  (or  Antietam), 


himself,  rejoined  Lee  north  of  the  Potomac,  at  Sharpsburg, 
on  the  afternoon  of  the  16th.  Me  Laws  and  A.  P.  Hill  joined 
him  there  during  the  battle  on  the  17th — McLaws  at  9  a.  m., 
and  A.  P.  Hill  at  3  p.  m. — and  each  just  in  time  to  prevent 


the  destruction  of  the  army.  With  87,000  men  in  line,  as 
against  Lee's  3."), 000,  General  McClellan  should  have  cap- 
tured the  (.'onfederate  army,  for  lighting  with  the  river  at  its 
back  any  <lisasrer  could  not  have  been  retrieved.  Besides, 
till  !•  a.  m.,  Lee  bad  only  27,000  men.  and  this  number  was 
not  finally  raised  to  lb"), 000  till  the  arrival  of  A.  P.  Hill  after 
3  p.  in.  Lbere  were  no  breastworks  and  neither  time  nor  op- 
portunity to  make  any.  General  McClellan  was  an  excellent 
General,  luit  bis  over-caution  saved  Lee's  army.  He  greatly 
overestimated  tbc  nuud>ors  o]iposed  to  him.  He  telegraphed 
to  President  Liiu-ohi  (hiring  the  battle  that  Lee  had  95,000 
men.  Had  he  known  that  in  truth  Lee  had  only  27,000  men 
when  the  battle  opened,  the  history  of  the  war  and  General 
McClellan's  fortunes  would  have  been  essentially  different. 

74  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

During-  the  battle  General  McClellan  telegraphed  President 
Lincoln  "one  of  the  greatest,  and  probably  the  greatest  bat- 
tle, in  all  history  is  now  in  progress." 

This  much  has  been  said  to  give  a  general  idea  of  the  "sit- 
uation" before  and  during  the  battle.  I  was  Adjutant  of 
the  Thirty-fifth  Xorth  Carolina  Regiment  commanded  by 
Colonel  M.  W.  Eansom  (afterwards  Brigadier-General  and 
United  States  Senator.)  The  brigade  was  commanded  by 
his  brother,  General  Robert  Ransom,  a  West  Pointer,  and 
hence  a  personal  acquaintance  of  most  of  the  Federal  lead- 
ers. The  division  was  commanded  by  General  John  G.  Wal- 
ker, another  old  army  officer.  We  were  at  the  taking  of  Har- 
per's Perry,  where  our  division  held  Loudon  Heights,  and 
Ave  were  the  first  to  recross  the  Potomac  and  join  General 
Lee  at  Sharpsburg,  on  the  afternoon  of  the  ICth. 

I  was  then  a  mere  boy,  j  ust  16a  few  days  before,  and  have 
vivid  recollections  of  the  events  of  the  day.  About  an  hour 
before  day,  on  tlie  17th,  our  division  began  its  march  for  the 
position  assigned  us  on  the  extreme  right,  where  we  were  to 
oppose  the  Federals  in  any  attempt  to  cross  either  the  bridge 
(since  known  as  Burnside's)  or  the  ford  over  the  Antietam 
beloM'  it,  near  Shiveley's.  Along  our  route  we  met  men,, 
women  and  children  coming  out  from  Sharpsburg,  and  from 
the  farm  houses  near  by.  "^rhey  were  carrying  such  of  their 
household  belongings  as  were  portable ;  many  women  were 
weeping.  This,  and  the  little  children  leaving  their  homes, 
made  a  moving  picture  in  "the  dawn's  early  light."  On 
taking  ])osition,  we  immediately  tore  down  the  fences  in  our 
front  which  might  obstruct  the  line  of  fire.  About  9  a.  m., 
a  pressing  order  came  to  move  to  the  left ;  this  we  did  in 
quick  time.  As  we  Avere  leaving  our  ground,  I  remember 
looking  np  the  Antietam,  the  opposite  bank  of  which  was 
lined  with  Federal  batteries.  These  were  firing  at  the  left 
Aving  of  our  army  to  the  support  of  Avhich  we  Avere  moving. 
The  Federal  gunners  could  be  seen  Avith  the  utmost  distinct- 
ness as  they  loaded  and  fired.  Moving  nortlnvards,  Ave  Avere 
passing  in  rear  of  our  line  of  battle  and  met  constant  streams 
of  the  Avounded  coming  out.  Among  them  I  remember  meet- 
ing Colonel  W.  L.  DeRosset,  of  the  Third  North  Carolina, 

Sharpsburg  (or  Antietam). 


being  brniii>ht   out   badly   wounded,    and   many   others   well 
known  in  North  Carolina. 

All  this  time  there  was  the  steady  booming  of  the  cannon, 
the  whistling  of  shells,  the  pattering  of  fire-arms,  and  the 
occasional  yell  or  cheer  rising  above  the  roar  of  battle  as  some 
advantage  was  gained  by  either  side.      Soon  after  passing  the 


town  tbe  division  was  de])loyed  in  column  of  regiments. 
.Vround  and  just  beyond  the  Dunkard  church,  in  the  center  of 
the  Confederate  left,  our  line  had  been  broken  and  was  com- 
])letely  sv/e^^t  away.  A  flood  of  Federals  were  pouring  in; 
we  were  just  in  time — ten  minutes',  five  minutes'  delay,  and 
our  army  would  have  ceased  to  exist.  We  were  marching 
up  behind  our  line  of  battle,  with  our  right  flank  perpendicu- 

76  North  Carolina  Troops,  186] -65. 

lar  to  it.  As  the  first  regiment  got  opposite  to  the  break  in 
our  lines  it  made  a  wheel  to  the  right  and  "went  in."  The 
next  regiment,  marching  straight  on,  as  soon  as  it  cleared  the 
left  of  the  regiment  ])receding  it,  likewise  wheeled  to  the 
right  and  took  its  place  in  line,  and  so  on  in  succession.  That 
is,  we  were  marching  north,  and  thus  w^ere  successively 
thrown  into  line  of  battle  facing  east.  As  these  regiments 
came  successively  into  line  they  struck  the  Federal  lines 
which  were  advancing ;  the  crash  was  deafening.  The  sound 
of  infantry  firing  at  short  distance  can  be  likened  to  nothing 
so  much  as  the  dropping  of  a  shower  of  hail-stones  on  an  enor- 
mous tin  roof.  My  regiment  wheeled  to  the  right  about  150 
yards  north  (and  west)  of  the  Dunkard  church.  In  the  wheel 
we  passed  a  large  barn,  which  is  still  standing,  and  entered 
the  "West  Woods."  Being  a  mounted  officer,  I  had  a  full 
view ;  our  men  soon  drove  the  Federals  back  to  the  eastern 
edge  of  these  woods,  where  the  enemy  halted  to  receive  us. 
The  West  Woods  had  already  l)een  twice  fought  over  that 
morning ;  the  dead  and  \\'ounded  lay  thicker  than  I  ever  seen 
on  a  battlefield  since.  On  the  eastern  edge  of  these  woods 
the  lines  of  battle  came  close  together  and  the  shock  was  ter- 
rific ;  here  Captain  Walter  Bryson,  of  our  regiment,  was 
killed,  along  with  many  others  in  the  brigade.  All  the 
mounted  officers  in  the  division  instantly  dismounted,  turn- 
ing their  horses  loose  to  gallop  to  the  rear.  It  being  the  first 
time  I  had  been  so  suddenly  thrown  in  contact  with  a  line  of 
battle,  and  not  noticing,  in  the  smoke  and  uproar,  that  the' 
others  had  dismounted,  I  thought  it  my  duty  to  stick  to  my 
horse ;  in  another  moment,  when  the  smoke  would  have  lifted 
(so  the  Federal  line  of  l)attle,  lying  down  fifty  yards  off, 
could  have  seen  me)  I  should  have  been  taken  for  a  general 
officer  and  would  have  been  swejit  out  of  my  saddle  by  a  hun- 
dred l)ullets.  A  kind-hearted  veteran  close  by  peremptorily 
pulled  me  oft'  my  horse.  At  that  instant  a  minie  ball,  whist- 
ling over  the  just  emptied  saddle,  struck  the  back  of  my  left 
hand  which  was  still  clinoing  to  the  pommel,  leaving  a  slight 
scar  which  I  still  carry  as  a  memento.  The  Federal  line 
soon  fell  back.  We  then  charged  in  pursuit  as  far  as  the  post 
and  rail  fence  at  the  turnpike.      It  was  Gorman's  Brigade, 

Sharpsburg  (or  Antietam).  77 

Sedgwick's  Division,  of  Sumner's  Corps  our  brigade  was 
fighting.  This  was  composed  of  troops  from  Massachusetts, 
New  York  and  Minnesota,  and  from  their  returns  they  left 
750  killed  and  wounded  by  our  lire ;  this  was  about  10  a.  m. 
i\  terrific  shelling  by  the  enemy  followed,  which  was  kept  up 
for  many  hours,  with  occasional  brief  intermissions,  caused 
probably  by  the  necessity  of  letting  the  pieces  cool.  The 
shelling  was  terrible,  but  owing  to  protection  from  the  slope 
of  the  hill,  and  there  being  a  limestone  ledge  somewhat  shel- 
tering our  line,  the  loss  from  the  artillery  was  small. 

Tn  the  brief  intermission,  after  the  Federal  infantry  had 
fallen  back  and  before  the  artillery  opened,  a  cry  for  help  was 
heard.  Lieutenant  (later  Captain)  Sanford  G.  Howie  and 
myself  going  out  in  front  of  our  line,  found  the  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  of  a  Massachusetts  regiment — Francis Winthrop  Pal- 
frey— l^'ing  on  the  ground  wounded,  and  brought  him  and 
others  into  our  lines.  With  some  reluctance  he  surrendered 
his  very  handsome  sword  and  pistol  and  was  sent  to  the  rear. 
The  sword  bore  an  inscription  that  it  had  been  presented  to 
him  by  the  town  of  Concord,  Mass.  He  remarked  at  the 
time,  he  wished  them  preserved,  and  sure  enough,  after  the 
war  he  wrote  for  them,  and  they  were  restored ;  he  was  ex- 
changed and  became  subsequently  General  Palfrey.  He  has 
published  a  volume,   "Antietam  and  Fredericksburg." 

There  was  another  intermission  in  the  shelling  about  12 
o'clock,  when  we  were  charged  by  the  Second  Massachusetts 
and  Thirteenth  iSIew  Jersey  of  Gordon's  Brigade,  who  ad- 
vanced as  far  as  the  post  and  rail  fence  at  the  Hagerstown 
turnpike,  about  100  yards  in  our  front,  but  were  broken  there 
and  driven  back,  leaving  many  dead  and  wounded.  There 
was  another  intermission  about  2  o'clock  probably.  Word 
was  then  brought  us  that  we  were  to  advance.  It  was  then 
that  Stonewall  Tackson  came  along  our  lines ;  his  appearance 
has  been  so  often  described  that  I  will  only  say  that  I  was 
reminded  of  what  the  Federal  prisoners  had  said  two  days 
before  at  Har])er's  Ferry,  when  he  rode  down  among  them 
from  his  post  on  Bolivar  Heights :  "My !  boys,  he  ain't 
much  on  looks,  but  if  ire  had  had  him,  Ave  Avouldn't  have  been 
in  this  fix."     Stonewall  remarked  to  Colonel  Ransom,  as  he 

78  North  Carolina  Troops.   18f)l-'65. 

■did  to  the  other  Colonels  along  the  line,  that  with  Stuart's 
■Cavalry  and  some  infantry  he  was  going  around  the  Federal 
right  and  get  in  their  rear,  and  added  "when  you  hear  the 
rattle  of  my  small  arms  this  whole  line  must  advance."  He 
Avished  to  ascertain  the  force  ojjposed,  and  a  man  of  our  regi- 
ment named  Hood  was  sent  up  a  tall  tree,  which  he  climbed 
-carefully  to  avoid  observation  by  the  enemy;  Stonewall  called 
out  to  know  how  many  Yankees  he  could  see  over  the  hill 
^nd  beyond  the  "East  Woods,"  Hood  replied,  "Who-e-e! 
there  are  oceans  of  them.  General."  "Count  their  flags," 
rsaid  Jackson  sternly,  who  wished  more  definite  information. 
This  Hood  proceeded  to  do  until  he  had  counted  thirty-nine, 
when  the  General  told  him  that  would  do  and  to  come  down. 
By  reason  of  this  and  other  information  he  got,  the  turning 
iriovcment  was  not  attem])ted,  and  it  was  probably  fortunate 
for  us  that  it  was  not. 

During  the  same  lull,  our  Brigadier-General  (Robert  Ran- 
som) received  a  flag  of  truce  which  had  been  sent  to  remove 
some  wounded  officers,  and  by  it  sent  his  love  to  General 
Hartsuff  (if  I  remember  aright),  who  had  been  his  room- 
mate at  West  Point ;  but  Hartsuff,  as  it  happened,  had  been 
wounded  and  had  left  the  field.  Soon  after  our  regiment 
Avas  moved  laterally  a  short  distance  to  the  right,  and  we 
charged  a  piece  of  artillery  which  had  been  put  in  position 
near  the  Dunkard  church ;  we  killed  the  men  and  horses,  but 
did  not  bring  off  the  artillery,  as  we  were  ourselves  swept  by 
artillery  on  our  left  posted  in  the  "old  corn-field." 

Just  to  the  right  of  the  Dunkard  church  was  the  "peach 
orchard"  lying  between  the  church  and  the  town  of  Sharps- 
burg,  where  General  D.  H.  Hill  held  our  line  for  hours  with 
a  line  of  men  four  feet  apart.  A  half  mile  in  front  of  the 
orchard,  early  in  the  day,  Anderson's  Brigade  had  made  the 
name  of  the  "Bloody  Lane"  forever  famous.  Its  position 
thrust  out  in  front  resembled  that  of  the  "Bloody  Angle"  at 
Spottsylvania  later.  It  was  overwhelmed  by  Richardson's 
Division,  losing  its  Brigadier,  Geo.  B.  Anderson,  mortally 
wounded.  Colonel  Tew  killed.  Colonels  Parker,  Bennett  and 
others  wounded.  Its  loss  was  great,  but  the  fame  of  its  deeds 
that  dav  will  abide  with  N^orth  Carolina  forevermore. 

Sharpsburg  (or  Antietam).  79 

About  -i  p.  111.,  Burnside  on  our  right  (the  Federal  left) 
advanced,  having  crossed  the  bridge  about  1  p.  m.,  until 
which  hour  his  two  corps  had  been  kept  from  crossing  the 
bridge  by  Toombs'  Brigade  of  400  men.  Tliough  it  crossed 
at  1  ]).  111.,  Burnside's  Corps  unaccountably  did  not  advance 
till  o  {).  m.  Then  advancing  over  the  ground  which  had  been 
abandoned  by  our  division  early  that  morning,  utter  disaster 
to  our  army  was  imminent.  -lust  then  A.  P.  Tlill's  Divis- 
ion arrived  from  Harper's  Ferry,  where  it  had  been  parol- 
ing ju'isoners.  A  delay  of  ten  iiiinutes  by  Hill  might  have 
lost  us  the  army;  as  it  was,  the  division  arrived  just  in  time. 
The  roll  of  musketry  was  continuous  till  nightfall  and  Burn- 
side  was  di'iven  back  to  the  Antietam.  Here  General  L.  O'B. 
Branch  was  kilh^d.  About  dark  onr  brigade  was  moved  to  the 
right  a  half  mile  and  bivouacked  for  the  night  around  Heel's 
house  near  a  l)iii'ning  barn.  As  we  were  moving  by  the  right 
flank,  we  were  seen  by  the  Federal  signal  station  on  the  high 
liills  on  the  east  bank  of  the  Antietam.  A  shell  sent  by  signal 
fell  in  the  rear  com])aiiy  of  the  Forty-ninth  Xoi'tli  Carolina 
liegiment,  just  ahead  of  us,  killing  Lieutenant  Greenlea 
Fleming  and  killing  or  wounding  thirteen  others.  It  rained 
all  next  day.  We  were  moved  back  that  morning  to  our  old 
position  of  the  Dunkard  church;  neither  army  advanced. 
That  night  our  A\l!ole  army  quietly  moved  off  and  crossed  the 
Potomac,  the  passage  of  the  river  being  lighted  up  by  torches 
held  by  men  stationed  in  the  river  on  horseback.  The  army 
came  off  safely  without  arousing  the  Federal  army,  and  left 
not  a  cannon  nor  a  wagon  behind  us.  On  the  19th  Fitz  John 
Porter's  corps  attempted  to  follow  us  across  the  river  at  Sliep- 
herdstown,  and  was  driven  back  with  disastrous  loss. 

During  the  battle  of  the  l7th,  McClellan's  headquarters 
were  across  the  Antietam  at  the  Fry  house.  There  he  had 
his  large  spy-glasses  strapped  to  movable  frames,  and  could 
take  in  the  whole  battlefield ;  besides,  from  his  signal  station 
on  the  high  hills,  which  border  the  Antietam  on  the  east  side, 
he  could  learn  all  the  movements  of  our  army.  With  this  ad- 
vantage and  his  great  preponderance  of  numbers,  87,000  to 
101,000  as  against  our  35,000  to  40,000  (giving  the  margin 
to  each  allowed  by  the  official  reports),  it  is  clear  that  he 

80  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861 -'65. 

should  have  captured  Lee.  The  latter  had  comiuitted  a  grave 
military  fault  by  dividing  his  army  by  a  river  and  many 
miles  of  interval  in  the  presence  of  an  enemy  greatly  his  su- 
perior in  nund)ers.  Besides,  he  ought  not  to  have  fought 
north  of  the  Potomac.  Lee  was  saved  from  the  consequences 
of  his  boldness  l)y  the  o]iposite  quality  of  over-caution  in  Mc- 
Clellan ;  the  hitter  erroneously  estimated  Lee's  force  at 
9.5,000,  when  it  was  a  little  more  than  one-fourth  of  that 
number  at  the  time  the  battle  opened.  Then,  when  the  Fed- 
erals fought  it  was  done  in  detail.  At  daybreak  Hooker's 
Corps  went  in ;  he  was  wounded,  and  his  corps  badly  cut  up 
and  scattered.  Then  Mansfield  with  the  Twelfth  Corps, 
came  on ;  he  was  killed  and  his  corps  was  driven  out.  Then 
Sumner's  Corps  was  launched  at  us  and  came  on  in  good 
style ;  it  broke  our  line,  and  was  only  driven  back  by  fresh 
troops — Walker's  Division  taken  from  the  right,  as  above 
stated,  and  by  McLaws'  Division,  just  arrived  from  Harper's 
Ferry.  Sumner's  Corps  was  driven  back  but  fought  well,  as 
is  shoAvn  hy  the  fact  that  its  loss,  which  was  over  5,000, 
was  more  than  double  that  of  any  other  corps.  When 
they  went  back  Franklin's  Corps  came  up,  but  had  small  op- 
portunity, as  is  shown  by  its  loss  of  less  than  500  in  the 
whole  battle.  By  1 1  o'clock  the  battle  on  the  left  wing  was 
practically  over,  except  by  artillery :  on  the  other  wing  at  1 
p.  m.,  Burnside's  Corps  crossed  the  Antietam  over  the  bridge, 
but  his  corps  did  not  move  forward  till  3  p.  m.,  at  which  in- 
stant A.  P.  Llill's  Division,  arriving  from  paroling  prison- 
ers at  Harper's  Ferry,  met  and  overthrew  it.  The  other 
corps  (Fitz  John  Porter's)  was  in  reserve  and  did  not  fire  a 
gun,  except  some  detachments  sent  to  other  commands  during 
the  battle.  With  six  corps  the  weight  of  McClellan's  fight- 
ing at  any  moment  was  that  of  one  corps  only.  Had  he,  with 
Xapoleonic  vigor,  dropped  his  four  corps — full  60,000  men — 
simultaneously  on  our  thin  left  wing  of  15,000  men  like  a 
massive  trip  hammer,  it  must  have  shattered  it.  Had  he 
moved  his  other  two  cor]")s  of  30.000  at  the  same  moment  in 
rear  of  our  right,  the  fight  would  have  been  over  by  9  a.  m., 
and  Appomattox  would  have  been  antedated  two  years  and  a 
half.      The  star  of  the  Confederacy  would  have  set  in  night. 

Sharpsburg  (or  Antietam).  81 

and  Sharpsburg'  miglit  have  Taken  its  phice  in  th.e  history 
of  onr  race  by  the  side  of  Hastings  and  Flodden.  The  loss 
of  that  army,  with  Lee,  Jackson  and  the  other  Generals  there, 
would  have  been  fatal.  We  know  what  happened  when  the 
same  glorions  army,  even  with  smaller  numbers,  disappeared 
at  Appomattox.  From  this  fate  tlie  leadership  of  our  Gen- 
erals and  the  superb  valor  of  our  soldiers  could  not  have  saved 
us.  had  not  McClellan  singularly  overrated  our  numbers. 
Bnt  he  should  have  known  that  if  Lee  and  Jackson  had  really 
had  95,000  men  they  would  not  have  waited  for  him  to  at- 
tack; thej  would  have  taken  possession  of  his  army. 

Thirty-nine  years  after  the  event  it  is  hard  to  realize  the 
misap])rehension  which  then  existed  in  the  minds  of  others 
as  well  as  General  McClellan  as  to  the  size  of  Lee's  army. 
As  an  example,  read  the  following  from  the  28  (Serial  ISTo.) 
Official  Records  Union  and  Gonfcd.  Armies,  2G8,  from  the 
war  Governor  of  Pennsylvania,  Andrew  G.  C'urtin : 

''HAKKisiuRa.  Pa.,  11  September,  18G2. 
"His  Excellency  the  President: 

*  *  "You  sliould  order  a  strong  guard  placed  upon 
the  railway  line  from  Washington  to  Harrisburg  to-night, 
and  send  here  not  less  than  80,000  disciplined  forces,  and 
order  from  ISTew  York  and  States  east  all  available  forces  to 
concentrate  here  at  once.  To  this  we  will  add  all  the  militia 
forces  possible,  «nd  I  think  that  in  a  few^  days  w^e  can  mus- 
ter 50,000  men.  It  is  our  only  hope  to  save  the  j^orth  and 
crush  the  rebel  army.  *  *  *  The  enemy  will  bring 
against  us  not  less  than  120,000,  with  large  amount  of  ar- 
tillery. The  time  for  decided  action  by  the  j^ational  Gov- 
ernment has  arrived.     What  may  we  expect  ? 

"A.    G.    CUETIN.^' 

To  this  President  Lincoln  very  sensibly  replied,  at  p.  276, 
same  volume : 

''*     *     If  I  should  start  half  of  our  forces  to  Harrisburg, 

the  enemy  will  turn  upon  and  beat  the  remaining  half  and 

then  reach  Harrisburg  before  the  part  going  there,  and  beat  it 

too  when  it  comes.      The  best  possible  security  for  Penns^lva- 


82  North  Carolina  Troops,   1 861-65. 

nia  is  putting  the  strongest  force  possible  into  tlie  enemy's 

"September,  12,  1862.  A.  LmcoLN."' 

The  same  day  (12  September j,  Governor  Curtin  tele- 
graphs the  President  that  he  has  reliable  information  as  to 
the  rebel  movements  and  intentions,  which  he  details,  and 
says:  ''Their  force  in  Maryland  is  about  190,000  men. 
They  have  in  Virginia  about  250,000  more,  all  of  whom  are 
being  concentrated  to  menace  Washington  and  keep  the 
Union  armies  employed  there  while  their  forces  in  Maryland 
devastate  and  destroy  Pennsylvania." 

In  fact,  as  we  now  know  from  the  Official  Records,  Lee,  by 
reason  of  his  losses  at  Second  Manassas  and  from  sickness  and 
straggling,  had  only  about  40,000  men  in  Maryland,  and 
there  were  probably  10,000  more  in  Virginia,  exclusive  of 
the  stragglers  from  his  army,  around  Richmond,  a  total 
of  50,000  effective,  while  opposed  to  them  was  McClellan  im- 
mediately in  front  with  an  army  of  101,000  "effective," 
12,000  more  Federals  (afterwards  captured)  were  at  Har- 
per's Ferry,  73,000  "effective,  fit  for  duty"  were  in  the 
intrenchments  round  Washington,  10,000  under  General 
Wool  at  Baltimore — total,  by  morning  reports,  of  195,000 
effective,  besides  the  Federal  and  State  troops  under  arms  in 
Pennsylvania.  are  the  illusions  and  confusion  which  disturb  even 
the  clearest  minds  under  such  circumstances. 

Singularly  enough,  too,  General  McClellan  gave  as  his 
reason  for  not  putting  in  Fitz  John  Porter's  Corps  and  fight- 
ing on  the  18th,  that  it  was  the  only  force  that  stood  intact 
between  the  Capital  and  possible  disaster.  Yet  on  that  day 
73,000  other  soldiers  were  behind  the  ramparts  around 
Washington.  The  publication  of  the  Official  Records  has 
thrown  a  flood  of  light  on  the  history  of  those  times. 

Raleigh,  N.  C, 

17  September,  1901  X/^i^Z^ 


13    DECEnBER.    1562. 

By  colonel  S.  D.  POOL,  Tenth  Regiment  ( 1  Art.  )  N.  C.  T. 

The  winter  camiDaigu  of  18(32  was  initiated  early  by  the 
Federal  commander. 

In  the  months  of  October  and  jSTovember  feints  were  made 
along  the  Confederate  lines  from  iSI^orth  Carolina  to  the 
BlackAvater.  These  movements  were  instituted  to  divert 
forces  from  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia  to  the  apparent 
points  of  attack  previous  to  the  decisive  assault  on  General 
Lee's  position  at  Fredericksburg,  and  which,  they  expected, 
would  work  the  overthrow  of  the  Confederacy.  Shortly  be- 
fore that  attack  should  take  place,  a  subordinate,  though  real, 
attack  was  to  be  made  on  Goldsboro,  ISTorth  Carolina,  by  the 
advance  of  General  Foster  from  ISTew^  Bern,  which,  wdiile 
weakening  General  J^ee  by  the  division  of  his  forces,  would 
also,  if  successful,  interrupt  his  communications,  and  further 
the  general  plan.  Great  activity  was  shoAvn  in  Suffolk, 
where  General  Peck  had  command.  Large  reinforcements 
were  sent  to  that  garrison  in  November.  The  Blackwater 
was  the  r\)nfederate  line ;  and  the  twenty  miles  between  the 
river  and  Suffolk,  covered  with  low  brushwood,  and  of  level 
surface,  intersected  by  innumerable  roads,  constituted  a  neu- 
tral ground  traversed  by  the  foraging  parties  of  both  armies, 
and  became  the  theatre  of  frequent  skirmishes  of  cavalry. 
Colonel  Teventhorpe,  of  the  Eleventh  North  Carolina  Regi- 
ment, in  command  of  two  North  Carolina  infantry  regiments, 
Ferrebee's  Cavalry  (Fifty-ninth  North  Carolina)  and  a  Pe- 
tersburg Battery  (Captain  Graham's),  had  charge  of  this  line 
from  September  to  the  end  of  November.  Towards  the  end 
of  November  an  attack  in  force  was  made  upon  Franklin — 
the  Confederate  headquarters — and  a  flank  attack  at  a  fort  on 
the  Blackwater,  on  the  left  of,  and  seven  miles  from,  Frank- 
lin.    Marshall's  Regiment    (Fifty-second  North   Carolina) 

84  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

was  stationed  to  guard  the  ford.  The  enemy  crossed  the  river 
at  that  point,  and  formed  a  line  to  cover  the  passage  of  their 
artillery.  They  were  repulsed  there  and  at  Franklin.  Col- 
onel Leventhorpe  was  reinforced  by  several  additional  regi- 
ments of  infantry,  and  two  Virginia  batteries ;  and  some 
heavy  guns  were  sent  from  Richmond  and  placed  in  position. 
The  works  about  Franklin  were  enlarged  and  strengthened. 
General  Pryor  assumed  the  command  on  the  Blackwater 
about  1  December.  Soon  after  his  arrival  the  General 
learned  by  his  scouts  that  the  enemy  had  left  Suffolk  in  large 
force,  and  that  Franklin  was  the  supposed  object  of  attack. 
Subsequent  information  was  received  that  the  enemy  was 
marching  into  Gates  County,  iSTorth  Carolina.  The  design 
of  this  movement  was  not  understood ;  but  it  was  imagined, 
either  that  a  large  foraging  party  had  been  sent  into  Gates, 
or  that  the  General  was  making  a  reconnoissance  in  person. 
With  a  view  to  determining  this  question,  and  diverting  the 
enemy  from  his  object,  whatever  it  might  be.  General  Pryoi* 
made  a  night  advance  towards  Suffolk.  At  about  2  a.  m., 
and  whilst  the  troops  were  in  bivouac,  heavy  cannonading 
was  heard  in  the  rear,  and  apparently  at  Franklin,  Avhich 
was  parti  all}'  uncovered.  General  Pryor  withdrew  towards 
his  OM^n  lines.  The  cannonade,  it  was  afterwards  discovered, 
originated  with  a  party  of  cavalry  from  Suffolk,  500  strong, 
which  had  run  a  battery  to  the  bank  of  the  Blackwater  to  shell 
a  Confederate  regiment  encamped  on  the  low-lands  on  the 
opposite  side.  This  party  learned  that  General  Pryor  was 
in  the  field  in  force,  and  retreated  precipitately  on  Suffolk, 
affording,  with  the  withdrawal  of  the  Confederates  towards 
Franklin,  the  somewhat  singular  incident  of  the  retreat  of 
two  parties,  by  contigiious  roads,  each  urged  by  the  ajiprehen- 
sion  that  their  separate  fastnesses  had  been  attacked  during 
their  absence. 

On  the  following  day  it  was  known  that  the  large  Federal 
force,  last  traced  to  Gates  County,  had  embarked  on  the 
Chowan,  and  that  it  was  destined  to  aid  General  Foster  in 
an  expedition  into  N^orth  Carolina.  Immediately  after  this 
reinforcement  reached  him,  General  Foster  marched  frort 
jSTew  Bern.    He  was  encountered  bv  General  N.  G.  Evans  be- 

Battle  of  White  Hall.  85 

I  ween  New  Bern  and  Kinston,  and  delayed  for  several  days 
by  the  obstinate  stand  made  by  that  officer  at  every  point 
where  it  was  possible  with  his  limited  numbers,  to  oppose, 
with  any  advantage,  the  overwhelming  strength  of  the  Fed- 
eral advance.  Intelligence  of  this  movement  was  sent  to  Gen- 
eral Pryor,  who  was  .ordered  to  dispatch  Leventhorpe's  Regi- 
ment immediately  to  Goldsboro.  As  General  Evans  was  in 
need  of  reinforcements  General  Robertson,  commanding  at 
Garysburg,  was  ordered  to  dismount  Evans'  (Sixty-third 
N^orth Carolina)  and  Ferebee's  (Fifty-ninth  North  Carolina) 
Regiments  of  cavalry,  and  proceed  to  his  assistance.  At  Golds- 
boro, Colonel  Leventhorpe  received  instructions  to  report  to 
General  Evans,  who,  rumor  stated,  was  contendino'  success- 
fully with  General  Foster.  The  train  conveying  the  Elev- 
enth ]S[orth  Carolina,  was  met  on  its  way  by  an  up  train 
which  the  President  of  the  road  was  conveying  out  of  dan- 
ger, and,  then,  for  the  first  time,  the  true  condition  of  affairs 
was  known,  and  that  General  Evans,  who  had  bravely  dis- 
puted every  inch  of  ground,  had  been  attacked  by  irresisti- 
ble numbers,  defeated,  and  driven  from  Kinston,  which  was 
then  occupied  by  the  enemy.  General  Evans  had  been  well 
aware,  from  the  first,  that  he  coidd  only  delay  the  Federal 
columns.  But  he  appreciated  justly  that  every  considera- 
tion should  be  subordinate  to  this  object.  This  resistance 
gained  time  for  General  Gustavus  W.  Smith,  and  enabled  the 
latter  to  procure  those  reinforcements,  which  placed  it  in  his 
power  to  meet  Foster  successfully,  and  defeat  the  aim  of  his 

When  the  train  had  gone  as  far  as  its  safety  would  war- 
rant, it  was  stopped,  and  the  troops  bivouacked  by  the  road. 
General  Robertson  and  Colonel  Leventhorpe  proceeded  to- 
gether on  the  engine  to  seek  General  Evans,  who  was  quar- 
tered at  a  house  on  the  bank  of  a  small  creek  a  few  miles  dis- 
tant from  Kinston,  his  late  headquarters.  General  Evans 
explained  his  disaster  to  the  two  officers  who  visited  him. 
His  little  band  of  about  two  thousand  men  had  been  crushed 
by  the  enemy,  nimibering  twenty-two  thousand  men,  and 
having  eighty  pieces  of  artillery.  When  General  Evans'  force 
was  broken  it  was  partly  dispersed,  and  the  position  of  his 

86  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

artillery  was  uncertain.  General  Evans  had  kept  up  the  un- 
equal contest  so  long  that  his  troops  had  barely  time  to  reach 
Kinston  by  the  bridge  ere  they  were  overtaken  and  scattered 
by  Foster's  forces.  Evans'  South  Carolina  Brigade  could 
alone  be  mustered,  and  was  picketing  the  banks  of  the  small 
stream  which  he  had  chosen  for  a  stand  should  Foster  ad- 
vance from  Kinston.  General  Evans  was  made  aware  that 
General  Smith  intended  to  reinforce  him  largely  on  the  mor- 
row, and  he  expressed  his  resolution  to  send  Leventhorpe's 
Kegiment  forward  in  the  morning  to  feel  the  enemy.  But 
this  determination  was  changed  on  the  following  day  as  it 
Avas  thought  probable  that  Foster  might  recross  the  river, 
march  up  the  N  euse  on  its  southern  bank  to  White  Hall  and, 
passing  th"  river  on  the  bridge,  interpose  his  force  between 
General  Evans  and  Goldsboro.  General  Kobertson  was, 
therefore,  ordered  to  march  with  Evans'  (Sixty-third  North 
Carolina)  and  Ferebee's  (Fifty-ninth  North  Carolina)  Reg- 
iments of  dismounted  cavalry,  and  Leventhorpe's  (Eleventh 
North  Carolina)  and  Jordan's  (Thirty-first  North  Carolina) 
Begiments,  prevent  the  enemy  from  crossing  at  White 
Hall  and,  in  furtherance  of  that  object,  destroy  the  bridge 
there,  if  necessary.  White  Hall  was,  at  that  time,  a  small 
hamlet  on  Neuse  river  which  was  spanned  by  a  substantial 
county  bridge.  The  river,  though  much  narrower  at  White 
Hall,  is  dec^p  and  navigable.  On  the  northern  side  the  river 
has  a  gentle  slope  to  the  stream,  which,  in  1862,  was  bor- 
dered by  a  swam]i  in  which  there  was  a  somewhat  dense 
growth  of  tall  timber.  A  quantity  of  this  timber  had  Jjeen 
felled  and  cut  into  logs,  which  lay  around  the  bank  of  the 
river,  and  through  the  swamp,  affording  admirable  protec- 
tion for  riflemen,  of  which  good  use  was  made  on  the  follow- 
ing day.  A  gun-boat  was  in  course  of  building,  and  stood, 
prop])ed  on  rollers,  in  the  upper  end  of  the  swamp,  and  near 
the  rivei-  not  far  from  the  l)ridge.  A  bridge  road  ran  through 
and  about  equally  divided  the  swamp.  There  was  perhaps  a 
depth  of  rather  less  than  a  hundred  yards  of  tind^ered  swamp 
land  on  the  left  side  of  the  bridge  road,  and  between  it  and 
the  river.  The  little  hamlet  of  White  Hall,  built  on  the 
southern  bank  of  the  Neuse,  consisted  of  two  or  three  stores 

The  Battle  of  White  Hall.  87 

and  warehouses,  and  a  straggling  street  with  some  neat  dwell- 
ings and  enclosures.  The  warehouses  Avere  on  the  bluff 
which  is  lofty  on  the  southern  side ;  and  some  eminences  fur- 
ther from  the  river,  and  commanding  the  much  lower  level 
of  the  northern  shore,  gave  great  advantage  to  the  former  as 
a  military  position.  The  Confederate  troops  reached  the 
neighborhood  of  the  bridge  about  sunset  and  stacked  arms 
whilst  the  mounted  officers  rode  over  the  bridge  to  the  village. 
Some  scouts  were  sent  out  immediately  on  the  Kinston  road. 
They  returned  at  sunset  reporting  the  enemy  advancing,  and 
his  scouts  quite  near.  The  bluffs  were  crowded  with  piles  of 
crude  rosin,  and  barrels  of  spirits  of  tiirpentine.  By  Gen- 
eral lioliertson's  orders  these  comlmstibles  were  arranged  on 
the  l)ridge  and  a  party  detailed  tn  fire  them  when  the  order 
should  be  given.  As  subsequent  reports  convinced  General 
Kobertson  that  the  whole  force  of  the  enemy  was  advancing 
on  him,  he  considered  that  it  would  be  impossible,  with  his 
small  force  to  jtrevent  his  crossing  should  the  bridge  remain 
undestroyed.  Tt  was  therefore  fired  after  nightfall,  as  the  en- 
emy came  up  and  the  burning  fabric,  thoroughly  saturated 
with  turpentine,  fell  into  the  Xeuse  and  floated  down  its 
waters  a  blazing  wreck.  This  Avork  was  scarcely  accom- 
plished when  the  enemy  entered  and  occupied  the  village.  A 
strong  picket  from  the  Eleventh  ]^orth  Carolina  was  posted 
in  the  swamp  fronting  White  Hall.  The  Confederate  troops 
bivouacked  within  short  distance.  The  enemy  was  active 
during  the  night,  and  could  be  heard  throwing  up  works,  and 
preparing  for  coming  operations.  Some  sharj)  picket  firing 
occurred  during  intervals,  and  an  occasional  shell  disturbed 
the  sleeping  Confederates.  About  midnight  the  Federals 
Inirned  the  warehouses  and  some  other  buildings  at  White 
Hall.  Witli  what  object  this  was  done  was  uncertain,  but, 
whether  in  order  to  avail  themselves  of  the  temporary  light 
(if  this  conflagration  in  directing  their  missiles  of  death,  or 
whether  from  a  wanton  spirit  of  cauI,  the  act  proved  highly 
disastr(ms  to  its  perpetrators  in  the  ensuing  engagements,  as 
it  destroyed  what  would  have  been  a  safe  shelter  for  skirmish- 
ers, and  exposed  the  infantry,  without  cover,  and  on  a  high 
elevation,  to  the  balls  of  the  Confederate  soldiers.      In  the 

88  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

morning-  (Jolonel  Leveuthorpe  relieved  his  two  companies 
wliieli  had  been  engaged  (Captains  Bird  and  Small),  with 
two  other  companies  of  the  Eleventh  North  Carolina,  which 
v\ere  placed  nnder  command  of  Captain  M.  D.  Armfield,  a 
noble  old  man,  and  a  soldier  of  the  purest  type,  who  after- 
wards, as  a  Gettystmrg  prisoner,  and  in  confinement  at  John- 
son's Island,  gave  his  life  for  the  cause  which  he  had  espoused. 
The  enemy's  ])reparations  being  complete  his  guns  began 
to  open  quite  briskly  upon  the  pickets  in  the  swamp.  Gen- 
eral Robertson  formed  his  troops  in  line,  and  within  easy 
sup])ort  of  the  pickets  should  there  be  any  intention  exhib- 
ited, on  the  part  of  the  enemy,  to  cross  the  river  on  pontoons. 
Some  casualties  occurred  amongst  the  dismounted  cavalry, 
and  two  men  of  Captain  Bryce's  company.  Colonel  Ferebee's 
Regiment,  were  killed  by  a  shell.  General  Robertson  ordered 
Jordan's  Regiment  into  the  swamp  to  relieve  Leventhorpe's 
picket  companies.  This  intention,  however,  was  changed. 
Colonel  Jordan  was  counter-ordered,  and  Colonel  Leven- 
thorpe  instructed  to  join  his  two  picket  companies,  with 
his  eight  remaining  companies,  and  to  use  his  judgment 
as  to  the  best  mode  of  engaging  the  enemy,  but,  in  any  event, 
to  resist  the  crossing  of  the  Neuse  river  to  the  last  ex- 
tremity. The  Eleventh  Regiment  moved  forward  at  the 
doul)lc-quick,  tiled  to  the  right  through  the  timber  on  the 
river  bank.  It  was  halted,  and  fronted  towards  White 
Hall  in  rather  extended  order,  to  meet  the  large  front  shown 
by  the  enemy,  as  well  as  to  lessen,  by  the  extension  of  the  files, 
the  danger  of  loss  by  his  artillery.  In  the  meantime,  al- 
though there  Wi\s  no  vantage  ground  for  artillery  in  the  Con- 
federate position.  General  Robertson  placed  two  small  guns, 
his  sole  ordnance,  and  directed  the  Lieutenant  (Nelson  Mc- 
Clees)  who  commanded,  to  engage  the  enemy's  batteries. 
Some  seven  hundred  men,  therefore,  of  the  Eleventh 
Regiment  and  two  small  howitzers  of  this  North  Car- 
olina liattcry  ( Company  B,  Third  North  Carolina  Bat 
talion),  formed  the  only  fighting  force  opposed  to  thirty 
pieces  in  position,  and  Foster's  whole  command.  The 
other  Confederate  troops,  which  were  present,  are  nev- 
ertheless    entitled     to     their     full     share     of     the     credit 

Battle  of  White  Hall.  89 

of  this  engagement,  as  tliey  were  placed  under  circum- 
stances of  peril  highly  tr^dng  to  their  steadfastness,  without 
that  stimulus  of  action  which  renders  most  men  insensible  to 
danger.  A  lull  in  the  firing  enabled  the  officers  and  men  of 
the  illeventh  to  hear  the  order  of  their  commanding  officer, 
which  was  to  keep  their  order,  but  avail  themselves  of  such 
shelter  as  the  ground  afforded,  and  to  commence  independent 
firing.  Tlie  answer  came  in  that  wild  cheer,  which  many 
have  lieard  and  know  as  the  Southern  soldier's  expression  of 
ardor  and  determination.  The  enemy's  guns  were  arranged 
on  the  heights  at  and  around  White  Hall  in  a  kind  of  semi- 
line  so  as,  without  actually  enfilading  the  swamp,  to  expose 
those  who  held  it  to  a  direct  and  oblique  fire.  The  infantry 
which  engaged  the  Eleventh  Itegiment  was  drawn  up  in  line, 
on  the  high  ground  fronting  the  swamp.  The  thirty  guns 
opened  at  once,  and  fired  as  fast  as  they  could  be  loaded  and 
fired,  for  four  hours  without  intermission.  The  Federal  in- 
fantry fired  \)\  volleys  and  at  the  word  of  command.  They 
were  answered  by  the  file-firing  of  the  Confederate  Kegiment 
and  by  the  section  of  a  battery  which  might  be  heard  occa- 
sionally through  rhc  din  of  battle  in  its  unparalleled  strug- 
gle against  odds.  The  position  of  the  enemy's  infantry,  as 
well  as  that  of  his  batteries,  although  commanding  that  of  the 
Confederates,  had  this  disadvantage  that  it  was  necessary  to 
depress  the  aim.  In  fact  the  Southern  riflemen  "were  too 
near  their  enemy,  and  his  artillery  and  infantry  overshot  the 
mark.  Had  the  thirty  guns  been  more  depressed,  or  had  the 
Soutliern  infantry  been  a  hundred  or  even  fifty  yards  further 
to  the  rear,  it  really  seems  impossible  that  any  troops  could 
liave  endured  such  a  fire.  The  enemy's  infantiy  fought  well 
for  four  hours  under  a  destructive  fire.  Their  line,  how- 
ever, was  frequently  broken,  and  as  frequently  reformed. 
Some  regiments  faltered  and  ^^•ithdrew  in  disorder,  as  their 
files  were  thinned  by  the  Confederate  rifles,  but  others  sup- 
plied their  ])lace.  At  length  the  Federal  commander  con- 
ceded a  repulse,  withdrew  his  guns,  and  then  his  infantry, 
and  was  seen  moving  in  the  distance,  with  a  long  ambulance 
train  containing  the  wounded.  Leventhorpe's  Regiment, 
the  m^'n's  cartridges  all  spent,    was    relieved    by    Jordan's, 

90  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

which  engaged  and  drove  away  the  skirmishers  which  General 
Foster  had  thrown  out  to  cover  his  retreat. 

Such,  on  6  December,  ISG:^,  was  the  engagement  at  White 
Hall  between  the  Confederate  and  Federal  forces. 

An  examination  of  the  iiekl  next  day  resulted  in  the  dis- 
covery of  one  hundred  and  twenty-six  of  the  Federal  dead, 
and  nineteen  horses  left  on  the  field.  It  is  not  probable  that 
this  was  the  sum  of  the  killed,  but  only  comprehended  those 
whom  it  was  inexpedient  to  remove  under  a  galling  fire. 

The  exact  object  of  General  Foster  in  this  engagement  is 
doubtful.  It  seems  nevertheless,  as  a  jjontoon  train  accom- 
panied him  that  it  was  his  design  to  cross  the  Neuse  at  White 
Hall,  and  advance  from  that  point  on  Goldsboro.  It  is 
hardly  to  be  supposed  that,  in  order  to  overcome  an  unlooked 
for  resistance  only,  ho  should  have  sacrificed  a  day's  time, 
and  subjected  himself  to  a  loss  of  probably  a  thousand  men 
in  killed  and  wounded,  with  a  vast  expenditure  of  ammuni- 

The  writer  deeply  regrets  that  General  Robertson's  report 
of  this  engagement,*  which  resulted  so  honorably  to  North 
Carolina  soldiers,  fighting  on  their  native  soil,  as  well  as  the 
general  orders  of  Major-General  G.  W.  Smith  and  Major- 
General  S.  G.  French,  which  were  in  his  possession  until 
lately,  have  been  destroyed  In'  fire.  The  section  of  artillery 
gave  excellent  aid  in  this  fight.  One  of  the  two  small  guns 
was  dismounted  early  in  the  fight,  and  the  giinners  killed ; 
but  despite  this  discouragement  the  remaining  howitzer  was 
fought  to  the  last  against  the  thirty  opposing  guns  of  large 
calibre,  and  made  havoc  amongst  the  enemy,  particularly  his 
horses,  which  were  found  lying  thick  around  those  batteries 
which  received  the  special  attention  of  this  gallant  subaltern. 

The   Confederate   loss   was   slight   in    the   engagement   at 

*The  report  of  General  B  H.  Robertson  will  be  found  in  26  {Serial 
Number)  Off.  Rec.  Union  &  Coitfed.  Armies  121.  General  Smith's  at  p. 
109.  General  Evans'  at  p  112,  and  the  Federal  General  Foster's  at  p.  54, 
all  in  same  volume  They  cover  the  entire  operations  from  Kinston  to 
Goldsboro  and  contain  interesting  information  upon  an  important  cam- 
paign on  our  soil.  The  casualties  on  each  side  are  given.  Q.  S.  92  killed, 
487  wounded,  12  missing.  C.  S.  71  killed,  2(38  wounded,  400  missing, 
though  the  Federal  reports  state  they  paroled  496.— Ed. 

Battle  of  White  Hall.  91 

White  Hall  (10  killed  and  42  wounded),  including  few  men 
killed  and  wounded  in  the  force  present,  but  not  actually 
engaged.  Of  those  engaged  the  writer  believes  that  two  men 
were  killed  in  the  command  of  the  Lieutenant  of  artillery 
when  his  gun  was  dismounted,  and  that  the  casualties  in  the 
Eleventh  A'orth  Carolina  were  seven  men  killed  and  forty 
wounded.  The  total  number  of  Confederate  soldiers  pres- 
ent was  fifteen  hundred, 

Stephen  D.  Pool. 
Ealeigh,  N.  C, 

16  December,  1874. 

rinnw  nflRCH  at  chancel- 


2   AND    3    MAT,    1863. 

By  brigadier-general  JAMES  H.  LANE. 

On  the  morning  of  1  May,  1863,  my  Brigade  moved  from 
its  position,  near  Hamilton's  Crossing,  in  the  direction  of 
Chancellorsville.  That  night  we  formed  line  of  battle  with 
skirmishers  thrown  forward  on  the  right  of  the  road,  about  a 
mile  and  a  half  from  Chancellorsville.  Next  morning  be- 
tween 8  and  9,  I  think,  after  the  artillery  duel  on  the  road 
to  our  right,  where  one  of  our  caissons  was  blown  up  and  the 
Eighteenth  North  Carolina  suifered  a  slight  loss,  we  were 
ordered  to  the  left  on  that  memorable  flank  movement. 

General  Jackson's  front  line  was  composed  of  Rodes'  Di- 
vision, his  second  of  Colston's  and  his  third  of  A.  P.  Hill's, 
with  the  exception  of  McGowan's  Brigade  and  mine.  Our 
two  brigades  moved  by  the  flank  along  the  plank  road  immedi- 
ately in  rear  of  our  artillery — mine  being  in  front. 

We  crossed  the  plank  road  where  Generals  Lee  and  Jack- 
son were  sitting  on  their  horses,  and  took  the  road  to  Wel- 
ford's  Furnace,  on  a  part  of  which  we  were  in  full  view  of 
the  enemy  who  shelled  us  vigorously.  From  Welford's  Fur- 
nace we  took  a  circuitous  route  across  fields  and  along  roads 
until  we  struck  the  road  on  the  enemy's  right  flank,  where 
Rodes  and  Colston  were  forming  their  lines  of  battle.  This 
was  between  5  and  6  in  the  afternoon  of  the  same  day.  Mc- 
Gowan's Brigade  and  mine  moved  down  the  road,  mine  being 
in  front  and  close  behind  the  artillery.  After  the  enemy 
had  been  swept  back  to  Chancellorsville,  and  we  had  reached 
their  last  breastworks,  the  artillery  halted,  as  did  my  com- 
mand.     This  was  a  little  before  dark. 

We  remained  standing  in  the  road  for  some  time.  Gen- 
eral A.  P.  Hill  then  ordered  me  to  form  across  the  road — 
two  regiments  to  the  right,  two  to  the  left,  and  one  thrown 
forward  as  a  strong  line  of  skirmishers — for  the  purpose  of 

94  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

making  a  niglit  attack ;  but  soon  after  the  order  was  given  our 
artillery  opened  and  the  enemy's  replied.  I  at  once  or- 
dered my  men  to  lie  down,  as  I  was  unwilling  to  attempt  to 
manoeuver  them  in  the  dark,  and  in  such  a  woods,  under  such 
a  deadl}'  fire.  Colonel  William  H.  Palmer  gallantly  crossed 
the  road  to  know  why  I  did  not  move  my  command.  I  re- 
quested him  to  tell  General  Hill  that  if  he  wished  me  to  do 
so  successfully  he  must  order  his  artillery  to  cease  firing. 
The  order  was  given  and  the  firing  ended  on  both  sides. 
I  now  formed  my  brigade  as  I  had  been  ordered,  putting 
the  Seventh  and  Thirty-seventh  on  the  right  of  the  road, 
and  the  Eighteenth  and  Twenty-eighth  on  the  left,  the 
right  of  the  Eighteenth  resting  on  the  road,  while  the  Thir- 
ty-third under  Colonel  Avery,  was  thrown  forward  as  skir- 
mishers. On  account  of  the  artillery  fire  the  line  was  not 
formed  till  about  9  o'clock.  The  woods  in  front  of  our  right 
consisted  of  large  oaks  with  but  little  undergrowth ;  in  rear  of 
our  right  there  was  a  pine  thicket,  and  to  the  left  of  the  road 
there  was  a  dense  growth  of  scrubby  oaks,  through  which  it 
was  very  difficult  for  troops  to  move.  Our  skirmish  line  oc- 
cupied the  crest  of  the  hill,  separated,  on  the  right  of  the  road, 
from  the  Chancellorsville  hill  by  a  deep  valley.  I  cautioned 
all  of  my  field  officers  to  watch  closely  the  front,  as  we  were 
then  occupying  the  front  line  and  were  expected  to  make  a 
night  attack.  After  forming  my  line  I  rode  from  my  right 
to  the  road  to  ask  General  A.  P.  Hill  if  we  must  advance  or 
wait  for  further  orders,  and  on  reaching  the  plank  road  I  met 
General  Jackson  alone,  I  think,  and  he  at  once  wished  to 
know  for  whom  I  was  looking.  It  was  too  dark  to  recogiiize 
any  one,  and  when  I  was  calling  and  asking  for  General  A. 
P.  Hill,  General  Jackson  recognized  me,  as  I  have  always 
thought,  from  my  voice,  I  having  been  a  cadet  under  him  at 
the  Virginia  Military  Institute.  I  told  him,  and  to  save 
further  delay,  I  asked  for  orders.  In  an  earnest  tone  and 
with  a  pushing  gesture  of  his  right  hand  in  the  direc- 
tion of  the  enemy,  he  replied,  ''Push  right  ahead.  Lane,"  and 
then  rode  forward.  On  reaching  the  right  of  my  command 
to  put  it  in  motion  I  found  that  a  Lieutenant-Colonel  Smith, 
of  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-eighth  Pennsylvania  Regi- 

Flank  March  at  Chancellorsvilt.e.  95 

ment,  had  conie  up  between  our  line  of  battle  and  the  skir- 
mish line,  with  a  white  handkerchief  tied  to  a  stick,  to  learn, 
as  he  stated,  whether  we  were  friends  or  foes.  This  officer 
seemed  surprised  at  my  not  allowing  him  to  return  after  he 
had  gratified  his  curiosity.  T  was  still  further  delayed  by 
officers  of  the  Seventh  liegiment  reporting  that  during  my  ab- 
sence troops  of  seme  kind  had  l:ieen  talking  on  our  right. 
Lieutenant  Emack,  with  four  men,  was  at  once  sent  out  to  re- 
connoitre, and  he  soon  returned  with  the  One  Hundred  and 
Twenty-eighth  Pennsylvania  IJegiment,  which  had  thrown 
down  their  arms  and  surrendered  (jn  being  told  that  they  were 
cut  off.  Just  as  Captain  Young  (our  gallant  boy-captain, 
about  IS  or  19  years  old)  was  ordered  with  his  company  to 
take  this  regiment  to  the  rear,  the  right  of  the  skirmish  line 
fired,  as  I  afterwards  learned  from  Colonel  Avery,  at  a  person 
who  rode  up  from  the  direction  of  the  enemy  and  called  for 
"General  Williams."  This  unknown  person  escaped,  but  the 
firing  at  him  caused  the  whole  skirmish  line  to  open,  and  the 
enemy  responded.  Much  heavier  infantry  firing  was  heard 
immediately  afterwards  in  the  direction  of  the  plank  road,  fol- 
lowed by  a  reopening  of  the  enemy's  artillery.  General  Pen- 
der now  rode  up  and  advised  me  not  to  advance,  as  General 
Jackson  had  been  wounded,  and,  he  thought  by  my  com- 
mand. I  did  not  advance,  but  went  to  the  plank  road,  where 
I  learned  that  General  Hill  had  also  been  wounded.  I  there, 
moreover,  learned  from  Colonel  John  D.  Barry,  then  Major 
of  the  Eighteenth  jSTorth  Carolina  Regiment,  that  he  knew 
nothing  of  Generals  Jackson  and  Hill  having  gone  to  the 
front;  that  he  could  not  tell  friend  from  foe  in  such  woods; 
that  when  the  skirmish  line  fired  there  was  heard  the  clatter- 
ing of  approaching  horsemen  and  the  cry  of  cavalry,  and 
that  he  not  only  ordered  his  men  to  fire,  but  that  he  pro- 
nounced the  subsequent  cry  of  friends  to  be  a  lie,  and  that  his 
men  continued  to  fire  upon  the  approaching  party.  It  was 
generally  understood  that  night,  by  my  command  and  others, 
that  the  Eighteenth  Regiment  not  only  wounded  Generals 
Jackson  and  Hill,  but  killed  some  of  their  couriers  and  per- 
haps some  of  their  staff  officers,  as  some  of  them  were  miss- 
ing.     Colonel  Barry,  who  was  one  of  my  bravest  and  most  ac- 

96  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

complislied   oiiicers,   always  thought   that   Generals   Jackson 
and  Hill  were  both  wounded  by  his  command. 

After  the  wounding  of  these  two  Generals,  General  Heth 
assumed  command  of  Hill's  Division,  countermanded  the 
order  for  an  advance,  and  directed  me  to  form  the  whole  of 
my  brigade  on  the  right  of  the  plank  road.  We  were  the 
only  troops  in  line  on  the  right  of  the  road  until  after  we  had 
repulsed  Sickles'  formidable  midnight  attack,  in  which  we 
captured  a  few  prisoners  and  the  colors  of  the  Third  Maine 
Regiment.  McGowan's  Brigade  then  prolonged  our  right, 
and  we  rested  on  our  arms  until  the  next  morning.  I  did 
not  see  General  Stuart  that  night,  but  understood  he  did  not 
arrive  to  take  command  of  Jackson's  Corps  until  after  my 
brigade  had  repulsed  Sickles'  midnight  attack. 

On  the  morning  of  the  3d  we  were  ordered  to  make  a  direct 
attack  upon  the  enemy's  works,  which  were  composed  of  logs 
hastily  thrown  together  the  night  previous,  in  our  front  and 
on  the  slope  of  the  hill  facing  the  Chancellorsville  hill.  We 
carried  the  works,  but  could  not  hold  them  on  account  of  the 
concentrated,  murderous  artillery  fire  from  the  Chancellors- 
ville hill,  under  which  the  enemy  threw  forward  fresh  in- 
fantry. The  brigade  that  was  to  have  supported  us  did  not 
come  to  our  assistance,  and  before  General  Ramseur  (then  a 
Brigadier),  could  get  up  with  his  ISTorth  Carolinians,  we  w^ere 
driven  back  with  a  loss  of  over  nine  hundred  out  of  about 
twenty-seven  hundred  carried  into  action.  Of  the  thirteen 
field  officers  of  my  command  that  participated  in  this  charge, 
only  one — Barry- — was  left  for  duty.  General  Ramseur 
would  go  forward,  though  I  advised  him  against  it.  His 
command  reached  the  same  works,  but  had  to  retire  with  a 
similar  terrible  loss. 

The  enemy  was  finally  driven  from  the  Chancellorsville 
House  by  the  Confederates  carrying  the  salient  to  our  right, 
where  General  Stuart,  in  command  of  Jackson's  Corps,  elic- 
ited loud  shouts  of  admiration  from  the  infantry  as  he  in  per- 
son gallantly  rushed  them  over  the  Avorks  upon  Hooker's  re- 
treating columns. 

James  H.  Lane. 
Auburn,  Ala., 

2  May,  1901. 


2    MAT,    1563. 
By  spier  WHfTAKEIJ,  Adjutant  Thirty-third  Regiment  N.  C.  T. 

Early  on  the  inorninc;  oi2May,  1863, Gen.  Jackson  marched 
by  the  Furnace  and  Brock  roads  and  reached  the  okl  turnpike 
aliont  three  miles  in  the  rear  of  Chaneellorsville,  at  4  ]x  m. 
As  the  different  divisions  arrived  they  were  formed  at  right 
angles  to  the  road,  liodes'  in  front,  Trimble's  under  Colston 
in  the  second,  and  A.  P.  Hill,  marching  down  the  turnpike 
in  column  of  fours  in  the  third  line,  with  the  Thirty-third 
North  Carolina,  of  Lane's  Brigade,  at  the  head  of  the  column. 
At  (J  ]).  m.  tlie  advance  ^\'as  ordered.  The  enemy  were  taken 
by  surprise  and  fled  after  a  brief  resistance.  Kodes'  men 
])ushed  forward  witli  great  vigor  and  entliusiasm,  followed 
closely  by  the  second  and  third  lines.  Position  after  posi- 
tion was  carried,  the  guns  caj->t.ured,  and  every  effort  of  the 
enemy  to  rally  defeated  by  the  impetuous  rush  of  our  troops. 
In  the  ardor  of  pursuit  through  the  thick  and  tangled  woods^ 
the  first  and  second  lines  at  last  became  ndngled,  and  moved 
on  together  as  one.  The  flight  and  ])ursuit  continued  until 
our  advance  was  arrested  by  the  abatis  in  front  of  the  line  of 
works  near  the  central  position  at  Chaneellorsville.  Tt  was 
now  dark,  and  General  Jackson  ordered  the  third  line,  un- 
der General  A.  P.  Hill,  to  advance  to  the  front  and  relieve  the 
troops  of  Tiodes  and  Colston,  who  were  completely  Wended 
and  in  such  disorder  from  their  rapid  advance  through  intri- 
cate woods  and  over  broken  ground,  that  it  was  necessary  to 
reform  them.  Lane's  Brigade  was  formed  across  the  road, 
the  Eighteenth  and  Twenty-eighth  on  the  left,  the  Seventh 
and  Thirty-seventh  on  the  right,  and  the  Thirty-third  in  skir- 
mish line  in  front  of  the  entire  Brigade.  Colonel  Avery  being 
at  the  center  of  his  line,  at  the  road.  It  was  so  dark  and  the 
woods  so  thick  that  the  men  could  not  be  properly  located  or 

98  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

deployed  by  a  mere  word  of  command,  and  I  was  sent  by  the 
Colonel  to  the  left  to  see  that  this  w^as  done.  When  I  had  at- 
tended to  this,  I  returned  to  Colonel  Avery  and  informed  him 
that  the  line  was  ready  to  move  forward,  when  he  told  me 
that  Generals  Jackson  and  Hill  with  their  staffs,  had  just 
gone  forward  in  front  of  our  line  reconnoitering  and  that 
we  must  wait  until  their  return.  Soon  we  heard  firing  in 
front ;  the  Generals  and  their  staffs  came  galloping  back  and 
across  our  line  bearing  to  the  right  of  the  road  to  escape  the 
artillery  fire.  We,  of  course,  permitted  them  to  pass  us, 
but  the  Eighteenth  Tiegiment  in  our  rear  shouted,  "Yankee 
cavalry  I"  and  under  orders  from  their  officers,  fired  on  them. 
As  the  bullets  were  coming  from  the  front  and  the  rear  at  the 
same  time,  our  line  protected  themselves  by  lying  down.  We 
soon  learned  that  Jackson  had  been  terribly  wounded  by  our 
own  men  and  taken  to  the  rear.  There  was  no  further  ad- 
vance that  night  and  the  battle  for  that  day  had  about  ended. 
Thus  was  the  greatest  of  our  Generals  killed  by  his  own  men 
while  in  the  midst  of  a  glorious  victory  and  on  the  point  of 
capturing  an  army  three  times  as  large  as  the  one  which  was 
commanded  in  part  by  himself. 

Spiee  Whitaker. 
Raleigh,  N.  C, 

2  May,  1901. 


By  ALFRED  H.  H.  TOLAR,  Captain  Company  K,  Eighteenth 
Regiment  North  Carolina  Troops. 

As  an  eye  witness  to  the  affair  I  desire  to  make  some  state- 
ment of  facts  as  they  have  impressed  themselves  on  my  mind 
and  to  call  as  witnesses  for  concurrence  the  gallant  Major  T. 
J.  Wooten,  of  the  Eighteenth  iSTorth  Carolina  Troops,  the 
chivalrous  Captains  V.  V.  Richardson  and  Thomas  L.  Lewis, 
of  the  Eighteenth  ISTorth  Carolina  Troops,  and  other  officers 

The  Wounding  of  Jackson.  99 

of  that  regiment  avIio  Avere  in  line  at  the  time  this  sad  affair 
was  enacted. 

Under  the  circumstances  it  would  have  been  utterly  impos- 
sible for  any  one  to  know  who  fired  the  fatal  bullet  or  bullets. 
That  the  ^rounds  were  from  the  firing  line  of  the  Eighteenth 
JSTorth  Carolina  troops,  officers  and  men  of  that  regiment  will 
testify  with  regret.  If  my  memory  serves  me  true,  the  Eigh- 
teenth regiment  was  the  only  regiment  on  the  left  of  the  Turn- 
pike, the  remainder  of  the  brigade  (Lane's)  being  on  the  right 
of  the  road  as  we  faced  the  enemy  at  Chancellorsville.  About 
dark,  General  Jackson  and  staff,  accompanied  by  General  A. 
P,  Hill  and  staff,  rode  down  the  Turnpike  in  advance  of  our 
line  of  battle,  and,  coining  closer  to  the  enemy's  line  than  they 
expected,  were  fired  on  from  a  regiment  of  infantry ;  and  then 
some  batteries  of  artillery  turned  loose  with  a  heavy  firing, 
sending  shot  and  shell  down  the  pike.  The  General  and  staff 
left  the  road,  and  the  two  Generals  (Jackson  and  Hill),  with 
staffs  and  couriers,  came  down  on  the  Eighteenth  at  a  rapid 
gait.  The  night  was  calm  and  the  tramp  of  thirty  horsemen 
advancing  through  a  heavy  forest  at  a  rapid  gait,  seemed  to 
the  average  infantryman  like  a  brigade  of  cavalry.  Noting 
the  approach  of  horsemen  from  the  front,  and  having  been 
advised  that  the  enemy  was  in  front,  with  no  line  of  pickets 
intervening  to  give  the  alarm,  the  brave  Colonel  Purdie  gave 
the  order  "Fix  bayonets ;  load ;  prepare  for  action  !"  as  fast  as 
the  command  could  be  given.  When  the  supposed  enemy  was 
within  100  yards,  perhaps,  of  our  line,  the  Colonel  gave  the 
command,  "Commence  firing,"  and  from  that  moment  until 
notified  by  Major  Holland  (or  Harris)  of  General  Jackson's 
staff,  that  we  were  firing  on  our  own  men,  the  firing  was  kept 
up  by  the  entire  regiment  with  great  rapidity.  The  horse  of 
Major  Harris  (or  Holland)  was  knocked  down  with  a  blow 
from  the  butt  of  a  gun  in  the  hands  of  Arthur  S.  Smith,  Com- 
pany K,  Eighteenth  North  Carolina  Troops,  and  at  that 
moment  we  were  notified  by  the  Major  of  the  sad  mistake  that 
had  been  luade. 

It  was  during  this  continuous  firing  that  General  Jackson 
received  his  wounds,  and  if  any  other  troops  except  the  Eigh- 
teenth fired  a  shot  I  did  not  hear  of  it.      The  soldier  on  the 

100  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

firing  line  knows  how  impossible  it  would  be  for  any  one  to 
know  who  fired  the  fatal  shot,  and  the  man  who  would  at- 
tempt to  set  11])  such  a  claim  would  certainly  presume  on  the 
intelligence  of  the  average  Confederate  soldier. 

Alf.  H.  H.  Tolae. 
Damon,  Tex., 

2  May,   1901. 

Note. — Thus  fell  in  the  glory  of  his  prime  the  greatest  soldier  the  war' 
produced,  wlien  the  war  was  only  half  through.  What  heights  he  might 
have  reached  if  he  had  lived,  we  know  not  for  he  was  constantly  growing. 

It  is  a  singular  reflection  that  notwithstanding  the  countless  tons  of 
bullets,  cannon  balls  and  shell  fired  during  those  four  eventful  years 
two  niinie  balls  in  all  human  probability,  decided  the  result  as  it  was. 
The  bullet  that  slew  Albert  Sidney  Johnston  when  in  another  hour  he 
would  have  captured  the  Western  Army  witli  Grant  and  Sherman  at  its 
head  and  that  other  bullet  which  prostrated  "  Stonewall"  .Jackson  when 
on  the  eve  of  capturing  Hooker's  array  destroyed  our  hopes  of  success. 
There  were  other  occasions  when  mismanageinent  intervened,  among 
them  the  failure  to  push  our  success. on  the  second  day  at  Gettysburg, 
and  Whiting's  failure  to  capture  Butler  when  "bottled  up"  at  Bermuda 
Hundreds,  but  the  deaths  of  Jackson  and  .Johnston  were  fatalities. 

The  splendid  courage  of  our  soldiery  and  the  patriotism  of  our  people 
would  have  conquered  success,  but,  as  Napier  said  of  Napoleon,  "Fortune, 
that  name  for  the  unknown  comhinations  of  an  infinite  power,  was  wanting 
to  us  and  without  her  aid,  the  designs  of  man  are  as  bubbles  upon  a 
troubled  ocean."— Ed. 

i^^^llC  LIBRARY., 



C on-fed &ra/te  Lines 




T'tdeyTcil  Lines 

Y  3,  1863. 

■  NEW   YORK 


ASTOR,   LENOX    A«0 


3   JULY.    1863. 

By  major  W.  M.  ROBBINS. 

It  is  not  singular  that  students  of  history '  shoiild  feel  a 
deep  interest  in  the  stoiT  of  Gettysburg  and  especially  of  the 
final  assault  made  by  the  Confederates  on  the  third  day  of  the 
battle,  the  result  of'whieh  foreshadowed  the  issue  of  the  war 
between  the  States  and  the  fate  of  the  Southern  Confederacy. 
So  much  has  already  been  written  concerning  it  that  only  ur- 
gent solicitations,  from  a  source  which  I  cannot  disregard, 
have  moved  me  to  make  this  brief  contribution  to  the  story. 

The  number  of  Confederates  engaged  in  the  assault  was 
about  1 4,000,  composing  nine  brigades,  Kemper's,  Garaett's, 
and  Armistead's  of  Pickett's  Division ;  Archer's,  Pettigi'ew's 
(under  command  of  Colonel  J.  K.  Marshall),  Davis'  and 
Brockenborough's  of  Heth's  Division,  commanded  by  General 
Pettigrew ;  and  Scales'  and  Lane's  of  Pender's  Division,  com- 
manded by  General  Trimble.  They  formed  two  lines  of  bat- 
tle, the  front  line  composed  of  Kemper's,  Garnett's,  Archer's, 

^^E  —This  valuable  article  was  written  by  my  request  for  this  work 
bv  Hon  W  M  R:.bbins  who  since  1894  has  been  one  of  the  "Gettysburg 
National  Park  Conunissioners"  and  therefore  possessed  of  tl^^ J"  ^st 'nf^r- 
Son  from  the  thousands  of  participants,  coming  from  both  armies 
^ih.vei^^sitTd  the  grounds.  He  himself  was  in  the  battle,  though  not 
i"^  t'J«  chaif '  nrwS  o^^^^  day  Major  Fourth  Alabama  Regiment  on 

onr  ri^ht       \fter  the  war.  Maj.  Robbins  returned  to  North  Carolina^  Ins 
^^HvHtate   and  served  with  high  distinction  in  the  State  Senate  and  the 

within   qvard«  of  that  wall.     This  settles  that  the  men    from  this  State 
nies  this  sketch  and  corroborates  Maj.  Robbins.-i.D. 

102  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

Pettigrew's  (under  Marshall),  Davis'  and  Brockenbrough's 
Brigades  in  the  order  named  from  right  to  left;  and  the  sec- 
ond or  supporting  line  composed  of  Armistead's,  Scales'  and 
Lane's  Brigades.  In  the  front  line  were  thirteen  Virginia 
Eegiments  and  one  battalion  in  Kemper's,  Garnett's  and 
Brockenborough's  Brigades ;  five  ISTorth  Carolina  Regiments, 
four  of  them  in  Pettigrew's  Brigade  (under  Marshall),  and 
one  of  them  in  Davis'  Brigade ;  three  Mississippi  Regiments 
in  Davis'  Brigade;  three  Tennessee  and  one  Alabama  Regi- 
ment and  Battalion  in  Archer's  Brigade,  making  twenty-five 
regiments  and  two  battalions  in  this  line.  In  the  second  line 
were  five  Virginia  Regiments  in  Armistead's  Brigade  and  ten 
North  Carolina  regiments  in  Scales'  and  Lane's  Brigades, 
making  fifteen  regiments  in  this  line. 

The  ridge  on  wliich  the  Confederates  formed  their  lines  for 
the  assault  is  called  Seminary  Ridge  and  is  1,400  yards  west- 
ward from  Cemetery  Ridge,  which  was  occupied  by  the  Union 
army.  These  ridges  are  parallel  with  each  other,  the  last 
named  being  somewhat  the  higher  of  the  two,  and  between 
them  are  cultivated  fields  with  many  fences  running  hithei' 
and  thither  about  them.  Tbe  Emmitsburg  Road  also  passes 
obliquely  in  front  of  the  Union  line,  enclosed  on  both  sides  by 
post  and  rail  fences  which  are  almost  immovable  and  consti- 
tute a  formidable  obstacle  to  the  orderly  advance  of  a  charg' 
ing  line  of  battle. 

Codori's  house  and  barn  just  east  of  that  road  also  dis- 
turbed the  compactness  and  continuity  of  Kemper's  line  as  he 

The  Union  position  on  Cemetery  Ridge  was  exceedingly 
strong  and  formidable.  From  the  elevated  plateau,  called 
Cemeterv  Hill,  whei'e  the  National  Cemeterv  is,  the  ridffe 
extends  southward  towards  Round  Top,  a  distance  of  more 
than  two  miles,  and  overlooks  and  dominates  every  foot  of 
the  ground  over  which  the  Confederates  charged.  Along 
its  crest  from  Cemetery  Hill  to  Round  Top  was  a  line  of 
Union  batteries  which  General  Himt,  Chief  of  Artillery, 
shrewdly  divining  what  the  great  cannonade  meant,  had  kept 
in  reserve  until  the  crucial  moment  and  hurried  into  position 
w^hen  he  saw  the  Confederate  infantry  begin   its   advance. 

Longstreet's  Assault  at  Gettysburg.  103 

All  along  the  front  where  the  assault  was  made  there  was 
also  a  double  line  of  Union  infantry  ready  to  resist  the  as- 
sault, and  the  front  line  of  that  infantry  was  posted  behind  a 
stone  fence  which  served  as  an  almost  impregnable  barrier 
against  assailants.  Strong  details  of  skirmishers  were  out 
along  the  fences  of  the  Emmitsburg  road  and  also  along  the 
fence  running  ^\esterly  from  that  road  past  the  Confederate 
left  flank.  Another  point  in  relation  to  the  Union  defences 
should  be  stated,  which  is,  that  the  stone  fence  above  men- 
tioned as  a  strong  defense  for  tlie  Union  forces  does  not  run 
in  an  unbroken  straight  line  north  and  south,  but  after  run- 
ning from  its  southern  terminus  due  north  for  several  hun- 
dred yards,  it  turns  due  east  at  what  is  called  "The  Angle,'" 
and  runs  SO  yards  in  that  direction,  and  then  turns  again  and 
runs  due  north  for  several  hundred  yards  to  ilie  Bryan  barn. 
Its  length  from  north  to  "^outh  almost  exactly  equalcl  the 
length  of  the  Confederate  front  line  when  it  reached  there. 
The  important  influence  of  its  angular  course  upon  the  isoue 
of  the  Confederate  assault  will  be  shoAvn  later  on. 

The  cannonade  preceding  the  advance  of  the  Confederate 
infantry  opened  about  1  o'clock,  p.  m.,  and  continued  nearly 
two  hours.  It  was  one  of  the  greatest  cannonades  of  modern 
times,  but  it  nevertheless  failed  to  accomplish  the  results  ex- 
pected. Artillery  will  do  to  batter  down  fortifications,  shell 
towns,  sink  ships  and  cut  in  pieces  with  grape  and  canister  ad- 
vancing lines  of  infantry ;  but  ever>'  old  soldier  knows  that 
ordinarily  it  is  much  less  to  be  dreaded  than  the  "blue  whist- 
lers" from  the  musketry.  So  it  w%as  at  Gettysburg.  A  num- 
ber of  Union  gun  carriages  were  ruined,  caissons  blown  up, 
and  now  and  then  a  soldier  hugging  the  ground  was  struck 
and  torn  to  pieces ;  but  there  was  no  important  weakening  of 
the  Union  infantry  lines,  and  the  manner  in  which  General 
Hunt  saved  his  artillery  for  the  crisis  he  foresaw  has  already 
been  mentioned. 

As  soon  as  the  cannonade  ceased  the  Confederate  infantry 
moved  forward  to  the  assault.  Only  the  three  brigades  of 
Pickett  were  fresh  troops.  All  the  other  brigades  had  par- 
ticipated in  the  fighting  of  the  previous  days,  and  suffered 
heavy   losses.     Both   their  division  commanders,   Heth   and 

104  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

Pender,  had  been  wounded,  the  latter  mortally.  Three  bri- 
gades were  without  their  Brigadiers,  Scales  having  been 
wounded,  Archer  taken  prisoner,  and  Pettigrew  placed  in 
command  of  Heth's  Division.  Many  Colonels  and  other  field 
officers  and  a  long  list  of  company  officers  had  been  killed  and 
wounded,  and  the  losses  from  the  ranks  had  been  heavy- in 
most  of  the  regiments  and  extraordinary  in  some,  the  Twenty- 
sixth  jSTorth  Carolina,  for  instance,  having  lost  over  71  per 
cent,  of  its  numbers  in  killed  and  wounded  in  the  first  day's 
fight.  As  the  lines  moved  out  in  that  fatal,  final  charge,  a 
number  of  the  men  wore  bloody  bandages  on  account  of 
wounds  received  in  the  first  day's  fight,  and  it  is  said  that 
General  Lee  obsei*ved  and  spoke  of  this  with  much  feeling 
and  moistened  eyes.  ISTo  wonder  his  soldiers  loved  their 
noble  commander  and  were  ready  to  march  under  his  orders 
even  into  the  cannon's  mouth. 

]\rany  Union  officers  and  soldiers  who  were  there  and  saw 
it  have  stood  with  me  on  Cemetery  Pidge  and  spoken  with 
admiration  of  the  magnificent  spectacle  presented  by  the  lines 
of  Confederate  veterans  as  they  advanced  deliberately,  with 
muskets  at  right  shoulder  shift,  across  those  broad  fields.  A 
storm  of  shells,  grape  and  canister,  poured  upon  them  and 
cut  wide  gaps  in  their  ranks,  but  these  were  promptly  closed 
up  without  retarding  the  advance.  The  duty  of  indicating 
the  general  direction  to  be  followed  by  the  whole  force  Avas 
very  properly  assigned  to  Pickett's  fresh  division.  The  oth- 
ers were  ordered  to  dress  to  the  right  and  keep  in  touch  with 
his  left  and  he  was  ordered  to  move  directly  towards  a  small 
unbrella-shaped  copse  of  chestnut  oaks  inside  the  Union  lines 
a  short  distance  south  of  ''The  Angle."  That  copse  of  trees 
is  still  there,  looking  exactly  as  it  did  thirty-eight  years  ago. 
Tt  is  enclosed  by  an  iron  fence  to  keep  people  from  carrying 
off  every  splinter  of  it  as  a  ''relic."  A  large  tablet  has  been 
erected  near  by  containing  the  inscription,  "The  High  Water 
Mark  of  the  Rehellion."  T  often  remind  our  Union  friends 
good  humoredly  that  the  waves  dashed  up  pretty  high  several 
times  afterwards,  at  Chickamauga,  Wilderness,  Spoftsylva- 
nia,  Cold  Plarbor  and  elsewhere.     They  take  the  reminder 

Longstreet's  Assault  at  Gettysburg.  105 

pleasantly  and,  to  tell  the  truth,  are  ahnost  as  proud  of  our 
Southern  soldiery  as  we  are. 

When  Pickett's  line  had  advanced  to  the  summit  of  the 
ridge  which  had  sheltered  it.  during  the  great  cannonade,  he 
perceived  that  his  center  was  not  moving  directly  towards  the 
above-mentioned  copse  of  trees  as  intended,  but  tO'  the  right 
and  south  of  it.  Thereupon  he  very  properly  ordered  his  bri- 
gades to  incline  considerably  to  the  left,  which  they  did  and 
they  continued  on  the  same  course  until  they  reached  the  en- 
emy's lines.  The  order  to  the  other  brigades  from  the  first 
was  "Guide  right,  and  keep  in  touch  with  Pickett's  left;"  and 
therefore,  on  starting  they  inclined  somewhat  tO'  their  right 
SO'  as  to  join  his  left.  His  change  of  direction  being  unfore- 
seen by  them  and  occurring  whilst  the  whole  line  was  in 
motion,  the  result,  for  which  none  of  them  can  be  censured, 
v/as  that  very  considerable  crowding  and  intermingling  of  the 
ranks  on  Pickett's  left  and  Pettigrew's  right  took  place  by 
the  time  they  reached  the  Union  breastworks,  the  effect  of 
which  will  be  noticed  hereafter. 

One  of  the  great  obstacles  encountered  by  the  Confederates 
in  their  advance  was  the  Emmitsburg  road  with  its  post  and 
rail  fences  on  each  side  and,  as  heretofore  mentioned,  running 
obliqueh'  to  the  lines  of  battle.  Where  Pickett's  right  crcssed 
these  fences  is  about  600  yards  from  the  ITnion  line  and 
where  Pettigrew's  left  crossed  tliem  is  about  1 50  yards  from 
that  line.  The  reader  can  imagine  how  difficult  it  was  to 
preserve  an  orderly  alignment  of  the  men  crossing  these 
fences  in  succession  from  the  right  flank  to  the  left  under  a 
fierce  storm  of  grape  and  canister  and,  on  the  left,  of  mus- 
ketry also,  for  the  Emmitsburg  road  there  is  in  easy  musket 
range  of  the  Union  lines.  Another  important  fact  which 
should  not  be  omitted  is  that  the  Eighth  Ohio  Regiment  and 
a  large  detail  from  Wi Hard's  ISTew  York  Brigade,  having 
been  thrown  out  from  the  Union  right  as  skiriuishers  beyond 
the  Emmitsburg  road,  did  not  withdraw  to  their  main  battle 
line  as  the  Confederates  were  advancing,  but  formed  in  com- 
pact ranks  under  cover  of  the  fence  west  of  the  Emmitsburg 
road,  perpendicular  to  the  Confederate  line  and  near  its  left 
flank.      From  this  shelter  they  poured  in  a  severe  and  unex- 

lOG  North  Cakolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

peeted  cnlilaclc  fire  on  that  flank  of  Pettigrow's  Division,  con- 
sisting- of  Brookenborough's  and  Davis'  Brigades.  This  oc- 
curred wliilo  the  Confederate  brigades  further  to  the  right 
were  crossing  the  Emniitsburg  road,  but  it  was  followed  up 
by  tlio«e  llankers  with  energy  and  not  without  considerable 
effect  on  Pettigrew's  left,  even  to  tlie  close  of  the  battle. 

As  soon  as  the  Confederate  front  line  had  crossed  the 
EiMmitsburg  road  it  raised  tJie  well-kno^^■n  battle  yell  and 
pressed  forward  against  the  Union  breastworks.  Kemper 
and  Garnett  were  met.  by  the  fire  of  Plarrow's  and  Hall's  and 
part  of  Webb's  Brigades  in  front,  and  Kemper  also  received 
an  oblique  fire  on  his  right  froui  two  regiments  of  Stannard's 
Vermont  Brigade  which  had  been  moved  out  somewhat  in  ad- 
vance of  the  main  line.  This  caused  Kemper's  men  to  in- 
cline still  more  to  their  left,  whereupon  Stannard  wheeled 
those  two  regiments  to  his  right  aiul  struck  Kemper's  right 
fi:ink,  inflicting  severe  losses  in  killed  aud  wounded  and  cap- 
turiug  over  :200  men.  General  Kemper  also  fell  desperately 
wounded  about  this  time  75  yards  froui  the  Union  Avorks ;  but 
his  brigade,  thougli  nuicli  disorganized  by  its  losses,  especially 
of  oflicers,  pushed  on  until  it  reached  the  stone  fence  or  wall 
behind  which  was  the  Union  front  line,  just  west  of  the  copse 
of  trees  heretofore  mentione«i  as  the  giiide  point  for  Pickett's 
Division.  Garnett's  Brigade,  though  suffering  fearful  losses, 
also  pushed  on  to  the  stone  wall.  General  Garnett  himself  fall- 
ing dead  from  his  saddle  twenty-five  yards  west  of  it.  Petti- 
grew  and  his  division,  with  heavy  losses  and  himself  painfully 
wounded,  had  kept  on  a  line  with  the  brigades  of  Kemper 
and  Garnett  and  reached  the  stone  wall  at  the  same  time;  but 
this  stone  wall,  as  has  been  previously  stated,  turns  squarely 
eastward  near  the  point  reached  by  Garnett's  left  and  Petti- 
grew's right,  forming  what  is  known  as  "The  Angle,"  and 
after  nmning  80  yards  in  that  direction  turns  again  and  runsj 
northward  to  the  Bryan  bam  near  the  left  of  the  ContVlerate 
front  line.  Tt  is  not  amiss  to  state  that  this  last-mentioned 
section  of  the  wall  is  much  higher  than  the  section  ninning 
from  the  angle  southward,  the  latter  being  about  three  feet 
high  and  the  other  five  feet,  coming  up  to  one's  chin  on  its 
western  side.      The  wall  is  there  still,  presen-ed  just  as  it  was 

Longstkket's  Assault  at  Gettysburg.  107 

in  1863  for  the  inspection  of  visitors.  Behind  this  wall  and 
close  to  it  from  its  last  turn  northward,  was  a  double  line  of 
Union  infantry  composed  of  Webb's  right  regiment  and 
Smyth's  and  Willard's  Brigades.  There  were  also  two  Union 
lines  from  the  Angle  southward,  but  only  one  of  them  was 
near  the  wall  and  the  other  was  80  yards  to  the  east  of  it. 

As  ah-eady  intimated,  Kemper's  and  Garnett's  Brigades 
and  Pettigi'ew's  Division  when  they  reached  the  Angle  were 
greatly  weakfiied  and  almost  disorganized  by  their  heavy 
losses  of  men  and  officers.  Their  ranks  on  Garnett's  left  and 
Pettigrew's  right  had  also  become  much  intermingled  from 
the  crowding  together  of  their  flanks  during  the  advance,  by 
reason  of  iheir  different  understanding,  heretofore  alluded 
to,  as  to  how  their  march  was  to  be  guided.  After  crossing 
the  Emmitsburg  road,  Archer's  small  brigade  had  been  almost 
absorbed  by  the  left  of  Garnett  >ind  the  right  of  Pettigrew's 
North  Carolina  brigade. 

It  was  but  a  few  minutes  after  the  weakened  front  line 
reached  the  Angle  when  the  brigades  of  Armistead,  Scales 
and  Lane  rushed  forward  and  mingled  with  it.  And  now  we 
come  to  the  last  act  of  the  great  tragedy  which  only  an  in- 
spired pencil  could  worthily  paint.  Armistead  sprang  on  the 
wnl]  with  iiis  hat  on  the  point  of  his  sword,  called  to  his  men 
tf)  follow,  and  leaping  down  on  the  other  side,  pushed  forward 
towards  Cnshing's  battery.  He  was  followed  by  two  or  three 
hundi-cd  \'irginians,  a  number  of  Archer's  Tennesseeans  and 
Alabamians,  and  a  few  of  Pettigrew's  North  Carolinians. 
Judge  Josf'])h  J.  Davis,  of  blessed  memory,  was  one  of  them ; 
go  he  told  me  years  ago.  Some  Confederate  flags  were 
planted  on  the  wall  and  a  few  beyond  it  within  the  Union 
lines,  but  only  for  a  very  short  time.  General  Armistead 
soon  fell  mortally  wounded  just  forty  steps  east  of  the  wall. 
The  spot  is  marked  with  a  Memorial  stone.  A  number  of  the 
men  who  followed  him  over  the  wall  were  killed,  most  of  them 
were  captured,  but  a  few  made  good  their  escape.  Among 
these  was  Captain  F.  S.  Harris,  of  the  Seventh  Tennessee 
Regiment,  Archer's  Brigade,  who  has  shown  me  the  spot 
where  he  was  knocked  down  but  rose  again  and  made  off  and, 
for  a  wonder,  got  clear  away.      Armistead  sent  his  watch, 

108  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861 -'65. 

purse,  and  some  keep-sakes  to  his  old  comrade,  General  Han- 
cock, to  be  forwarded  to  his  family,  and  then  passed  "over  the 
river  to  rest  under  the  shade  of  the  trees." 

And  while  Armistead  and  his  heroic  followers  were  over 
in  the  Angle,  where  were  PettigTew's  and  Trimble's  thinned 
but  gallant  l)attalions  ?  They  were  making  a  desperate  ef- 
fort to  stoi-ni  the  high  stone  wall  eighty  yards  east  of  the 
Angle  and  were  being  moAved  down  like  grain  before  the 
reaper  by  the  douljle  line  of  infantry  behind  that  wall.  A 
few  men  reached  it,  but  finding  it  too  high  to  leap  over,  could 
do  nothing  but  surrender.  Others  made  a  near  approach  to 
it,  but  found  their  ranks  so  thinned  that  further  effort  was 
plainly  useless.  The  larger  proportion,  both  of  officers  and 
men,  v\ere  stretched  upon  the  ground  killed  or  disabled  about 
half  way  between  the  Angle  and  the  stone  wall  which  -they 
were  assailing.  General  Trimble,  Colonel  Marshall  and  Col- 
onel Fry  were  wounded  and  made  prisoners.  General  Pet- 
tigrew  had  his  horse  killed  under  him.  Brockenborough's 
Brigade,  weak  in  numbers,  and  a  few  companies  of  the  left 
of  Davis'  Brigade,  forming  the  Confederate  line  north  of  the 
Bryan  1iarn,  had  been  from  the  first  vigorously  assailed  by 
fiankei's,  as  has  been  already  mentioned,  and  when  they  were 
charging  on  the  main  Union  line  posted  there  on  a  high  em- 
bankment, the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-sixth  Xew  York 
Regiment  was  wheeled  to  its  left  and  throA\n  upon  their 
left  flank,  inflicting  heavy  losses,  and  a  terrific  fire  from  the 
line  of  infantry  in  their  front  and  a  storm  of  grape  and  canis- 
ter from  Woodruff's  Battery  soon  cut  them  to  pieces  and  ren- 
dered further  efforts  hopeless.  By  this  time  the  entire  line 
under  Pickett,  Pettigrew  and  Trimble,  was  over^vlielmed  and 
repulsed.  The  defeated  Confederates  fell  back  shattered  and 
disorganized  across  the  fields  over  which  they  had  advanced 
so  gallantly  and  proudly  and  the  famous  assault  was  over. 

I  have  not  mentioned  Wilcox's  Alabama,  and  Perrv's  Flor- 
ida Brigades  because  they,  in  fact,  and  without  any  fault  of 
theirs,  really  had  no  part  in  the  assault.  About  twenty 
minutes  after  Pickett's  Division  started,  they  were  ordered 
to  advance  and  support  it  on  its  right.  But  tlie  dense  cloud 
of  smoke  over  the  field  concealed  from  them  the  left  oblique 

Longstreet's  Assault  at  Gettysburg.  109 

course  which  Pickett  had  taken  after  passing  them,  and  so 
they  marched  straight  forward,  which  caused  a  wide,  wedge- 
shaped  gap  between  them  and  Pickett's  right,  into  which 
Stannard  threw  one  of  his  \'ermont  regiments  and  captured 
the  flag  and  about  100  men  of  the  Eighth  Fkirida.  Colonel 
David  Lang,  who  commanded  the  Florida  Brigade,  once 
visited  Gettysburg  and  went  Avith  me  over  the  ground;  and  he 
told  me  that  when  they  reached  the  Emmitsburg  road  near  the 
Rogers  House,  lie  saw  through  a  rift  in  the  smoke  that  Pick- 
ett's and  Pettigrew's  forces  were  being  overwlielmed,  and  he 
would  have  turned  back  at  once,  but  he  thought  it  safer  for 
his  brigade  to  go  forward  at  a  double-quick  and  thus  reach  the 
bushy  swale  on  Plum  Run  and  escape  by  going  down  that 
southward  to  the  Trestle  Place  and  thence  westward,  as  this 
route  was  not  so  directly  swept  by  the  Union  artillery ;  and 
both  his  and  Wilcox's  Brigades  did  this,  with  the  above-men- 
tioned loss  to  the  Eighth  Florida  and  considerable  losses  also 
to  the  other  regiments  of  both  brigades. 

A  few  more  words  will  close  this  paper,  and  those  words 
will  be  devoted  to  showing  how  unwise  and  undeserved  it  is 
for  any  of  the  magnificent  heroes  who  took  part  in  that  final 
bloody  struggle  at  Gettysburg  ever  to  impugTi  each  other's 
chivalry  on  that  occasion.  I  was  not  myself  a  participant  in 
it;  I  was  away  over  at  Round  Top  with  the  Fourth  Alabama, 
hammering  aAvay  at  the  Yankee  infantry  and  cavalry  and, 
strange  as  it  may  seem,  we  did  not  even  know  of  that  fatal  ep- 
isode two  miles  north  of  us  until  about  sunset,  and  coiild 
scarcely  believe  it  then. 

I  have  re-affirnied  the  well-known  and  truthful  account  of 
how  gallantly  Pickett's  men  fought,  what  they  did,  and  how 
far  they  went.  They  had  not  been  in  the  battle  on  the  pre- 
vious two  days  and  were  fresh  and  well  organized  with  all 
their  officers  in  their  places.  Their  losses  in  that  assault  in 
killed,  wounded  and  captured  were  a  fraction  over  63  per 
cent.,  which  is  mucli  above  the  average  losses  of  troops  in  bat- 

I  have  also  stated  whither  and  how  far  the  faithful  veterans 
of  Pettigrew  and  Trimble  advanced,  which  was  near  the  high 
stone  wall  before  mentioned  eighty  yards  farther  east  than 

110  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

the  Angle  and  to'  the  left  and  northward  of  the  spot  where 
the  noble  Armistead  fell.  Does  any  one  doubt  the  accuracy 
of  that  statement'^  If  so,  I  must  suggest  the  undisputed 
fact  that  the  best  proof  of  where  a  line  of  soldiers  went  to 
is  wliere  they  left  their  dead ;  and  A\'here  that  was  in  this 
case  is  established  beyond  question  by  multitudes  of  disin- 
terested witnesses.  A  great  many  officers  and  soldiers  of 
the  Union  Army,  who  were  in  the  battle  here  and  went  over 
the  ground  where  that  final  struggle  took  place,  very  soon  af- 
terwards, have  talked  with  me  about  it  and  emphatically  con- 
fimied  the  facts  as  stated  above.  For  instance,  (to  name  one 
of  them),  Colonel  E.  B.  Cope,  the  Engineer  of  our  Gettys- 
burg Park  Commission,  a  gentleman  of  the  highest  character 
and  a  Union  officer  in  the  battle  here,  has  often  told  me  of 
how  he  was  invited  by  one  of  Greneral  Meade's  staff  officers 
in  the  evening  of  that  third  day,  to  go  with  him  up  on  the 
ridge  and  (to  quote  the  words  of  the  officer  who  invited  him), 
''see  such  a  sight  as  he  had  never  before  seen  on  a  battlefield." 
The  Colonel  says  he  went  and  was  deeply  impressed  by  what 
he  saw.  The  dead,  he  says,  were  very  numerous  in  the  Angle 
around  the  spot  where  Armistead  fell  and  between  that  and 
the  stone  wall  over  which  he  and  his  men  had  charged  south 
of  the  Angle;  but  they  were  much  more  thickly  strewn  on  the 
ground  in  front  of  the  high  stone  wall  which  Pettigrew's  and 
Trimble's  men  had  tried  to  storm  and  wliich  runs  northward 
to  the  Bryan  barn. 

In  1895,  Colonel  John  K.  Connally,  of  Asheville,  who  was 
Colonel  of  tlie  Fifty-fifth  North  Carolina  Begiment  of  Davis' 
Brigade,  Lieutenant  T.  J.  Falls,  of  Cleveland  County,  and 
Sergeant  J.  A.  AVhitley  of  Martin  County,  N.  C,  who  had 
also  served  in  that  regiment  and  been  in  the  battle  here,  made 
a  visit  to  Gettysburg  and  went  with  me  over  the  field.  Colo- 
nel Connally  had  lost  an  arm  in  the  first  day's  fight;  and  (by 
the  way)  Lieutenant-Colonel  M.  T.  Smith  had  been  killed 
and  Major  A.  H.  Belo  had  been  wounded  on  that  day,  so  that 
the  regiment  on  the  third  day  was  under  command  of  a  Cap- 
tain. Lieutenant  Falls  and  Sergeant  Whitley  showed  me  the 
ground  over  which  they  had  charged  and  the  point  they 
reached,  which  point,  as  noted  on  our  maps  and  in  my  journal, 

Longstreet's  Assault  at  Gettysburg.  Ill 

is  twenty  steps  south  of  tlie  Bryan  bam  and  just  nine  yards 
west  of  the  stone  wall  which  Pettigrew  and  Trimble  tried  to 
storm.  Whilst  we  were  driving  stakes  to  mark  the  exact 
spots  reached  by  them  and  also  where  Captain  Satterfield,  of 
Person  County,  had  fallen  dead  near  by  them,  several  officers 
and  men  of  the  Thirt}--ninth  Xew  York  Regiment  of  Wil- 
lard's  Brigade,  who  were  on  a  visit  to  the  battlefield,  came  up 
to  the  stone  wall  near  us  and  said  that  while,  of  course,  they 
could  not  identify  the  men,  they  could  swear  that  a  thin  line 
of  "rebels"  did  reach  the  very  spot  where  v/e  were  driving 
those  stakes,  and  that  it  extended  all  along  in  front  of  the  wall 
and  about  the  same  distance  from  it  all  the  way  to  the  Angle; 
which  w^as  the  whole  front  of  Pettigrew's  and  Trimble's 

By  reason  of  the  death  or  disability  of  their  generals  and 
other  officers,  very  imperfect  reports  have  come  down  to  us  as 
to  the  numbers  of  men  in  the  six  brigades  under  Pettigrew 
and  Trimble  in  that  final  assault  and  of  the  losses  they  suf- 
fered ;  and  the  reports  we  have  do  not  discriminate  between 
the  losses  of  the  first  and  third  days.  We  have,  however, 
some  scant  data  from  which  one  can  in  a  measure  divine  how 
those  battered  battalions  of  the  first  day  suffered  also  on  the 
third.  For  instance,  tlie  T\venty-sixth  ISTorth  Carolina,  of 
Pettigrew's  own  brigade,  had  entered  the  battle  of  the  first 
day  with  820  muskets,  and  lost  in  killed  and  wounded  584 
men  (71  per  cent.),  and  also  its  Colonel,  the  gallant  Bur- 
g%vyn.  It  went  into  the  fight  of  the  Third  day  with  236  men 
and  had  but  80  left,  a  loss  of  over  66  per  cent.  Its  brigade 
(Pettigrew's  own)  lost  its  commander,  Colonel  Marshall, 
mortally  wounded  and  captured,  and  came  out  commanded 
by  Major  John  T.  Jones,  the  only  field  officer  left,  and  its  reg- 
iments led  by  Lieutenants.  Archer's  Brigade  lost  five  out  of 
seven  field  officers,  and  its  commander,  Colonel  Fry,  was 
wounded  and  captured.  All  the  field  officers  of  Davis'  Bri- 
gade were  disabled,  and  the  losses  of  Scales'  and  Lane's  were 
as  heavy  as  those  of  the  other  brigades.  But  why  prolong  this 
story,  already  much  longer  than  I  had  intended  ?  As  the  old 
Quaker  once  remarked  at  the  close  of  the  meeting,  ''A  suf- 

1  rj  North  C\vkoi.ina  Tkoots.    18(>l-'l»o. 

tioioiu'v  has  Kvn  said.  That  is  my  opinion.  1  feel  that 

The  simph\  hone^st  truth  is  that  Pickett's  Virginians  did 
as  nobly  as  they  and  their  friends  have  ever  ehiinied,  and  the 
Xorth  t^awlinians,  TennesstH:'ans,  Ahibamians  and  ^lissiissip- 
pians,  muier  Pettigrew  ami  Trimble,  did  fnlly  as  well. 

All  old  soldiers  know  that  in  the  thiek  of  a  great  bat- 
tle men  are  tcx^  entirely  absorbed  in  their  own  part  of  it  to 
look  mueh  about  them  atid  observe  what  others  are  doing. 
Furthermore,  when  a  battle  ends  in  defeat,  everybody  knows 
how  prone  men  are  to  lay  the  responsibility  for  it  on  other 
shoulders  than  their  own.  Si>  it  has  betni  in  this  ease.  Cor- 
respondents of  the  prt^s  of  Kiehnioud.  the  capital  of  the  Con- 
federacy, where  they  had  the  ear  of  the  world,  reported  that 
the  failure  of  Longstreot's  assault  and  our  defeat  at  Gettys- 
burg was  chargeable  to  Pettigrew's  and  Trimble's  men. 
This  is  a  great  mistake  and  a  bitter  wrong.  That  defeat  was 
inevitable,  as  one  can  readily  set^  now  as  he  stands  on  the 
groiind  and  observes  how  strong,  how  advantag"eons,  how  im- 
pregnable the  Union  position  was.  When  the  shattered  rem- 
nants of  that  heroic  column  were  falling  back,  our  l>eloved 
conuuaiuier.  General  Lee,  met  them  and  said :  "This  is  all  my 
fault.  It  is  I  who  have  lost  this  battle.  Fall  in,  men,  and 
help  rae  out  of  it."  He  was  too  magnanimons  and  too  truth- 
ful to  blan\e  any  of  them.  Let  his  noble  example  be  followed. 
Let  history  be  just  and  place  a  wreath  of  immarteUes  on  the 
graves  of  them  all. 

Wm.  ^[.  ROBBINS. 
Gbttysbukg,  Pa., 

3  July.  1901. 


1-3    JULY,     1663. 

By  captain  LOUTS  G.  YOUNCJ,  A.  A.  G. 

The  battle  of  Gettysburg  was  not  a  victory  for  either  side, 
yet  paradoxically,  but  rightly,  it  goes  into  history  as  one  of 
the  decisive  battles  of  the  war  between  the  States,  for  it 
checked  the  conquering  career  of  the  Southern  army,  and  re- 
vived the  broken  spirit  of  the  Xorth  at  a  most  critical  time. 
A  great  battle,  re])lete  with  valiant  deeds,  heroic  efforts,  and 
fatal  mistakes,  on  ihc  part  of  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia, 
it  has  been  more  written  of,  and  has  produced  more  contro- 
versy, than  all  the  other  battles  of  the  war;  and  many  able, 
some  brilliant,  accounts  have  been  put  forth,  for  the  most  part 
by  non-participants,  in  all  of  whicli  vital  errors  are  to  be 
found  ;  and  while  truth,  with  its  proverbial  slowness,  has  been 
taking  time  to  put  on  its  boots,  many  a  falsehood  has  run  its 
league  and  obtained  credence.  Against  some  of  these  my  ef- 
forts will  be  directed,  with  statements  of  whtt  I  saw.  and 
what  1  know  to  be  true.  Before  beginning  my  narrative, 
however,  it  will  be  well  to  recall  some  of  the  incidents  con- 
nected with  the  campaign  into  Pennsylvania,  which  arc  so 
striking  that  it  seems  as  if  an  unseen  hand  had  directed  them. 

General  T^ee  expecting  from  General  Stuart,  in  command 
of  his  cavalry,  a  report  of  the  movement  of  the  Army  of  the 
Potomac,  and  not  receiving  it,  supposed  the  enemy  was  still 
on  the  south  side  of  the  Potomac,  and  only  on  28  -Tune  did  he 
learn  from  a  scout  that  they  had  crossed  into  Maryland  and 
were  then  at  and  about  Frederick.  Hitherto  General  Lee's 
march  had  been  northward  with  Harrisburg  as  the  objective 
point  for  concentrating  his  columns.  T^Tow,  the  position  of 
the  enemy's  forces  was  a  menace  to  his  line  of  communication 

114  North  Cakolkna  Troops.   1861-'65. 

and  he  turned  to  the  east  and  ordered  his  columns  to  concen- 
trate near  Gettvsburu'.  At  the  same  time  fateful  changes 
had  luH'u  iiiadi'  in  the  Army  of  the  Potomac.  Hooker,  who 
had  nor  shown  himself  an  ahle  commander  at  Fredericksburg 
and  C'hancellorsviHe,  hut  who  liad  wisely  asked  for  the  with- 
drawal of  the  troops  from  llarj^er's  Ferry,  to  be  united  with 
a  portion  of  his  army  to  operate  against  Lee's  rear,  tendered 
his  resignation,  because  his  request  was  refused;  and  Lin- 
coln, api»arcntly  glad  to  get  rid  of  him,  contrary  to  his  theory 
and  saying,  "Never  swap  lu)rses  while  crossing  a  stream," 
accepted  Hooker's  resignation,  and  gave  to  the  Army  of  the 
Potomac  an  abler  conunander  in  Meade,  who  was  waked  up 
late  on  the  night  of  27  .Tune,  only  three  days  before  the  bat- 
tle he  was  destined  to  direct,  to  receive  his  appointment. 
This  change  of  connnanders  meant  a  change  of  plans,  and 
Meade,  a  cautious  commander,  determined  to  maneuver  so 
as  to  force  Lee  to  attack  him;  and  in  making  disposition  for 
the  defense  of  the  line  he  liad  selected,  ordered  a  portion  of 
his  army  to  Gettysburg  as  a  mask  to  his  movements.  Thus  it 
was  that  the  two  armies  were  nearing  eai'h  other,  neither  of 
them  ready  for  (U-  exptx'ting  the  impending  conflict,  and  not 
aware  that  Gettyslnirg  like  a  highly  charged  magnet  was 
drawing  them  to  it. 

On  the  night  of  30  J  une,  without  thought  of  battle  on  the 
next  day.  Hill's  Corps  was  in  bivouac  eight  miles  to  the  west 
of  Gettysburg,  the  town  was  occupied  by  Buford's  Division 
of  cavalry;  and  four  miles  to  the  southwest  were  the  corps  of 
Reynolds  and  llowai'd;  with  that  of  Sickles  in  calling  dis- 
tance, these  three  under  command  of  Reynolds,  a  Kentuckian, 
and  perliaps  the  most  capable  ofiicer  in  the  Army  of  the  Po- 

Xow  to  my  narrative,  which  will  be  chiefly  of  Pettigrew 
and  his  brigade.  I  was  tlien  General  Pettigrew's  Aide-de- 
Camp  with  the  rank  of  First  Lieutenant. 

Pettigrew's  Brigade  was  composed  of  the  Eleventh,  Tw^en- 
ty-sixth.  Forty-fourth,  Forty-seventh  and  Fifty-second  North 
Carolina  Troops.  The  Forty-fourth  was  left  in  Virginia  on 
duty  at  North  Anna  river  so  was  not  present  at  Gettysburg. 

Hill's  Corps  had  arrived  at  Cashtown,  about  eight  miles 

Pettigrkw's  Brigade  at  Gettysburg.  115 

west  of  (jf'ttv.shui'fi-,  (HI  -ZU  June.  On  the  following  morning 
Genei-al  Pettigrew  was  ordered  by  General  Ileth,  his  division 
conirnander,  to  go  to  Gettysburg  with  three  of  his  four  reg-' 
iments  present,  three  field  pieces  of  the  Donaldsonville  Artil- 
lery, of  Louisiana,  and  a  number  of  wagons,  for  the  purpose 
of  collecting  conmiissary  and  quartermaster  stores  for  the  use 
of  the  army,  (jeneral  Early  had  levied  on  Carlisle,  Cham- 
bersburg  and  Shippensburg,  and  had  found  no  difficulty  in 
having  his  requisitions  filled,  it  was  supposed  that  it  would 
be  the  same  at  Gettj^sburg.  It  was  txjld  to  General  Pettigrew 
that  he  might  find  the  town  in  possession  of  a  home  guard, 
which  he  would  have  no  difficulty  in  driving  away ;  but  if, 
contrary  to  expectations,  he  should  find  any  organized  troops 
capable  of  making  resistance,  or  any  portion  of  the  Army  of 
the  Potomac,  he  should  not  attack  it  The  orders  to  him 
were  peremptory,  not  to  precipitate  a  fight.  General  Lee 
with  his  columns  scattered,  and  lacking  the  information  of 
bis  adversary,  which  he  should  have  had  from  his  cavalry, 
was  not  ready  for  battle — hence  tlie  orders. 

On  the  marcli  to  Gettysburg  we  were  passed  by  General 
Longstreet's  spy  who  quickly  returned  and  informed  General 
Pettigrew  that  Biiford's  Division  of  cavalry — estimated  at 
three  thousand  strong — had  arrived  that  day  and  were  hold- 
ing the  tov/n.  This  report  was  confirmed  by  a  Knight  of  the 
Golden  Circle  who  came  out  for  the  purpose  of  giving  us 
warning.  Buford's  presence  made  it  evident  that  the  Army 
of  the  Potomac,  or  at  least  a  ])ortion  of  it,  was  not  far  off, 
and  General  Pettigrew  sent  immediately  to  General  Heth,  a 
report  of  what  he  had  learned  and  asked  for  further  instruc- 
tions. The  message  received  in  reply,  was  simply  a  repeti- 
tion of  the  orders  previously  given  coupled  with  an  expres- 
sion of  disl^elief  as  to  the  presence  of  any  portion  of  the  Army 
of  the  Potomac.  As  the  presence  of  Buford's  Cavalry  was 
certain,  and  it  would  not  be  possible  for  him  to  enter  Gettys- 
burg without  a  fight,  which  he  was  forbidden  to  make,  Gen- 
eral Pettigrew  withdrew  from  before  Gettysburg.  This  he 
did,  not  as  was  reported  to  General  Lee,  ^'because  he  was  not 
willing  to  hazard  an  attack  with  the  single  brigade,"  (he  had 
only  three  regiments  of  his  brigade),  thoTigh  with  Buford's 

116  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

Cavalry,  supported  no  doubt  by  a  home  guard,  to  fight,  the  cost 
of  the  stores  when  gotten  would  have  been  dear,  still  General 
Pettigrew  was  willing  to  niahe  the  attack  had  not  his  orders 
forbidden  it.  Buford's  Cavalry  followed  us  at  some  dis- 
tance,  and  Lieutenant  Walter  H.  Kobertson  and  I,  of  Petti- 
grew's  staff,  remained  in  the  rear  to  watch  it.  This  we  easily 
did,  for  the  country  is  rolling,  and  from  behind  the  ridges  we 
could  see  without  being  seen  and  we  had  a  perfect  view  of  the 
movements  of  the  approaching  column.  Whenever  it  would 
oome  within  three  or  four  hundred  yards  of  us  we  would 
make  our  appearance,  mounted,  when  the  column  would  halt 
until  we  retired.  This  was  repeated  several  times.  It  was 
purely  an  affair  of  observation  on  both  sides  and  the  cavalry 
made  no  effort  to  molest  us. 

My  object  in  mentioning  so  minutely  what  might  seem 
unimportant  and  purely  personal  will  appear  when  I  narrate 
what  happened  the  next  day,  and  will  help  to  show  how  the 
great  battle  of  Gettysburg  was  stumbled  into.  Blindness  in 
part  seemed  to  have  come  over  our  commanders,  who,  slow  to 
believe  in  the  presence  of  an  organized  army  of  the  enemy, 
thought  there  must  be  a  mistake  in  the  report  taken  back  by 
General  Pettigrew,  but  General  Heth  asked  for  and  ob- 
tained permission  to  take  his  division  to  Gettysburg  on  the 
following  day,  for  the  purpose  of  reconnoiteriug,  and  of 
making  the  levy  which  had  been  the  object  of  the  expedition 
on  the  day  before.  Neither  General  Heth  nor  General  Hill 
believed  in  the  presence  of  the  enemy  in  force,  and  they  ex* 
pressed  their  doubts  so  positively  to  General  PettigrcAV  that 
I  was  called  up  to  tell  General  Hill  what  I  had  seen  while  re- 
connoitering  the  movements  of  the  force  which  had  followed 
us  from  Gettysburg.  As  a  staff  officer  with  General  Pender, 
I  had  served  under  General  Hill  in  the  seven  days  fights 
around  Pichmond  and  at  Cedar  Run,  and  because  I  was  well 
known  to  General  Hill,  General  Pettigrew  supposed  that  my 
report  might  have  some  weight  with  him.  Yet,  when  in  an- 
swer to  his  inquiry  as  to  the  character  of  the  column  I  had 
watched  I  said  their  movements  were  undoubtedly  those  of 
well-trained  troops  and  not  those  of  a  home  guard,  he  replied 
that  he  still  could  not  believe  that  any  portion  of  the  Army  of 

Pettigrew's  Brigade  at  Gettysburg.  117 

the  Potomac  was  up ;  and  in  emphatic  words,  expressed  the 
hope  that  it  was,  as  this  was  the  place  he  wanted  it  to  be. 
This  spirit  of  unbelief  had  taken  such  hold,  that  I  doubt  if 
any  of  the  commanders  of  brigades,  except  General  Petti- 
grew,  believed  that  we  were  marching  to  battle,  a  weakness 
on  their  part  which  rendered  them  unprepared  for  what  was 
about  to  happen.  General  Archer  with  his  Tennessee  Bri- 
gade, was  to  lead,  and  General  Pettigrew  described  to  him 
minutely  the  topography  of  the  country  between  CashtoA^m 
and  Gettysburg,  and  suggested  that  he  look  out  for  a  road  that 
ran  at  right  angles  to  the  one  we  were  on,  and  which  might  be 
used  by  the  enemy  to  break  into  his  line  of  march.  And,  as 
he  had  carefully  observed  the  configuration  of  the  ground 
in  the  vicinity  of  the  town,  told  General  Archer  of  a 
ridge  some  distance  out  of  Gettysburg  on  which  he  would 
probably  find  the  enemy,  as  this  position  was  favorable  for 
defense.  He  found  him  there.  General  Archer  listened, 
but  believed  not,  marched  on  unprepared,  and  was  taken  by 
surprise,  his  command  routed,  a  part  captured  and  he  himself 
taken  prisoner.  Davis'  Mississippi  Brigade,  close  on  to 
Archer's,  felt  the  im]>act,  and  a  portion  of  it,  carried  away 
by  the  break  in  front,  made  the  mistake  of  seeking  shelter  in 
an  adjacent  railroad  cut,  and  about  four  hundred  of  them 
were  captured  there.  For  want  of  faith  in  what  had  been 
told,  and  a  consequent  lack  of  caution,  the  two  leading  bri- 
gades of  Heth's  Division  marched  into  the  jaws  of  the  enemy, 
met  with  disaster,  and,  contrary  to  General  Lee's  wish, 
brought  on  an  engagement  with  the  Army  of  the  Potomac  be- 
fore we  were  ready,  and  precipitated  one  of  the  greatest  bat- 
tles of  modern  times. 

Buford,  informed  by  his  scouts  of  the  approach  of  Heth, 
posted  his  connnand,  dismounted  and  acting  as  infantry,  on 
McPherson's  Hidge  to  the  west  of  Gettysburg,  and  notified 
Reynolds,  who,  according  to  the  testimony  before  the  commit- 
tee on  the  conduct  of  the  war,  had  just  received  orders  to 
withdraw  to  Afiddleburg  and  Manchester,  Imt  who,  Swinton 
says,  "was  with  Wadsworth's  Division  moving  on  to  Gettys- 
burg according  to  prescribed  orders."  Be  this  as  it  may, 
Reynolds  was  up  immediately;   and  Wadsworth's  Division 

118  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

arrived  in  time  to  strike  Archer  as  he  was  crossing  Willough- 
by  Run,  and  to  cause  the  disaster  I  have  described.  Blood 
now  having  been  drawn,  there  seemed  to  be  no  calling  off  the 
battle;  and  disposition  was  immediately  made  by  Heth  for  a 
charge  upon  the  enemy's  position.  By  this  time  Buford'a 
Cavalry  had  been  replaced  by  Wadsworth's  Division,  with 
the  famous  ''Iron  Brigade*'  posted  directly  in  front  of  Petti- 
grew's  Brigade.  The  other  two  divisions  of  the  first  corps 
arrived  before  the  advauce  could  be  ordered,  and  were  placed, 
Doubleday's  to  the  left  and  Robinson's  to  the  right  of  Wads- 
worth,  forming  a  long  line  in  front  of,  and  overlapping  the 
single  division  of  Heth.  It  was  scarcely  prudent  for  this 
division,  two  of  its  brigades  maimed  in  the  start,  to  make  an 
attack  on  so  large  a  force,  strongly  posted  on  a  commanding 
ridge,  so  Pender's  Division  was  marched  to  supportiug  dis- 
tance, and  the  attack  postponed. 

Pending  these  movements  on  our  side,  the  Eleventh  Corps 
of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac  had  arrived,  and  the  command 
of  the  two  corps  fell  to  Howard,  Reynolds  having  been  killed 
in  the  first  engagement.  More  troops  were  therefore  neces- 
sary to  us,  for  we  had  only  two  divisions  of  infantry  up 
against  six  of  the  enemy,  and  their  cavalry  hovered  on  our 
right,  while  Ave  had  none  to  oppose  it.  It  was  decided  there- 
fore to  wait  for  R.  H.  Anderson's  Division  of  Hill's  Corps, 
not  far  oft",  and  for  Ewell's  Corps,  which  under  the  insti-uc- 
tions  previously  given  to  concentrate  in  the  neighborhood  of 
Gettysburg,  was  on  the  march  for  Cashtown,  but  on  hearing 
our  guns,  was  shaping  its  course  for  Gettysburg.  Rodes' 
Division  coming  up  first,  immediately  attacked  Robinson  on 
our  left,  and  was  followed  soon  by  Early,  who  turned  How- 
ard's left  and  put  to  flight  the  army  of  the  aliens — Schurz' 
Division  of  Geraians.  Acting  in  concert  with  Ewell's  two 
divisions— his  third  did  not  arrive  until  later — Heth's  Divis- 
ion was  ordered  to  charge  the  enemy  in  its  front.  We  had 
confronted  each  other  from  early  in  the  morning  until  the 
afternoon  had  well  advanced,  both  sides  understanding  that 
a  conflict  of  arms  was  in  store  for  them,  we  ready  to  make  the 
attack  and  they  prepared  to  receive  it.  Only  a  few  hundred 
yards  separated  us ;  they  were  advantageously  posted  in  three 

Pettigrew's  Brigade  at  Gettysburg.  119 

lines  on  McPherson's  Tiidge,  their  right  in  a  wood  of  large 
trees,  no  nnderbnish;  and  a  wheat  field  lay  between  us  with 
no  other  obstruction  than  the  nearly  ripe  wheat. 

As  I  have  before  stated,  the  ''Iron  Brigade"  was  posted 
directly  in  front  of  ns.  It  was  the  finest  brigade  in  the  Army 
of  the  Potomac,  and  up  to  this  time  it  had  indulged  in  the 
proud  boast  that  it  had  never  been  defeated.  On  the  right 
of  us,  Archer's  Brigade  met  with  little  opposition,  and  on 
our  left  Brockenborough's  and  Davis'  Brigades  Avere  not  so 
hotly  engaged.  Thus  the  brunt  of  the  attack  fell  to  Petti- 
grew's Brigade,  more  especially  to  its  left.  When  the  order 
came  to  advance,  Pettigrew's  Brigade  about  3,000  strong, 
marched  out  in  perfect  alignment,  and  under  as  hot  a  fire  as 
was  ever  faced,  moved  steadily  through  the  wheat,  reserved 
its  fire  for  close  range,  which  when  delivered,  it  pressed  on 
until  it  overcame  its  adversary.  It  was  a  hotly  contested  field, 
and  the  stubborn  resistance  of  the  ''Iron  Brigade"  was  met 
with  more  than  equal  determination  on  the  part  of  Petti- 
grew's Brigade.  For  a  short  time  the  battle  raged  at  forty, 
then  twenty,  yards  between  the  contestants. 

In  the  Twenty-sixth  North  Carolina  thirteen  standard- 
bearers  were  shot  down ;  and  around  a  flag  of  the  enemy, 
which  was  planted  beside  a  large  tree,  the  dead  and  wounded 
were  piled  up.  At  last  with  a  rush  the  ridge  was  carried,* 
and  the  famous  "Iron  Brigade"  nearly  annihilated.  Only  a 
small  remnant  was  left,  to  be  easily  driven  from  its  second 
position  on  Seminary  Ridge  by  Pender's  Division. 

Of  this  charge  the  prisoners  testified,  that  in  defence  of 
their  own  country,  they  fought  as  they  had  never  done  before, 
but  that  there  was  no  withstanding  such  an  attack.  Petti- 
grew's Brigade,  although  it  took  only  twenty  to  thirty  min- 

*When  we  occupied  the  wood  recently  held-  by  the  enemy  my  atten- 
tion was  attracted  by  the  dreadful — not  moans  but — howls  of  some  of 
the  wounded.  It  was  so  distressing  that  I  approached  several  with  the 
purpose  of  calming  them  if  possible,  and  to  my  surprise  I  found  them 
foaming  at  the  mouth  as  if  mad,  and  evidently  unconscious  of  the  sound 
of  their  voices  This  was  the  only  occurrence  of  the  kind  which  came 
under  my  observation  during  the  war,  and  I  attribute  it  to  the  effect 
upon  the  nerves  of  the  quick,  frightful  conflict  following  several  hours  of 

120  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

utes  to  cover  the  groimJ  between  it  and  the  enemy,  was  more 
hotlv  engaged  than  were  any  of  the  troops  that  participated 
in  the  first  day's  fight,  and  more  of  the  enemy  were  killed 
and  wounded  in  front  of  it  than  on  any  other  part  of  the  field. 
I  have  taken  part  in  many  hotly  contested  fights,  but  this  I 
think,  was  the  deadliest  of  them  all,  not  excepting  the  third 
day's  charge  on  Cemetery  Eidge;  and  never  have  I  seen  or 
known  of  better  conduct  on  the  part  of  any  troops,  under  any 
circimistances,  or  at  any  time.  The  marked  achievement  of 
Pettigrew's  Brigade  on  this  occasion  was  accomplished  only 
at  great  sacrifice  of  life.  It  lost  not  one  prisoner,  but  its  loss 
in  killed  and  Avounded  was  1,000  to  1,100,  including  a  num- 
ber of  its  best  officers.  The  Twenty-sixth  Xorth  Carolina 
Regiment  lost  549  out  of  800.  The  Eleventh  Regiment  some 
250  out  of  550.  The  five  field  officers  present  with  these  two 
regiments  were  killed  or.  wounded.  The  Inspector-General 
of  the  brigade  was  killed,  and  its  Ordnance  Ofiicer  wounded. 
In  the  many  so-called  histories  of  the  battle  of  Gettysburg, 
which  I  have  seen,  I  have  found  no  record  of  these  facts.  The 
brilliant  achievement  of  Pettigrew's  Brigade  on  this  day,  its 
persistent  courage,  and  its  great  sacrifice,  have  never  met 
with  merited  acknowledgment.* 

In  the  midst  of  the  engagement  General  Ileth  was  wounded 
and  General  Pettigrew  was  placed  in  command  of  the  divis- 
ion. Colonel  Burgwyn,  of  the  Twenty-sixth,  had  been  killed, 
and  Colonel  Leventhorpe,  of  the  Eleventh,  had  been  wounded, 
so  the  command  of  General  Pettigrew's  Brigade  fell  to  Col- 
onel Marshall,  of  the  Eifty-second,  a  very  able  young  officer. 

I  vividly  recall  my  impression  after  the  attack.  The  bril- 
liant success  of  Rodes  and  Earty  on  our  left,  ours  in  driving 
the  enemy  from  our  front  into  a  position  on  Seminary  Ridge 

*In  Hoine  accounts  it  is  stated  that  we  were  fighting  for  several  hours. 
On  the  skirmish  line  there  was  firing  for  several  hours,  but  the  charge 
on  the  enemy's  line  was  quick  work.  To  confrrm  my  imi>ression  of  the 
time  taken,  which  I  remember  as  about  twenty  minutes.  J  took  occasion 
at  the  Confederate  reunion  in  Charleston  to  look  up  evidence,  and  I 
found  two  privates  who  had  taken  part  in  the  charge.  They  were  not 
together  when  I  put  the  question  as  to  the  time  occupied  in  the  charge; 
both  answered  promptly,  one  said  twenty  minutes  and  the  other  about 
half  an  hour. 

Pettigrew's  Brigade  at  Gettysburg.  121 

from  which  he  was  quickly  driven  by  Pender,  left  us  with 
troops  enough  to  follow  up  our  success,  and  I  wondered 
that  we  did  not  do  so  and  take  possession  of  Cemetery  Kidge, 
which  I  believed  then,  and  believe  now,  we  could  have 
done  easily.  The  troops  which  had  been  engaged,  although 
they  had  suffered  severe  losses,  were  in  high  spirit  and 
ready  to  go  on.  In  Ewell's  Corps,  Johnson's  Division  had 
come  up  fresh,  and  in  Hill's  Corps,  Pender's  Division  had 
been  only  slightly  engaged,  while  Anderson  was  in  bivouac  a 
short  distance  away.  That  we  did  not  continue  the  fight 
was  the  first  opportunity  frittered  away.  If  Ewell's  and 
Hill's  Divisions  had  pressed  forward  when  the  enemy  re- 
tired to  Cemetery  Kidge,  the  battle  of  Gettysburg  would  have 
ended  on  the  day  it  began.  Ewell  did  not  advance  when  Gen- 
eral Lee  wished  him.  Hill's  Corps  was  halted,  and  the  enemy 
availed  of  our  delay  to  hasten  \\\)  fresh  troops  and  to 
strengthen  his  jjosition.'" 

The  2  July  was  also  a  day  of  lost  opportunities  for  the 
Confederates.  An  early  attack  on  either  flank  of  the  enemy 
could  scarcely  have  failed  of  success.  His  line,  three  miles 
long,  a])tly  described  as  resembling  a  fish  hook,  with  Round 
Top  Mountain  to  the  south  the  end  of  the  shank,  and  Gulp's 
Hill,  to  tbe  north  the  end  of  the  curve,  was  a  very  strong  de- 
fensive position  if  thoroughly  fortified  and  manned  with 
troops ;  but  either  end  taken  by  us  would  have  rendered  it  un- 
tenable, and  would  have  enabled  us  to  sweep  down  upon  the 
enemy  and  destroy  him  before  he  could  escape.  It  was  evi- 
dent that  Meade's  whole  army  could  not  all  be  up.  The  fact 
is,  that  only  the  First,  Eleventh  and  a  part  of  the  Third 
Corps  were  present,  the  Second  was  distant  thirteen  miles. 

*  General  R.  H.  Anderson,  of  South  Carolina,  told  me  after  tlie  war, 
that  hearing  our  gnns  early  in  the  day,  he  was  hastening  with  his  brig- 
ade to  join  ns;  was  not  more  than  two  miles  away,  when  he  was  met  by 
a  messenger  from  General  Lee  with  an  order  for  him  to  halt  and  bivonac 
his  brigade.  Surprised  at  this,  he  first  obeyed  the  order,  and  then  rode 
on  to  Gettysburg  to  see  General  Lee  and  learn  from  him  if  this  message 
was  correctly  delivered  General  Lee  replied  that  there  was  no  mistake 
made,  and  explained  that  his  army  was  not  all  up,  that  he  was  in  igno- 
rance as  to  the  force  of  the  enemy  in  front,  that  his  (General  Anderson's) 
alone  of  the  troops  present,  had  not  been  engaged,  and  tliat  a  reserve  in 
case  of  disaster,  was  necessary. 

122  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

the  Fifth  23  miles,  and  the  Sixth  (16,000  strong)  34  miles. 
Here  was  an  opportunity  to  crush  the  enemy  in  detail ;  and 
General  Lee  having  nearly  the  whole  of  his  army  with  him, 
was  ready  and  anxious  to  avail  of  it.  Meade's  refused  right 
on  Gulp's  Hill,  if  driven  in,  would  have  placed  Lee's  left 
partly  in  rear  of  it ;  this  therefore  seemed  to  be  the  most  vul- 
nerable point,  and  General  Lee  at  first  wished  Ewell  and  Hill 
to  commence  the  attack,  to  be  followed  up  by  Longstreet,  on 
Hill's  right ;  but  Ewell's  and  Hill's  trooj)s  had  been  hotly  en- 
gaged, and  the  enemy's  position  in  their  front  would  be  very 
formidable  if  fortified  during  the  night,  which  it  was,  so 
Longstreet  was  instructed  to  open  the  attack  on  the  enemy's 
left,  as  soon  as  possible  in  the  morning,  (he  was  expected  to 
do  so  at  sunrise),  while  Ewell  should  make  a  demonstration 
on  his  right,  so  as  to  prevent  reinforcements  being  sent  to  re- 
lieve the  point  of  the  main  attack  in  front  of  Longstreet. 
Had  this  simple  plan  been  carried  out,  one  cannot  doubt  that 
the  enemy's  left  positions  would  have  fallen  into  our  hands ; 
and  with  little  Round  Top,  which  Meade  said  rightly  was 
the  key  to  his  whole  position,  in  our  possession,  three  of  the 
corps  of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac  would  have  been  crushed 
before  they  could  have  received  assistance,  we  would  have  oc- 
cupied Cemetery  Ridge,  and  the  battle  of  Gettysburg  ended 
early  on  the  second  day.  But  Longstreet's  heart  was  not  in 
the  attack ;  his  troops  were  near  the  battle  field  at  day  break, 
ready  and  waiting,  while  he  ''went  to  General  Lee's  headquar- 
ters at  daylight  and  renewed  his  (my)  views  against  making 
an  attack."  (Longstreet's  words).  Every  moment  lost  by 
us  was  gain  to  the  enemy,  whose  distant  corps  were  hurrying 
to  Gettysburg.  Yet  General  Lee,  not  desiring  to  force  Long- 
street  against  his  will,  again  reconnoitered  the  right  of  the 
enemy's  position  to  see  if  it  might  not  be  better  to  make  his 
main  attack  there ;  but  he  found  that  during  the  night  Gulp's 
Hill  had  been  turned  into  a  fort.  He  therefore  at  1 1  o'clock 
ordered  Longstreet  to  attack,  which  order  was  not  obeyed,  on 
the  plea  of  waiting  for  Law's  Brigade,  which  was  on  picket. 
The  attack,  therefore,  instead  of  being  at  sunrise,  or  at  11 
o'clock,  was  postponed  to  late  in  the  afternoon,  some  nine 
hours  later  than  it  should  have  been.     Bv  this  time  Meade 

Pettigrew's  Brigade  at  Gettysburg.  123 

had  strengthened  his  left,  new  troops  had  arrived  and  what 
would,  without  doubt  have  been  an  easy  and  brilliant  success 
in  the  morning,  was  a  cruel  failure  in  the  afternoon. 
Heth's  Division  was  not  engaged  on  the  2d. 
The  third  day  found  the  Army  of  JSTorthern  Virginia  weak- 
ened by  the  hard  fighting  of  the  first  day,  and  by  the  dis- 
jointed efforts  of  the  second,  but  there  was  still  left  in  its 
"incomparable  Southern  infantry"  the  spirit  and  strength  to 
achieve  success  if  a  proper  concert  of  action  could  be  obtained. 
General  J^^e,  therefore,  decided  to  renew  the  attack,  this  time 
on  the  enemy's  left  center,  his  flanks  being  now  too  strongly 
fortified  and  guarded.      The  attack  was  again  unfortunately 
intrusted  to  Longstreet,  who,  if  he  had  little  heart  for  the  sec- 
ond day's  iight,  made  no  concealment  of  the  fact,  that  he  had 
none  at  all  for  the  third  day's ;  and  to  this  cause,  without  seek- 
ing any  other,  may  be  traced  its  failure.      The  weight  of  ev- 
idence goes  to  prove  that  it  was  General  Lee's  intention  that 
Longstreet  should  make  the  attack  with  his  entire  corps,  to  be 
supported  l)y  half  of  Llill's  Corps,  all  of  it  if  necessary,  and 
should  this  force  succeed  in  penetrating  the  enemy's  line,  all 
the  troops  on  the  right  to  be  pushed  forward.      Meanwhile 
Ewell  on  our  left,  acting  in  concert,  was  to  assail  the  enemy's 
right  so  as  to  prevent  him  from  reinforcing  his  center,  and  to 
assist  in  crushing  his  right  wing.      The  artillery  Avas  to  pre- 
pare the  way,  and  before  the  smoke  of  the  guns  should  have 
cleared  away  the  attacking  column  was  to  be  started.      All 
this  required  concert  and  prompt,  spirited  action.     But  this 
is  what  happened.      "General  Longstreet's  dispositions  were 
not  completed  as  expected,"    (General  R.   E.   Lee's  report) 
and  therefore  Ewell  could  not  be  notified,  his  attack,  which 
was  to  have  been  simultaneous  with  that  of  Longstreet's,  was 
made  and  repulsed.      Thus  the  object  of  the  diversion  on  the 
enemy's  right  was  defeated.     At  11  o'clock  Colonel  A.   P. 
Alexander,  in  charge  of  the  artillery,  with  nearly  150  guns 
ranged  along  Seminary  Ridge,  reported  that  he  was  ready; 
but  not  until  1  p.  m.  was  the  order  given  by  Longstreet  to 
commence    firing.      At    the    appointed    signal    our    artillery 
opened  on  the  enemy  with  its  150  guns,  and  kept  it  up  for 
nearly  two  hours.      Meanwhile  the   assaulting  column  had 

124  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

been  formed,  but  its  composition  was  not  on  tbe  scale  contem- 
plated by  General  Lee.  Instead  of  its  being  the  entire  First 
Corps  with  the  Third  to  support  it,  Longstreet  had  selected 
only  Pickett's  Division  from  his  corps,  to  which  were  added 
from  Hill's  Corps  Heth's  Division,  two  brigades  from  Pen- 
der's and  one  from  Anderson's.  Pickett's  Division  of  three 
brigades  was  posted  in  two  lines  behind  a  rise  on  which 
runs  the  Emmettsburg  road,  its  right  supported  by  Wilcox's 
Brigade.  Heth's  Division  to  the  left  of  Pickett's,  and  fully 
one  hundred  yards  further  back,  was  in  one  line  behind  the 
crest  of  Seminary  Pidge,  with  Lane's  and  Scales'  Brigades 
under  Trimble  in  rear  of  its  right. 

When  Pettigrew,  commanding  Heth's  Division,  reported 
to  Longstreet  he  was  instructed  to  form  in  rear  of  Pickett 
as  a  support  to  his  division,  but  before  the  order  could  be  ex- 
ecuted it  was  countermanded,  and  directions  given  to  place 
the  division  under  the  nearest  cover  to  the  left  of  Pickett's 
Division,  with  which  it  would  advance  in  line.  The  align- 
ment of  the  divisions  from  right  to  left,  w'as,  Archer's  Bri- 
gade of  Tennesseeans  under  Colonel  B.  D.  Fry ;  Pettigrew's 
North  Carolinians  under  Colonel  James  K.  Marshall ;  Davis' 
Mississippians  under  General  Joseph  Davis,  and  Brockenbo- 
rough's  Virginians  under  Colonel  Pobert  Mayo.  Pickett's 
was  the  directing  division  ;  when  it  moved,  Heth's  Division 
was  to  move  and  as  soon  as  possible  overtake  Pickett  and 
continue  the  advance  in  line  with  it  on  its  left.  After  much 
delay  and  uncertainty  as  to  whether  the  attack  would  be  made 
at  all,  Longstreet  at  last,  with  a  nod  of  the  head,  started  Pick- 
ett, and  immediately  Archer's  and  Pettigrew's  Brigades 
moved  forward.  Pettigrew  had  taken  every  precaution  to 
insure  concert  of  action  in  the  division  ;  l:)ut  this  was  no  easy 
matter,  for  the  woods  which  concealed  us  from  view  of  the 
enemy,  and  to  some  extent  sheltered  us  from  his  shells,  con- 
tained other  troops  seeking  the  same  shelter,  and  it  so  hap- 
pened that  General  Davis,  who  afterwards  told  me  that  he 
had  been  indignant  with  General  Pettigrew  for  cautioning 
him  so  frequently  to  conform  promptly  to  the  movement  of 
Pettigrew's  Brigade  on  his  right,  mistook  other  troops  for 
Pettigrew's  and  did  not  discover  his  mistake  until  the  two 

Pettigrew's  Brigade  at  Gettysburg.  125 

right  brigades  had  advanced  some  distance.  When  we 
emerged  from  the  wood  into  the  plain,  the  absence  of  the  two 
left  brigades  was  discovered,  and  General  Pettigrew  instruct- 
ed me  to  go  for  them  with  all  speed,  but  I  had  scarcely  turned 
to  do  so,  when  out  came  Davis  from  the  woods  with  a  rush, 
but  not  Brockeuborough's  Brigade,  and  I  asked  General  Pet- 
tigrew if  I  should  go  for  it.  He  replied,  ''K'o,"  that  it  might 
foUoAv,  and  if  it  failed  to  do  so  it  would  not  matter.  This 
was  a  small  brigade  that  had  suffered  from  frequent  change 
of  commanders,  and  had  been  so  badly  handled  that  it  was  in 
a  chronic  state  of  demoralization,  and  was  not  to  be  relied 
upon ;  it  was  virtually  of  no  value  in  a  fight.  Afterward  it 
advanced  to  the  protection  of  some  rifle  pits  in  front  of  Sem- 
inary Kidge,  but  it  took  no  part  in  the  charge. 

The  day  was  beautifully  clear;  the  smoke  from  the  guns 
of  the  artillery,  which  was  to  have  concealed  our  start,  had 
been  blown  away.  Before  us  lay  bright  fields,  and  a  fair 
landscape,  embracing  hill  and  dale  and  moimtain ;  and  be- 
yond, fully  three-fourths  of  a  mile  away  loomed  up  Ceme- 
tery llidge,  for  two  miles,  its  heights  capped  with  cannon, 
and  behind  them  the  whole  Army  of  the  Potomac  waiting 
for  our  little  band.  Davis'  Brigade  with  its  impetuous  rush 
soon  caught  up  with  the  two  brigades  of  Heth's  Division 
which  had  preceded  it,  and  then  the  three,  pushing  forward 
together,  caught  up  with  Pickett's  Division,  making  one  line 
of  the  two  divisions,  which  first  through  shot  and  shell,  then 
grape  and  canister,  then  a  hail  of  bullets  from  the  musketry, 
marched  over  the  plain,  surmounted  every  obstacle,  and 
reached  the  enemy's  position,  the  strength  of  which  was  all  he 
could  desire.  From  the  crest  upon  which  he  was  entrenched 
the  hill  sloped  gradually,  forming  a  natural  glacis  and  the 
configuration  of  the  ground  was  such  that  when  the  left  of 
our  line  approached  his  line  it  must  come  within  the  arc  of  a 
circle,  from  Avhich  an  oblique  and  the  enfilade  fire  could  be, 
and  was,  concentrated  upon  it.  On  the  right  Pickett's  Divis- 
ion, Archer's  and  a  part  of  Pettigrew's  Brigade  had  pene- 
trated the  w^orks,  and  so  would  all  of  it  have  done,  but  in  the 
advance  the  pressure  had  been  from  right  to  left,  and  when 
the  line  reached  the  ridge,  it  vras  sKghtly  oblique ;  consequent- 

126  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

ly  tlie  left  of  Heth's  Division  was  thrown  back  somewhat. 
Wlien  not  far  from  the  stone  fence  behind  which  the  enemy's 
infantry  was  entrenched,  Davis'  Brigade,  reduced  to  a  line  of 
skirmishers,  broke.  It  had  suffered  a  great  deal  in  the  first 
day's  fight ;  and  in  its  rush  from  the  wood  on  Seminary 
Ridge,  it  had  arrived  right  oblique  on  Pettigrew's  left,  and 
in  process  of  forcing  its  line  back  to  the  left,  in  order  to  get 
into  position,  there  was  for  a  little  while  a  huddling  of  the 
men  together,  which  exposed  them  to  greater  loss  than  should 
have  been,  but  the  line  was  soon  straightened  out,  and  no 
troops  could  have  done  better  until  they  broke;  but  this  bri- 
gade was  on  the  extreme  left,  not  a  support  of  any  kind  to 
brace  it  up,  and  exposed  to  flank,  oblique  and  direct  fire,  what 
hope  or  confidence  could  be  left  to  the  few  men,  that  if  they 
held  on  they  could  succeed.  General  Fitzhugh  Lee,  in  his 
work  entitled  ^'General  Lee,"  says  of  the  left  brigades  of  our 
assaulting  columns,  which  includes  Davis',  Pettigrew's  and 
Archer's : 

"They  made  their  assault  in  front  of  Hay's  and  Gibbon's 
Divisions,  Second  Corps,  in  the  vicinity  of  Ziegler's  Grove. 
Stormed  at  with  shot  and  shell  this  column  moved  steadily 
on,  closing  up  the  gaps  made,  and  preserving  the  alignment. 
'They  moved  up  splendidly,'  wrote  a  iSTorthern  otficer,  'deploy- 
ing as  they  crossed  the  long,  sloping  interval.  The  front  of 
the  column  was  nearly  up  the  slope,  and  within  a  few  yards 
of  the  Second  Corps'  front  and  its  batteries,  when  suddenly 
a  terrific  fire  from  every  available  gun  on  Cemetery  Ridge 
burst  upon  them.  Their  graceful  lines  underwent  an  instan- 
taneous transformation ;  in  a  dense  cloud  of  smoke  and  dust, 
arms,  heads,  blankets,  guns,  and  knapsacks  were  tossed  in  the 
air,  and  the  moans  from  the  battlefield  were  heard  from  amid 
the  storm  of  battle.  Sheets  of  missiles  flew  through  what 
seemed  a  moving  mass  of  smoke ;  human  valor  was  powerless, 
and  the  death-dealing  guns  were  everywhere  throwing  blazing 
projectiles  in  their  faces.'  No  troops  could  advance  and  live. 
The  fiery  onslaught  was  repulsed  as  Pickett's  Division  had 
been,  and  then  the  survivors  of  both  came  back  to  their  former 
positions,  but  not  one-half  of  the  fourteen  thousand.  The 
famous  charge  was  over." 

Pettigrew's  Brigade  at  Gettysburg.  127 

General  Pettigrew  had  assigned  me  to  the  left  of  the  divis- 
ion, and  my  duty  was  to  see  that  the  proper  alignment  was 
kept  and  if  necessary  to  encourage  the  men,  should  there  be 
any  sign  of  faint-heartedness.  At  first  I  found  it  difficult 
to  keep  the  men  from  crowding,  and  to  make  them  give  way 
to  the  pressure  from  the  right,  and  this  may  have  given  the 
impression  to  some  lookers  on  that  our  line  wavered,  but  this 
trouble  was  soon  remedied  by  the  thinning  of  the  ranks,  done 
by  shot  and  shell.  As  to  my  secoiul  duty,  that  of  encouraging 
the  men  to  move  forward,  there  was  no  need  of  a  word  from 
me.  When  gaps  were  made  in  tlie  line  the  ranks  closed  up 
of  their  own  accord,  and  continue*!  to  advance,  until  the  catas- 
trophe, which  I  have  described.  Of  course  no  troops,  it  mat- 
ters not  what  their  straits,  should  retire  from  an  attack  with- 
out orders  to  do  so ;  but  there  is  certainly  mitigation  for  those 
who  had  none  of  their  company  officers  to  look  to,  and  there 
were  many  companies,  reduced  to  a  few  men,  whose  officers 
had  all  fallen.  When  what  was  left  of  Davis'  Brigade  broke 
it  did  so  in  an  instant,  there  was  none  of  the  before-hand  wav- 
ering reported  by  Longstreet  and  others,  who  were  looking  on 
from  afar  or  not  at  all.  This,  like  many  others  of  the  reports 
concerning  the  charge,  was  wholly  imaginary.  When  Davis' 
Brigade  broke,  I  reported  to  General  Pettigrew  and  he  imme- 
diately sent  me  to  General  Trimble  to  ask  him  to  hasten  for- 
ward to  our  support.  I  was  then  on  foot.  My  gallant  mare — 
and  that  she  was  gallant,  her  groom,*  who  was  with  me  all 
during  the  war,  and  who  has  been  my  friend  and  servant  for 
forty  years,  can  testify — had  succumbed  to  three  wounds; 
and  do  not  think  me  heartless,  when  I  tell  you,  that  when  I 
placed  a  wounded  soldier  on  her  and  sent  them  out,  the 
thoughts  of  my  heart  were  more  with  the  spirited  animal 
which  had  borne  me  bravely  through  many  perils,  than  with 
my  hurt  comrade.  I  ran  as  fast  as  I  could  to  deliver  the  mes- 
sage entrusted  to  me.  General  Trimble  and  his  brigade  were 
not  and  had  not  been  in  supporting  distance ;  they  also  must 
have  been  delayed,  as  was  Davis'  Brigade  in  the  wood  on 
Seminary  Ridge.     Be  this  as  it  may,  they  were  too  late  to 

*  James  R.  Norwood,  a  colored  man. 

128  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

give  any  assistance  to  the  assaulting  column.  When  I  deliv- 
ered mv  message,  I  knew  it  was  too  late,  and  I  recall  my  sad 
reflection,  "What  a  pity  that  these  hrave  men  should  be  sacri- 
ficed." Already  had  the  remnants  of  Pickett's  and  Heth's 
Divisions  broken.  They  broke  simultaneously.  They  had 
together  struck  the  stone  fence,  driven  back  the  enemy  posted 
behind  it,  looked  down  on  the  multitude  beyond ;  and  in  the 
words  of  General  McLaws,  who  was  watching  that  attack, 
"rebounded  like  an  India  rubber  ball."  The  lodgment  ef- 
fected, was  apparently  only  for  an  instant.  No  twenty  min- 
utes expired,  as  claimed  by  some,  before  the  hand  full  of 
brave  men  was  driven  back  by  overwhelming  numbers.  Then 
Trimble's  command  should  have  been  ordered  to  the  rear. 
It  continued  its  useless  advance  alone,  dinly  to  return  before 
it  had  gone  as  far  as  we  had. 

After  delivering  my  message  to  General  Trimble  I  re- 
turned to  General  Pettigrew.  I  found  him  walking  out  qui- 
etly ;  he  too  had  been  dismounted,  and  together  we  returned 
to  our  starting  point,  arriving  there  after  most  of  the  survi- 
vors from  the  two  divisions.  Thus  ended  the  famous  battle 
of  Gettysburg.  Notwithstanding  the  failure  of  its  efforts, 
the  army  was  still  unconqnered  in  spirit,  and  had  Meade  fol- 
lowed us  back  to  Seminary  Ridge,  he  would  have  found  our 
troops  read}^  to  mete  out  to  him  what  he  had  given  us.  But 
according  to  General  Sickles,  before  the  committee  on  the  con- 
duct of  the  war,  "it  was  by  no  means  clear,  in  the  judgment 
of  the  corps  commanders,  or  of  the  general  in  command, 
whether  they  had  Avon  or  not,"  they  therefore  made  no  coun- 
ter attack,  and  scarcely  molested  General  Lee's  army,  as  it 
slowly  and  deliberately  withdrew,  and  returned  to  Virginia. 

The  number  composing  the  assaulting  cohimn  on  this  last 
day  is  variously  estimated  at  13,500  to  18,000  men.  The 
troops  actually  engaged  were  in  reality,  only  Pickett's  Divis- 
ion of  4,500  to  5,000,  and  three  brigades  of  Heth's,  which 
were  at  the  outside  not  over  4,000.  Wiloox  on  the  right  ad- 
vanced only  a  small  part  of  the  way  and  was  of  no  assistance 
to  Pickett,  and  Trimble's  advance  was  too  late  to  be  of  the 
least  support  to  our  left.  The  little  band  of  less  than  9,000 
men  had  traversed  the  wide  plain,  intersected  with  fences 

Pettigrew's  Brigade  at  Gettysburg.  129 

mnniiio',  some  parallel,  some  oblique  to  our  line,  without  shel- 
ter of  any  kind,  without  assistance  from  our  artillery  which 
had  expended  its  ammunition,  and  had  done  no  damage  to 
that  of  the  enemy  or  its  infantry.  The  charge  was  grand, 
but  that  is  all  it  was.  "Some  one  had  blundered."  Said 
General  Lee,  "had  I  had  Stonewall  Jackson  at  Gettysburg  I 
would  have  won  a  great  victory."  So  I  believe,  but  the  man- 
tle of  Elijah  had  not  fallen  on  Elisha.  Longstreet  was  not 

There  was,  now  is  and  always  will  be  given  to  Pickett's 
Division  exalted  ]jraise  for  its  part  in  this  famous  charge 
upon  the  heights  of  Gettysburg  and  it  deserves  it ;  but  I  claim 
for  Pettigrew's  and  Archer's  Brigade  not  only  equal,  but  a 
larger  share  of  the  honors  of  the  day ;  and  even  to  Davis'  Bri- 
gade, although  the  first  to  break,  is  due  the  tribute  which  is 
the  meed  of  noble  effort  and  heroic  sacrifice  in  face  of  certain 
defeat.  Whatever  might  have  been  the  probabilities  on  the 
right  and  center  of  the  assaulting  column,  there  was  no  hope 
for  the  left,  its  flank  stormed  on  by  every  conceivable  missile 
of  destruction.  In  its  shattered  condition  it  could  have  made 
no  lodgment.  Pickett  on  the  right,  although  not  supported 
by  Wilcox  as  was  intended,  had  the  advantage  of  having  been 
formed  in  two  lines — two  brigades  on  the  front,  one  on  the 
second  line  as  a  support ;  whereas  Heth's  Division,  unde-r  or- 
ders, advanced  in  one  line.  Pickett's  Division  having  been 
posted  more  than  one  hundred  yards  in  advance  of.  Heth's, 
had  a  shorter  distance  to  go;  and  above  all,  Pickett's  Division 
was  fresh.  It  had  not  yet  participated  in  the  battle ;  its  or- 
ganization v.'as  complete,  with  a  full  roll  of  staff  and  field  of- 
ficers. Heth's  Division  had  suffered  groat  loss  on  the  1st, 
and  General  Pettigrew  had  with  him  as  division  staff,  only 
the  young  volunteer  aide,  W.  B.  Sheppard,  and  myself; 
therefore  the  brigades  of  Archer  and  Pettigrew,  which  did  in 
all  respects  as  well  as  did  Pickett's  Division,  are  entitled  to 
more  credit,  whereas  they  have  been  often  included  in  the 
number  of  those  blamed  for  the  failure  of  the  charge  on  Cem- 
etery Ridge. 

'No  State  in  the  Confederacy  contributed  braver,  more  de- 
voted or  better  soldiers,  or  a  greater  number  of  them  than  did 

130  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

ISTorth  Carolina ;  and  yet  in  this  instance,  for  some  unaccount- 
able reason,  they  were  made  a  mark  for  ignorant  or  vicious 
and  false  disparagement.  In  Heth's  Division,  of  the  sixteen 
regiments  present  at  Gettysburg,  only  five  were  from  North 
Carolina,  yet  such  stufl:"  as  this,  conceived  in  the  brilliant  im- 
agination of  Swinton,  finds  credence  and  is  repeated  in  other 
histories  of  like  kind.  Says  Swinton :  "It  happens  that 
the  division  on  the  left  of  Pickett  under  command  of  General 
Pettigrew  was  in  considerable  part  made  up  of  North  Caro- 
lina troops,  comparatively  green.  To  animate  them  they 
had  been  told  that  they  would  only  meet  Pennsylvania  mili- 
tia; but  when  approaching  the  slope  they  received  the  feu 
d'enfer  from  Henry's  line,  there  ran  through  the  rank  a  cry 
the  effect  of  which  was  like  that  which  thrilled  a  Greek  army 
when  it  was  said  that  the  god  Pan  was  among  them:  'The 
Army  of  the  Potomac'  Then,  suddenly  disillusioned  re- 
garding their  opponents,  Pettigrew's  troops  broke  in  disorder 
leaving  tAvo  thousand  prisoners  and  fifteen  colors  in  the  hands 
of  Ilejiry's  Division."  Brilliant  rhetoric,  but  not  truth. 
Think  of  the  audacity  of  the  manufacture.  It  says  of  Heth's 
Division,  that  it  was  ''in  considerable  part  made  up  of  North 
Carolinians,"  when  they  were  only  as  five  to  sixteen;  and 
then  that  they  were  frightened  at  a  cry,  "The  Army  of  the 
Potomac."  This,  two  days  after  Pettigrew's  Brigade  of 
North  Carolinians  had  neaidy  annihilated  the  best  brigade  in 
the  Northern  army. 

Another  matter  of  no  little  importance.  The  division, 
even  by  such  authority  as  Colonel  AValtcr  H.  Taylor,  of  Gen- 
eral Lee's  Staff,  is  spoken  of  as  "Pettigrew's  Division."  Pet- 
tigrew had  no  division.  The  division  was  Heth's,  and  should 
be  so  spoken  of  whether  in  praise  or  blame.  "In  war,"  said 
Napoleon,  "men  are  nothing,  a  man  is  everything."  Troops 
are  what  their  commanders  make  them;  and  General  Petti- 
grew had  no  hand  in  molding  Heth's  Division.  Nor  is  it 
fair  to  blame  Hetli  for  the  shortcoming  of  Brockenborough's 
Virginia  Brigade,  under  Robert  Mayo,  the  only  troops  on  the 
ground  which  really  behaved  badly,  for  the  division  had  been 
formed  only  a  few  weeks  before,  and  had  been  constantly  on 
the  march  since.      There  was  not  time  for  the  influence  of 

Pettigrew's  Brigade  at  Gettysburg.  131 

the  commander  to  be  felt.  In  this  matter  not  even  a  suspi- 
cion of  blame  must  be  attached  to  the  name  of  Pettigrew, 
whose  genius  was  such  that  its  influence  inspired  and  became 
a  part  of  the  humblest  soldier  in  his  command.  He  had  in 
a  few  months  made  of  his  brigade  as  fine  a  body  of  infantry 
as  ever  trod  the  earth,  and  his  men  would  have  followed  him 
wherever  lie  led,  or  gone  wherever  he  told  them  to  go,  no  mat- 
ter how  desperate  the  enterprise.  The  brigade  never  lost  the 
inspiration  of  his  name,  and  from  first  to  last  was  one  of  the 
very  best  in  the  army  of  the  Confederate  States.  Its  bap- 
tism of  blood  at  Gettysburg  prepared  it  for  all  subsequent 
hardships,  and  never,  until  included  in  the  surrender  of  the 
9,000  at  Appomattox,  did  it  fail  to  respond  to  the  command 
to  go  forward.  Its  career  was  brilliant,  and  its  history 
should  be  written  and  preserved.  Its  losses  at  Gettysburg 
attest  its  fierce  struggle  in  that  famous  battle.  On  the  morn- 
ing of  1  July  it  numbered  2,800  to  3,000,  on  the  4th  935.  All 
the  field  officers,  save  one  who  was  captured,  were  killed  or 
wounded ;  and  the  Ijrigade  Avas  commanded  after  the  repulse 
from  Cemetery  Ridge  by  Major  Jones,  of  the  Twenty-sixth 
North  Carolina,  who  had  been  struck  by  a  fragment  of  a  shell 
on  the  1st,  and  knocked  down  and  stunned  on  the  3d ;  Gen- 
eral Pettigrew  Avas  painfully  wounded,  two  of  his  staff  Avere 
killed,*  and  one  so  seriously  Avounded  as  to  deprive  the  bri- 
gade of  his  services.  On  1  July,  Captain  Tuttle,  of  the 
TAventy-sixth  North  Carolina,  led  into  action  tAvo  Lieuten- 
ants and  84  men.  All  of  the  officers  and  83  men  Avere  killed 
or  Avounded.  On  the  same  day  Company  C,  of  the  Eleventh, 
lost  tAvo  officers  killed  and  34  out  of  38  men  killed  and  wound- 
ed. Captain  Bird  Avith  the  four  remaining,  participated 
in  the  fight  of  the  3d ;  of  these  the  flag  bearer  Avas  shot,  and 
the  Captain  brought  out  the  flag  himself.  These  I  give  as  ex- 
amples to  shoAv  hoAv  persistently  our  men  fought.  The  losses 
in  several  other  companies  Avere  nearly  as  great  as  these. 
In  the  engagement  of  1  July  Ave  lost  no  prisoners.      After 

*  Captain  W.  W.  McCreery.  Inspector  General,  was  killed  on  1  July. 
Captain  N.  C  Hughes,  A  A.  G.,  Avas  mortally  wounded  nn  the  3rd  when 
with  the  Brigade  under  Colonel  Marshall.  "Lieutenant  Walter  H.  Eob- 
ertson,  Ordnanee  Officer,  was  wounded  on  the  1st. 

132  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

the  repulse  of  3  July,  the  enemy  advanced  a  heavy  line  of 
skirmishers  and  captured  some  of  the  brigade,  hnt  no  blame 
is  to  be  attached  to  these. 

Lieutenant-Colonel  John  A.  Graves,  of  the  Forty-seventh 
ISTorth  Carolina,  whose  courage  often  elicited  comment  and 
praise,  would  not  permit  those  of  his  regiment  in  his  hear- 
ing, some  150  men,  to  retire,  telling  them  to  wait  the  arrival 
of  the  supports,  with  which  they  would  advance;  they  were 
then  not  far  from  the  stone  fence.  The  supports  never 
reached  this  point,  and  the  Lieutenant-Colonel  and  his  men 
were  taken  prisoners. 

It  is  said  that  the  Northern  soldiers  cheered  the  gallant 
charge  made  by  the  assaulting  column  on  the  third  day,  and 
of  Lincoln  it  is  reported  that,  looking  from  the  steeps  of  Cem- 
etery Ridge,  he  said,  'T  am  proud  to  be  the  countryman  of 
the  men  wdio  assailed  these  heights."  Is  it  not  a  crying 
shame  that  while  our  very  enemies  do  us  honor,  there  should 
be  some  among  our  own  people  to  slander  our  brave  soldiers  ? 
The  historian  of  the  future  Avill  weigh  the  evidence  in  the 
scales  of  truth,  and  do  justice  to  all. 

Praise  is  due  to  their  memory,  and  for  ourselves  it  is  good 
to  render  it,  since  "we  in  some  measure  take  part  in  good  ac- 
tions when  we  praise  them  sincerely."  Heroic  deeds  are 
torches  to  light  the  paths  of  our  young,  and — 

"Heaven  doth  with  us  as  we  with  torches  do, 
Not  hght  them  for  themselves." 

I  would  like  especially  to  tell  of  General  James  Johnston 
Pettigrew^,  who  was  a  soldier  of  the  highest  attainments ;  in 
strength  of  intellect  approaching  nearer  the  attributes  of 
genius  than  any  it  has  been  my  fortune  to  meet,  and  in  char- 
acter like  Robert  E.  Lee.  But  this  article  is  full  long,  and  I 
can  only  say  of  our  dead  heroes,  that — 

"They  died 
As  they  wished  to  die,  the  past  is  sure  ; 
Whatever  of  sorrow  may  betide, 
Those  who  still  linger  by  the  stormy  shore, 
Change  cannot  harm  them  now  nor  fortune  touch  them  more." 

Louis  G.  Young. 
Savannah,  Ga., 

3  July,  1901. 


By  JOHN  T.  JONES,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Twenty-Sixth  Regiment 
North  Carolina  Troops. 

Our  division  was  in  the  front  line  on  the  left  of  Pickett, 
and  a  i3rolongation  of  the  same  line.  Onr  brigade  was  on  the 
right  of  the  di^dsion — onr  regiment  (Twenty-sixth)  on  the 
right  of  the  brigade — consequently  immediately  on  the  left  of 
Pickett.  When  we  started,  we  were  on  the  diameter  of  a  cir- 
cle, and  as  we  advanced,  Pickett  following  the  arc  of  the  cir- 
cle, necessarily  rather  contracted  the  lines  towards  the  cen- 
ter. We  all  moved  oft'  in  as  magnificent  style  as  I  ever  saw, 
the  lines  i)erfectly  formed.  On  we  went.  When  we  had 
crossed  about  half  the  intervening  space  the  enemy  opened 
on  us  witli  a  tremendous  shower  of  grape  and  canister,  but 
on  we  dashed,  our  l)rigade  and  Pickett's  men.  I  could  see 
nothing  of  the  rest  of  our  division,  as  they  were  too  far  to 
the  left.  My  whole  attention  was  directed  to  our  own  bri- 
gade and  Pickett's  Division,  as  we  had  been  ordered  to  keep 
dressed  to  the  right.  When  we  had  gotten  within  about  100 
yards  of  the  enemy's  works,  we  commenced  firing,  but  still 
advancing.  The  storm  of  lead  which  now  met  us  is  beyond 
description.  Grape  and  canister  intermingled  with  minies 
and  buckshot.  The  smoke  was  dense  and  at  times  I  could 
scarcely  distinguish  my  own  men  from  Pickett's,  and  to  say 
that  any  one  a  mile  off  could  do  so,  is  utterly  absurd.      On 

Note.— This  article  is  an  extract  from  a  letter  to  the  father  of  Colonel 
Henry  K.  Bnrgwyn  written  from  Culpepper  C  H.,  30  July,  1863,  by  John 
T  Jonesof  the  Twenty  sixth  North  Carolina  Regiment  who  as  Major  came 
out  of  the  charge  at  Gettysburg  in  command  of  Pettigrew's  brigade  and 
was  published  in  the  FaiietteHlle  Ohm-rer  18  April,  1864.  It  has  the  great 
merit  of  being  cotemporaneous  evidence  from  a  most  unquestionable 
source  This  gallant  young  officer  was  promoted  Lieutenant-Colonel 
to  date  from  1  July,  1863,  and  was  killed  at  the  Wilderness  6  May,  1864. 

134  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

we  pushed,  and  were  now  right  upon  the  enemy's  works  when 
we  received  a  murderous  fire  upon  our  left  flank.  I  looked 
to  see  where  it  came  from,  and  lo,  we  were  completely  flanked 
upon  our  left,  not  only  by  infantry,  but  by  artillery.  Here 
candor  compels  me  to  admit  that  one  of  the  brigades  of  our 
division  had  given  way,  the  enemy  had  seized  upon  the  gap, 
and  now  poured  a  galling  fire  into  our  left,  which  compelled 
the  troops  to  give  way  in  succession  to  the  right.  What  could 
we  do  now  ?  At  the  very  moment  I  thought  victory  ours,  I 
saw  it  snatched  from  our  hands.  With  no  support  upon  the 
left,  I  asked  myself  what  we  should  do.  I  had  only  about 
sixty  men  left  in  my  regiment,  and  that  small  number  dimin- 
ishing ev  M-y  moment.  The  others  had  suffered  as  badly. 
The  order  ame  from  the  right  to  fall  back.  We  did  so  at  the 
same  time  with  Pickett.  The  day  was  lost.  You  must  ob- 
serve I  do  not  attach  any  blame  to  Pickett.  I  think  he  did 
his  duty,  and  if  he  did,  we  certainly  did  ours,  because  I  know 
we  went  as  far  as  he  did,  and  I  can  safely  assert  some  distance 
beyond,  owing  to  the  shape  of  the  enemy's  Avorks,  which  ran 
backward  in  our  front  in  the  form  of  a  curve,  and  which 
compelled  us  to  go  beyond  where  Pickett's  men  were  already 
at  their  works  in  order  to  reach  them  ourselves.  The  color- 
bearer  of  my  regiment  Avas  shot  down  while  attempting  to 
plant  the  flag  on  the  wall.  I  will  here  mention  a  remark 
made  to  me  afterwards  by  General  Pettigrew.  With  tears 
in  his  eyes  he  spoke  of  the  loss  in  his  brigade,  and  then  re- 
marked:    ''iMy  noble  brigade  had  gained  the  enemy's  works, 

and  would  have  held  them  had  not 's  brigade  given 

way.  Oh !  had  they  have  known  the  consequences  that  hung 
upon  their  action  at  that  moment,  they  would  have  pressed 

It  is  well  to  be  remembered  that  while  Pickett's  men  were 
perfectly  fresh,  having  nevei'  fired  a  gun  and  having  just  come 
up,  our  brigade  had  been  terribly  cut  up  on  the  1st,  especially 
two  of  the  regiments.  The  Twenty-sixth,  which  went  into 
action  on  the  1st  850  strong,  on  the  3d  only  had  for  duty  230 
men,  and  not  officers  enough  to  command  the  companies.  If 
some  troops  can  gain  so  much  credit  for  being  defeated,  is  it 
not  strange  that  nothing  is  said  of  us  when  we  (on  the  1st) 

Pettigrew's  Brigade  at  Gettysburg.  135 

drove  line  after  line  of  the  enemy  from  their  positions  like 
sheep,  and  pnrsued  them  for  two  miles.  What  I  say  of  our 
brigade  I  might  say  of  the  whole  division.  JSTo  troops  ever 
fonght  better  than  ours.  We  were  engaged  for  hours  with 
five  times  our  number,  and  routed  them  completely;  but  our 
loss  was  fearful — about  50  per  cent. — among  them  our  best 
officers.  Our  Major-General  was  wounded  the  first  day. 
Captains  and  Lieutenants  were  in  command  of  regiments  on 
the  3d.  Still  we  were  put  in  the  front  rank,  the  post  of 
honor,  and  not  in  support,  as  the  Enquirer  has  it,  when  there 
were  other  troops  comparatively  fresh,  who  might  have  taken 
our  place.  Does  not  this  show  the  confidence  of  our  general 
in  us  ? 

Then  look  at  our  losses,  which  leaving  out  of  account  the 
first  day,  greatly  exceed  those  of  any  other  troops.  Had  Gen- 
eral Heth  not  been  wounded,  or  had  the  lamented  Pettigrew 
lived  they  con  Id  have  told  a  tale  that  would  have  made  those 
blush  who  are  now  trying  to  bear  off  the  honors  so  nobly  won 
by  others.  But  alas,  we  have  not  even  enough  left  to  refute 
the  foul  calumny  of  those  who  would  basely  endeavor  to  pluck 
from  our  brows  the  laurels  placed  there  at  the  sacrifice  of  so 
many  of  our  noble  companions. 

That  we  still  retain  the  confidence  of  our  commander  is 
shown  by  our  being  placed  as  rear-guard,  the  post  of  honor, 
while  the  other  troops  were  safely  crossing  the  river  (Poto- 
mac. )  It  was  hei'e  in  an  attack  made  upon  our  lines  that  the 
brave  Pettigrew  fell,  while  setting  an  example  of  heroic  cour- 
age and  presence  of  mind  to  those  who  had  followed  him  un- 
faltering through  so  many  dangers  and  hardships.  In  him 
the  brigade  sustained  its  heaviest  loss.  In  him  our  State  lost 
one  of  her  brightest  stars,  and  the  Confederacy  one  of  her 
ablest  defenders. 

John  T.  Jones. 

Culpepper  C.  H.,  Va., 

30  July,  1863. 


GETTYSBURG,    3   JULY,    1563. 

By  captain  S.  A.  ASHE,  A.  A.  G.,  Pender's  Brigade. 

The  rhird  day  ot  the  struft'gde  between  the  contending 
armies  near  Gettysbnrg-  opened  clear  and  chadless.  The 
July  sun  beamed  down  on  the  battlefield  of  the  previous  day 
majestically  serene — thro^^■iniI,•  into  bold  relief  the  outlines  of 
the  picture. 

Standing-  on  Cemetery  Hill,  a  mile  south  of  the  little  town 
of  Gettysburo-.  one  saAV  the  range  continue  to  the  southward, 
now  jutting  <Mit  into  the  valley  to  the  west,  and  then  receding 
in  strong  curves  eastward,  now  falling  with  even  slo]ies  and 
then  spelling  again  in  graceful  contour — but  further  away 
breaking  into  precipitous  promontories  whose  rocky  knobs 
were  veritable  Ivoniid  To])s  and  fitly  associated  with  Devil's 

Almost  parallel  and  about  a  mile  away  to  the  west  could 
be  traced  the  course  of  Seminary  liidge,  gently  rising  from 
the  intervening  valley  and  still  covered  with  a  growth  of  orig- 
inal forest  trees.  Along  the  slope  are  fences  inclosing  fields 
with  patches  of  wood  here  and  there  and  a  little  swale  down 
the  valley  where  it  narrows  as  the  ridge  throws  out  a  spur  to 
the  eastward. 

Coming  from  the  town  is  the  Enmiettsburg  Pike  which 
after  ])assing  the  summit  of  Cemetery  Hill  swerves  off  along 
a  lower  and  divergent  ridge  that  trends  across  the  valley. 
Overlooking  the  pike  is  a  stone  wall  following  along  the  up- 
per slope  of  C^emetery  Ridge  and  conforming  generally  to 
the  line  of  its  crest,  but,  at  a  ])oint  some  six  hundred  yards 
away  where  the  hill  grows  holder  and  juts  well  out  into  the 
valley,  this  wall  makes  a  right  angle  and  comes  straight  to- 
wards the  ])ike,  and  then  again  follows  the  crest,  which  soon 

138  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

retreats  and  falls  away,  leaving  a  slight  depression  embayed 
in  the  general  outline. 

On  this  headland,  that  like  a  bastion  front  projects  itself 
into  the  valley,  stands  a  clump  of  trees  which  served  to  guide 
the  right  of  tlie  attacking  column  on  that  fateful  day ;  and  a 
quarter  of  a  mile  in  front,  but  further  down  the  valley,  stood 
the  farm  house  of  Cordori  on  a  little  knoll  surrounded  by  a 
sparse  grove. 

Beyond  the  Cemetery  to  the  north  the  range  bent  sharply 
to  the  right,  forming  a  difficult  eminence  known  as  Culp's 
Hill;  and  on  the  curve  from  Culp's  Hill  west  to  the  Ceme- 
tery and  thence  south  to  Round  Top,  was  massed  the  Federal 
army,  some  100,000  strong:  while  on  an  exterior  line  of  sis- 
ter hills  lay  Lee's  forces,  with  Ewell  on  the  left  in  possession 
of  a  part  of  Culp's  Hill,  and  Longstreet  on  the  right  towards 
Eound  Top,  while  A.  P.  Hill  covered  the  centre ;  a  total  force 
of  about  60,000  troops. 

Dispositions  had  been  made  for  an  early  morning  attack 
on  the  3d,  simultaneous  by  Ewell  on  the  right  and  Longstreet 
on  the  left ;  and  with  that  view  the  artillery  had  been  massed 
against  the  Federal  center,  Colonel  Alexander,  acting  as 
Longstreet's  chief  of  artillery,  having  occupied,  during  the 
night,  an  advanced  ridge  that  lay  several  hundred  yards  be- 
yond Longstreet's  front,  and  covered  it  with  batteries. 

But  Meade  himself  had  not  been  inactive,  and,  at  4  o'clock 
in  the  morning,  he  unsettled  this  plan  of  attack  by  driving 
back  Earh-,  whose  lodgment  on  Culp's  Hill  was  an  essential 
part  of  Lee's  proposed  movement.  Later  in  the  morning, 
then,  Lee  determined  on  making  that  assault  which  has  since 
been  so  famous  in  history. 

General  Long,  the  author  of  Lee's  Memoirs  and  then  on 
Lee's  staff,  says:  ''This  decision  was  reached  at  a  confer- 
ence held  during  the  morning  on  the  field  in  front  of  Round 
Top,  there  being  present  Generals  Lee,  Longstreet,  A.  P.  Hill 
and  Heth  and  Colonel  Long  and  Major  Venable." 

Longstreet  made  some  objection,  his  idea  being  to  move 
farther  to  the  right  and  entice  Meade  to  abandon  his  posi- 
tion and  give  battle  on  more  favorable  ground ;  but  the  attack 
was  ordered  nevertheless  and  Longstreet  was  directed  to  carry 

The  Pettigrevv-Pickett  Charge.  139 

it  into  execution.  The  object  of  General  Lee  was  to  pene- 
trate Meade's  line  in  the  depression  on  the  south  of  Cemetery 
Hill  and  thus  turning  his  position,  move  up  and  dispossess 

When  the  morning  broke  and  the  Federal  forces  beheld  so 
great  an  armament  as  one  hundred  and  forty  pieces  of  artil- 
lery in  position  on  the  crest  of  Seminary  Ridge,  they  knew 
that  an  assault  was  intended  on  some  part  of  their  line  and 
every  preparation  was  at  once  made  to  receive  it. 

The  batteries  on  Cemetery  Ridge  were  strengthened  by 
new  ones  from  the  reserve,  and  soon  eighty  pieces  of  artillery 
were  in  readiness  to  respond  to  the  expected  cannonade  which 
was  awaited  with  increasing  solicitude  as  the  morning  wore 
on  in  ominous  silence. 

In  early  morning  Pickett's  fresh  division  had  arrived  and 
two  of  his  brigades  had  been  placed  under  cover  of  the  ad- 
vanced ridge  which  CVolonel  Alexander  had  seized  the  night 
before.  Armistead's  Brigade  lay  back  protected  by  the  main 
ridge  in  a  line  with  Heth's  Division,  while  the  North  Caro- 
lina brigades  of  Scales  and  Lane  were  still  further  in  the 
rear.  These  were  the  troops  selected  to  make  the  assault: 
Pickett's  Division  being  fresh,  and  Heth's  Division,  com- 
manded by  Pettigrew,  and  Lane's  and  Scales'  Brigades,  al- 
though badly  cut  up  on  the  first,  not  having  been  engaged  on 
the  second,  and  being  troops  of  the  highest  re]^utation  for 
constancy  and  endurance. 

In  Heth's  Division  were  Archer's  Brigade,  composed  of 
two  Alabama  and  three  Tennessee  Regiments;  Pettigrew's 
Brigade,  which  had  present  the  Eleventh,  Twenty-sixth,  For- 
ty-seventh and  Fifty-second  ISTorth  Carolina  Regiments ; 
Davis'  Brigade  constituted  of  three  Mississippi  and  one 
jSTorth  Carolina  Regiment,  and  Brockenborough's  or  Field's 
Brigade,  which  was  composed  entirely  of  Virginians.  Petti- 
grew's Brigade  was  commanded  by  Colonel  ]\Iarshnll,  Gen- 
eral Pettigrew  being  in  command  of  the  division. 

Lane's  Brigade  was  formed  of  the  Seventh,  Eighteenth, 
Twenty-eighth,  Thirty-third  and  Thirty-seventh  ISForth  Car- 
olina Regiments,  and  in  Scales',  then  under  Colonel  Low- 
rance,     were     the     Thirteenth,     Sixteenth,     Twenty-second, 

140  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Thirty-fourth  and  Thirty-eighth  North  Carolina  Regiments. 
These  troojjs  had  suffered  so  severely  on  1  July  that  many 
companies  were  mere  skeletons  and  some  regiments  were  com- 
manded by  Captains. 

Pickett's  Division,  composed  entirely  of  Virginians,  had 
just  arrived  and  was  in  excellent  condition  in  all  respects. 

The  movement  was  in  double  column,  the  first  line  con- 
sisting of  Kemper's  and  Garnett's  Brigades  on  the  right,  with 
Heth's  Division  (under  Pettigrew)  on  the  left;  and  for  the 
second  line  Armistead  in  the  rear 'of  Pickett's  other  brigades, 
and  Scales'  and  Lane's  Brigades  of  North  Carolinians,  under 
General  Trimble,  in  the  rear  of  Heth's  division. 

Wilcox's  and  Perry's  Brigades  were  to  move  out  on  the  ex- 
treme right  and  protect  the  column  from  any  flanking  force, 
while  P.  li.  Anderson's  Division  covering  the  left,  was  to  be 
in  readiness  to  act  as  opportunity  should  permit.  Prelimi- 
nary to  the  movement,  the  artillery  was  to  silence  the  enemy's 
guns  and  as  far  as  possible  demoralize  their  infantry  before 
the  attem])t  should  be  made  to  carry  the  works  by  storm. 

At  1  o'clock  two  guns  were  discharged  by  the  Washington 
Artillery  as  the  signal  for  the  cannonade  to  begin.  Imme- 
diately the  line  of  batteries  o]iened  with  salvos  of  artillery 
evoking  a  ({uiek  reply  from  the  enemy,  and  the  engagement 
soon  Ijecame  one  of  the  most  terrific  bombardments  of  the 
war.  Its  fury  was  inconceivable.  "From  ridge  to  ridge 
was  kept  up  for  near  two  hours  a  Titanic  combat  of  artillery 
that  caused  the  solid  fabric  of  the  hills  to  labor  and  shake, 
and  filled  the  air  with  fire  and  smoke  and  the  mad  clamor  of 
two  hundred  guns."  The  exi^osed  batteries  were  greatly 
damaged.  Both  horses  and  men  suffered  fearful  destruc- 
tion. Caissons  exploded,  limbers  were  blown  up  and  guns 
wei'c  crippled  on  every  side.  In  ]iarticular  was  the  Confed- 
erate fire,  concentrated  on  the  point  of  attack,  very  effective. 
But  still  the  enemy's  batteries  were  not  silenced.  Their  fire 
did  not  slacken,  for  as  fast  as  the  Federal  batteries  expended 
their  ammunition,  they  were  replaced  by  new  ones  from  the 
reserve,  and  the  fire  continued  without  abatement,  until  at 
length  the  Confederate  ammunition  began  to  run  low. 

Colonel  Alexander,  to  whom  had  been  committed  the  duty 

The  Pettigrew-Pickett  Charge.  141 

of  indicating-  the  moment  for  beginning  the  charge,  felt  the 
awfnl  responsibility  of  the  dilemma  that  presented  itself, 
and  hurriedly  cominnnicated  to  Pickett  that  he  should  wait 
no  longer,  but  should  begin  the  movement  at  once,  notwith- 
standing the  terrific  energy  of  the  artillery  that  crowned  the 
enemy's  stronghold.  But  if  the  Confederate  chests  had  been 
deplete*!,  so  at  last  had  become  those  of  their  antagonists,  and 
General  Hunt,  Meade's  chief  of  artillery,  finding  it  unsafe 
to  move  \^\)  new  supplies,  and  anticipating  that  the  assault 
would  be  made  on  the  center,  conceived  it  well  to  husband 
his  resources  and  ordered  the  fire  to  slacken,  and  so,  unex- 
pectedly, the  embarrassing  difficulty  of  the  Confederate  sit- 
uation vanished. 

Immediately  the  order  to  advance  was  given  along  the 
whole  line,  and  some  twelve  thousand  veterans,  with  alacrity 
and  high  elation,  moved  forward  over  the  crests  that  had 
sheltered  tlieni,  and  passed  down  the  slopes  of  Seminary 
Ridge,  their  bright  guns  gleaming  in  the  noonday  sun  and 
their  innmnerable  battle  flags  flying  in  the  breeze,  making  as 
fine  a  pageant  as  was  ever  seen  on  any  field  of  battle.  They 
moved  in  quick  time  and  with  admirable  precision,  as  if  on 
some  gala  day  parade.  It  was  a  glorious  spectacle,  evoking 
admiration  from  foe  and  friend  alike,  and  being  the  theme  of 
unstinted  praise  from  every  one  who  witnessed  it. 

But  hardly  had  the  line  reached  the  downward  slope  of 
that  extensive  valley  when  the  Federal  batteries  Avere  again 
unloosed  and  the  carnival  of  death  began. 

"Though  stormed  at  with  shot  and  shell,  it  moved  steadily 
on  and  even  when  grape  and  canister  and  musket  balls  began 
to  rain  upon  it,  the  gaps  were  quickly  closed  and  the  align- 
ment preserved." 

The  line  of  grey,  a  full  mile  in  length,  Avith  its  second 
line  following  at  easy  distance,  marched  indeed  in  fine  style 
down  that  valley  of  death,  reckless  of  peril  and  animated 
with  that  soldierly  zeal  and  confidence  which  ever  inspired  the 
troops  of  Lee  when  moving  in  the  immediate  presence  of  that 
trusted  commander. 

From  Pickett's  advanced  position  down  the  valley  the 
clump  of  trees  which  gave  him  direction  bore  far  to  the  left, 

142  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

and  soon  reaching  the  ridge  on  which  the  Turnpike  ran,  he 
wheeled  to  the  left  and  moved  up  towards  Cordori's  House. 
By  this  movement  he  presented  his  ilank  to  the  batteries 
posted  on  Little  Round  Top  and  received  a  severe  enfilading 
fire,  while  General  Stannard,  whose  division  was  in  his  imme- 
diate front,  threw  out  tw^o  Vermont  regiments  to  contest  the 
ground  with  him.  But  Colonel  Alexander  had  himself 
hastily  followed  with  a  battery  of  artillery  and  opened  on 
this  force  with  spirit,  in  a  measure  dispersing  it  and  neutral- 
izing its  power  for  serious  work.  But  still  it  could  not  be 
entirely  driven  off,  and  when  Kemper,  on  the  extreme  right, 
having  passed  to  the  east  of  Cordori's  house,  moved  by  the 
left  flank  to  close  up  with  Garrett's  Brigade,  the  Vermonters 
also  moved  by  the  flank  to  keep  pace  with  him,  and  continued 
to  annoy  him.  As  the  line  advanced  there  loomed  up  in  the 
distance  the  works  it  was  to  assault. 

Immediately  in  front  of  Archer's  Brigade  and  Pickett's 
left  lay  the  projecting  stone  wall  standing  out  into  the  valley, 
and  held  by  "Webb's  Brigade  of  Gibbon's  Division ;  and  op- 
posite the  Confederate  left  was  the  retired  wall  held  by  Hays' 
Division,  with  Smyth's  Brigade  towards  the  cemetery  and 
Sherrill's  Brigade  between  that  and  Webb.  This  part  of 
the  wall  was  eighty  yards  behind  the  front  of  the  projection 
held  by  Webb. 

South  of  the  projection  Hall's  and  Harrow's  Brigades  con- 
tinued the  Federal  line,  behind  breastworks  of  rails  covered 
with  earth  and  with  rifle  pits  and  shallow  trenches  in  their 
front.  Further  on  were  Stannard's  and  other  brigades  of  Dou- 
bleday's  Division.  On  the  crest  of  the  hill,  a  few  yards  behind 
the  line  of  works,  was  thickly  massed  the  artillery.  Skirmish- 
ers lay  out  several  hundred  yards  in  front  in  the  clover  and 
grass,  while  a  first  line  of  infantry  held  a  strong  fence  along 
the  pike  in  front  of  Hays  and  a  low  stone  wall  further  down 
the  valley,  and  lay  concealed  in  the  grass  in  the  intervening 
space.  At  the  stone  wall  and  breastworks  was  a  second  line 
in  readiness  to  receive  the  attack,  while  behind  the  artillery, 
some  thirty  paces  off,  was  still  another,  occupying  higher 
ground   and   protected   by   the  backbone  of  the   ridge,    and 

The  Pettigrew-Pickett  Charge.  143 

further  on  the  flanks  were  heavy  masses  of  infantry  ready  to 
be  concentrated  if  occasion  required. 

As  the  Confederate  line  moved  forward,  in  constant  sight, 
momentarily  drawing  nearer  to  the  point  of  attack,  all  was 
expectation  and  anxiety  along  the  Federal  front.  The  heavy 
artillery  fire  of  the  Confederates  had  ceased  and  the  demoral- 
ization incident  to  it  rapidly  gave  place  to  a  feeling  of  reas- 
surance and  determination.  While  it  had  destroyed  the 
two  batteries  in  the  rear  of  We])l),  leaving  only  one  piece  that 
could  be  worked,  the  guns  in  rear  of  Hay's  division  were  in 
better  condition,  and  Howard's  fresh  battery  had  been 
brought  up  and  posted  on  the  slope  of  Cemetery  Hill.  And  so 
it  happened  that  while  the  troops  on  the  Confederate  right 
were  fortunately  not  subjected  to  an  artillery  fire  from  the 
front  and  were  exposed  only  to  an  enfilading  fire  from  the  ex- 
treme left  of  the  Federal  line,  it  was  far  different  with  Pet- 
tigrew's  command,  the  batteries  in  his  front  being  well  served, 
firing  first  solid  shot,  then  shell  and  spherical  case — and  at 
last  canister — double  charged,  as  Pettigrew's  line  drew  nearer 
and  nearer. 

The  movement  of  the  Confederates  was  made  in  quick 
time  over  a  clear  field,  beneath  the  burning  rays  of  a  fiery 
July  sun,  and  was  attended  with  considerable  fatigue  and  ex- 
haustion. But  those  veterans  who  had  been  trained  to  the 
vicissitudes  of  war  well  knew  that  at  the  final  assault,  dash 
and  vigor  would  be  necessary,  and  they  therefore  husbanded 
their  strength  and  moved  forward  steadily  and  resolutely  un- 
der the  galling  fire  that  was  rapidly  thinning  their  ranks. 
Speaking  of  the  troops  in  front  of  Hay's  Division,  General 
Bachelder  says  that  when  they  had  reached  a  position  "half 
way  across  the  plain  they  encountered  a  terrible  artillery  fire, 
but  against  wbicb,  as  a  man  })resses  against  a  blinding  storm, 
they  moved  steadily  on  as  if  impelled  by  a  will  greater  than 
their  own — some  mighty  unseen  power  which  they  could  not 

"Solid  shot  ploughed  through  their  ranks,  spherical  case 
rattled  in  their  midst  and  canister  swept  them  by  hundreds 
from  the  field,  yet  on  they  pressed  unflinchingly. 

It  was  an  awful  experience  to  pass  nearly  a  mile  across  an 

144  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

open  plain  siibjected  to  such  a  terrible  fire,  with  no  hope  of 
protection  and  without  power  to  resist.  But  each  brave 
spirit  in  Pettigrew's  command  recognized  the  necessity  of 
immolation  if  need  be,  and  offered  himself  a  willing  sacrifice ; 
and  so  closing  up  the  great  gaps  in  its  ranks,  the  lines  on  the 
left  continued  to  face  the  furious  storm  and  silently  moved 
on  upon  the  deadly  batteries. 

At  length  having  made  two-thirds  of  the  distance,  and 
being  only  three  Inindred  yards  away,  Pickett's  troops  with 
Garnett  in  front,  Kemper  on  the  right,  l)ut  somewhat  in  rear, 
and  Armistead  a  hundred  yards  behind,  turned  towards  the 
point  they  were  to  assail.  On  Garnett's  left  was  Archer's 
Brigade,  under  Colonel  Fry,  whose  numbers  had  been  largely 
reduced  in  the  first  day's  fight — and  which  had  moved 
directly  forward  as  tlije  brigade  of  direction.  Close  joined 
with  it  were  Pettigrew's  Xorth  Carolinians  under  Colonel 
Marshall,  Pettigrew  himself  being  in  command  of  the  divis- 
ion ;  and  further  on  were  Davis'  Mississippi ans  and  Brock- 
enborough's  Virginia  Brigade,  all  Avell  aligned,  while  a  hun- 
dred and  fifty  yards  behind  Trimble  led  Lane's  and  Scales' 
Brigades,  the  latter  under  Colonel  Lowrance,  Scales  having 
been  severely  wounded  two  days  before. 

Although  the  right  had  not  suffered  greatly  during  its 
shorter  progress  up  the  valley  and  being  somewhat  protected 
by  favoring  ridges,  heavy  loss  had  been  inflicted  on  the  center 
and  on  the  left,  which  w^ere  fearfully  cut  up  during  their  long 
and  exposed  march.  But  though  sorely  distressed  on  front 
and  flank,  with  ranks  largely  depleted,  the  left  brigades  main- 
tained their  original  alignment  and  still  pursued  their  on- 
ward course. 

As  the  attacking  column,  now  uuu'h  narrowed,  moved  up 
the  slope  that  formed  a  natural  glacis  to  the  enemy's  works, 
the  batteries  opened  still  more  rapidly  with  grape  and  canis- 
ter, and  the  front  line  of  the  enemy  that  lay  in  advance,  to- 
gether with  the  second  line  at  the  stone  wall,  poured  into  the 
Confederate  column  volley  after  volley  of  musketry — sending 
out  a  perfect  sheet  of  lead  and  iron — a  storm  of  murderous 
fire.  The  ranks  of  the  first  Confederate  line,  in  the  immediate 
front  of  Hays'  artillery,  were  mowed  down  as  grass  by  the 

The  Pettigrbw-Pickett  Charge. 



The  first  positions  of  the  Confederate  brigades  are  shown  on  the  left 
and  then  two  subsequent  intermediate  positions,  while  the  final  posi- 
tion attained  is  marked  :  by  the  tliin  line  in  front  of  the  stone  wall  and 
within  Gibbon's  line  on  the  south  of  it. 

Webb's  position  in  the  angle  is  marked  W.  Hall's  and  Harrow's  bri- 
gades continued  the  Federal  line  towards  Stannard's  brigade. 


14G  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

scytlie.  The  carnage  was  terrible.  The  piercing  cries  of 
the  dying  and  wounded  conld  be  heard  over  the  field  amid 
the  shrieks  of  shells  and  the  roar  of  the  cannon.  Trimble, 
in  command  of  the  two  North  Carolina  Brigades,  says  of 
Heth's  Division,  "that  it  seemed  to  sink  into  the  earth  under 
the  tempest  of  fire  poured  into  them." 

"We  passed  over  the  remnant  of  their  line  and  immedi- 
ately some  one  close  to  my  left  sung  out,  'Three  cheers  for  the 
Old  North  State,'  when  both  brigades  sent  up  a  hearty  shout." 
It  was  the  cry  of  l)rave  men  rushing  into  the  jaws  of  death. 

So  furious  A\'a^  the  fire  and  so  murderous  that  it  staggered 
the  line — which  ''halted,  returned  the  fire  and  with  a  wild 
yell  dashed  oii."  The  first  line  of  the  enemy,  wdiich  lay  a 
hundred  yards  in  front,  was  thrown  back  against  the  wall, 
many  being  captured  and  hurried  to  the  rear  without  guard. 
But  yet  the  roar  and  din  of  the  conflict  continued  and,  though 
the  smoke  of  battle  obscured  the  front,  the  carnage  went  on 
as  the  columns  drew  closer  and  closer  to  the  enemy's  works. 
A  front  that  had  been  originally  more  than  a  mile  in  length 
had  now  been  compressed  into  less  than  eight  hundred  yards 
and  the  concentrated  fire  of  the  enemy's  artillery,  as  w^ell  as 
musketry,  from  the  flanks  as  well  as  f r(jm  the  front,  told  with 
fearful  effect. 

As  the  line  approached  the  enemy's  works,  Pettigrew  see- 
ing Brockenborough's  Virginia  Brigade  and  Davis  Mississip- 
pians  give  way  under  the  murderous  fire  that  assailed  them, 
hurried  his  aid,  Captain  Shepard,  to  rally  them — but  all  of 
Captain  Shepard's  efforts  were  without  avail.  They  had  be- 
come separated  some  distance  from  Pettigrew's  North  Caro- 
lina Brigade  and  lacked  the  support  imparted  by  the  immedi- 
ate co-operation  of  other  troops.  They  could  not  be  rallied, 
but  broke  and  fell  back  at  the  critical  moment  of  the  ordeal. 
It  was  then  that  Trimble  ordered  his  North  Carolina  Bri- 
gades to  close  up  on  the  first  column,  and  Lane  bearing  to  the 
left,  with  well  aligned  ranks  and  in  handsome  style,  covered 
the  position  made  vacant  on  the  left  by  the  broken  brigades, 
while  Lowrance  led  Scales'  brigade  directly  forward  to  unite 
with  the  front  line  then  one  hundred  yards  in  advance. 

In  this  hasty  movement  of  Lane's,  however,  because  of  a 

The  Pettigrew-Pickett  Charge.  147 

niisimderstandiiig  as  to  whether  the  guide  was  right  or  left, 
the  Seventh  iS^orth  Carolina  and  a  part  of  the  Thirty -third, 
[being  on  Lane's  right,  became  separated  from  the  larger  part 
of  the  brigade,  which  continued  its  movement  well  to  the  left, 
leaving  some  si)ace  intervening  between  it  and  Pettigrew's 

The  position  of  the  troops  just  before  the  final  charge  was : 
Pickett's  line  was  in  front  of  a  part  of  the  projecting  wall, 
with  Kemper's  Brigade  extending  to  the  right  of  it,  covering 
the  front  of  the  Federal  brigades  of  Hall  and  Harrow.  Arch- 
er's Brigade  was  in  front  of  the  rest  of  the  projection,  and 
along  witb  Pettigrew's  North  Carolina  Brigade  extended  in 
front  of  the  retired  wall,  with  Scales'  Brigade  coming  up  in 
the  rear,  wdiile  Lane,  with  nearly  four  regiments,  was  some 
distance  to  the  left. 

On  the  right  Pickett's  confmand  had  crossed  the  pike,  while 
the  line  further  to  the  left  had  yet  to  pass  it.  General  Pick- 
ett and  staff,  however,  did  not  cross  the  pike  and  did  not  ac- 
company the  troops  further  in  the  charge. 

As  the  troops  in  their  progress  reached  the  fences  enclos- 
ing this  road,  the  obstruction  tended  greatly  to  break  up  their 
alignment.  Many  were  killed  and  wounded  there  and  others 
sought  protection  from  the  fearful  iire  by  lying  in  the  road. 
The  column  advancing  beyond  the  pike  was  thus  consider- 
ables' weakened,  and  especially  was  this  the  ease  on  the  cen- 
ter and  left  where  the  road  ran  closer  to  the  stone  wall  and 
was  stoutly  held  by  the  front  line  of  the  enemy.  Pickett's 
troops,  however,  crossing  at  a  ]ioint  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  mile 
distant  from  the  enemy's  works,  escaped  the  full  effect  of  this 
damaging  obstacle  and  maintained  a  more  perfect  organiza- 
tion. And  in  like  manner,  the  right  of  the  Confederate 
column  had  the  good  fortune  of  not  being  subjected  to  a  simi- 
lar artillery  fire  to  that  which  mowed  down  the  ranks  of  Pet- 
tigrew's command. 

It  is  narrated  by  General  Doubleday  that  all  of  the  artil- 
lery sup])orting  Webb's  brigade,  being  destroyed  except  one 
piece  in  Cushing's  Battery  which  was  in  rear  of  Webb's  right, 
and  nearly  all  of  the  artillerymen  being  either  killed  or 
wounded,  as  the  Confederates  came  close,  Cushing,  himself 

148  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

mortally  wounded,  with  his  bowels  protruding,  exclaimed, 
"Webb,  I  must  have  one  more  shot  at  them,"  and  caused  his 
piece  to  be  run  down  to  the  stone  wall  and  fired,  immediately 
expiring.  This  incident  not  only  illustrates  how  Pickett's 
Division  during  its  advance  fortunately  escaped  the  artillery 
fire  that  Avas  so  efl^ective  against  Pettigrew's  troops,  but  ac- 
counts for  the  presence  of  a  gun  at  the  angle  where  Major 
Englehard  subsequently  found  it.  A  few  moments  later  a 
fresh  battery  reached  Webb's  left  and  opened  a  murderous 
fire  on  Pickett's  charging  column.  Colonel  Peyton,  Avho 
came  out  of  the  fight  in  command  of  Garnett's  brigade,  in  his 
official  report,  speaks  of  having  routed  the  advanced  line  of 
the  Federal  infantry  a  hundred  yards  in  front  of  the  stone 
wall,  and  says: 

"Up  to  this  tiuie  we  had  suffered  but  little  from  the  en^ 
emy's  l)atteries  with  the  exception  of  one  posted  on  the  moun^ 
tain  about  one  mile  to  our  right,  which  enfiladed  nearly  owt 
entire  line  with  fearful  efi"ect.  Having  routed  the  enemy 
here.  General  Garnett  ordered  the  brigade  forward,  which 
was  promptly  obeyed,  loading  and  firing  as  they  advanced. 
From  the  point  it  had  first  routed  the  enemy,  the  brigade 
moved  rapidly  forward  towards  the  stone  wall,  under  a  gall- 
ing fire,  both  from  artillery  and  infantry,  the  artillery  using 
grape  and  canister.  W^e  were  now  within  about  seventy-five 
paces  of  the  wall,  unsupported  on  the  right  and  left ;  General 
Kemper  being  some  fifty  or  sixty  yards  behind  and  to  the 
right,  and  General  Armistead  coming  up  in  our  rear. 

Our  line,  much  shattered,  still  kept  up  the  advance  until 
within  about  tw^enty  paces  of  the  wall,  when  for  a  moment 
they  recoiled  under  the  terrific  fire  poured  into  our  ranks, 
both  from  their  batteries  and  from  their  sheltered  infantry. 
x\t  this  moment  General  Kemper  came  up  on  the  right  and 
General  Armistead  in  the  rear,  when  the  three  lines  joining 
in  concert  rushed  forward.  His  strongest  and  last  line  was 
instantly  gained,  the  Confederate  battle  flag  waved  over  his 
defenses  and  the  fighting  over  the  wall  became  hand-to-hand 
and  of  the  most  desperate  character,  but  more  than  half 
having  already  fallen,  our  line  was  found  too  weak  to  rout 
the  enemy.     We  hoped  for  a  support  on  our  left  (which  had 

The  Pettigrew-Pickett  Charge.  149 

Btarted  simultaneoTislj  with  ourselves),  but  hoped  in  vain. 
Yet  a  small  remnant  remained  in  desperate  struggle,  receiv- 
ing a  fire  in  front,  on  the  right  and,  on  the  left  many  even 
climbing  over  the  wall  and  fighting  the  enemy  in  his  own 
trenches,  until  entirely  surrounded,  and  those  who  were  not 
killed  and  wounded  were  captured,  with  the  exception  of 
about  300  who  came  oft"  slowly,  but  greatly  scattered — the 
identity  of  every  regiment  being  entirely  lost,  every  regimen- 
tal commander  killed  or  wounded." 

We  have  no  official  report  from  either  Armistead's  or  Kem- 
per's brigades.  The  latter  was  on  the  extreme  right,  extend- 
ing south  of  the  stone  wall  and  in  its  advance  suffered  greatly 
from  the  flanking  fire  of  tbe  two  Vermont  Regiments  thrown 
out  by  General  Stannard  against  it.  A  Federal  account  says: 
'^The  Confederate  line  is  almost  up  to  the  grove  in  front  of 
Robinson's.  It  has  reached  the  clump  of  scrub  oaks.  It  has 
drifted  past  the  Vermont  boys.  Tbey  move  upon  the  run  up 
to  the  breastworks  of  rails,  bearing  ITancock's  line  to  the  top 
of  the  ridge — so  ])0werful  their  momentum. 

Men  fire  into  each  other's  faces  not  five  feet  apart.  There 
are  bayonet  thrusts,  sabre  strokes,  pistol  shots,  cool,  deliber- 
ate movements  on  the  part  of  some ;  hot,  passionate,  desper- 
ate efforts  on  the  part  of  others ;  hand-to-hand  contests ;  reck- 
lessness of  life,  tenacity  of  purpose,  fiery  determination, 
oaths,  yells,  curses,  hurrahs,  shoutings.  The  Confederates 
have  swept  past  the  Vermont  regiments.  'Take  them  on  the 
flank,'  says  Stannard.  The  Thirteenth  and  Sixteenth  Ver- 
mont swing  ont  from  their  trench  line.  They  move  forward 
and  pour  a  deadly  volley  into  the  backs  of  Kemper's  troops. 
With  a  hurrah  they  rush  on  to  drive  home  the  bayonets.  Other 
regiments  close  upon  the  foe.  The  Confederate  column  has 
lost  its  power.  The  lines  waver.  *  *  Thousands  of  Con- 
federates throw  down  their  arms  and  give  themselves  up  as 

Another  Federal  account  of  Kemper's  attack  says — "up  to 
the  rifle  pits,  across  them,  over  the  barricades — tbe  momen- 
tum of  the  charge  swept  them  on. 

''Onr  thin  line  could  fight,  bnt  it  had  not  weight  enough 
to  resist  this  momentum.      It  was  pushed  behind  the  guns. 

150  North  Carolina  Troops,  i861-'65. 

Tliglit  on  caine  the  enemy.  They  Avere  upon  the  guns — were 
bayonetting  the  gunners — were  waving  their  flags  above  our 
pieces.  But  they  had  penetrated  to  the  fatal  point.  A  storm 
of  grape  and  canister  tore  its  way  from  man  to  man  and 
marked  its  way  with  corpses  straight  down  its  line.  They 
had  exposed  themselves  to  the  enfilading  fire  of  the  guns  on 
the  western  slope  of  Cemetery  Hill.  That  exposure  sealed 
their  fate. 

''The  line  reeled  back,  disjointed  already,  in  an  instant  in 
fragments.  Our  men  were  just  behind  the  guns.  They 
leaped  forward  in  a  disordered  mass.  But  there  was  little 
need  of  fighting  noAv.  A  regiment  thrcAv  down  its  arms  and 
Avith  colors  at  its  head,  rushed  over  and  surrendered.  All 
along  the  field  detachments  did  the  same.  Over  the  field  the 
escaped  fragments  of  the  charging  line  fell  back— the  battle 
there  Avas  over.  A  single  brigade,  HarroAv's,  came  out  with 
a  loss  of  54  officers  and  793  men.  So  the  Avhole  corps  fought 
— so  too  they  fought  further  down  the  line." 

Colonel  Fry,  Avho  so  gallantly  led  Archer's  Brigade,  says: 
"I  heard  Garnett  giA^e  a  command.  Seeing  my  gesture  of 
enquiry  he  called  out,  'I  am  dressing  on  you !'  A  fcAV  seconds 
later  he  fell  dead.  A  moment  later  a  shot  through  my  thigh 
prostrated  me.  The  smoke  soon  became  so  dense  that  I  could 
see  luit  little  of  Avhat  Avas  going  on  before  me.  A  moment 
later  I  heard  General  Pettigrew  calling  to  rally  them  on  the 
left.  All  of  the  five  regimental  colors  of  my  command 
readied  the  line  of  the  enemy's  Avorks  and  many  of  my  men 
and  officers  were  killed  after  passing  over  it."  Colonel  Shep- 
herd. Avho  succeeded  Frye  in  command,  said  in  his  official  re- 
port that  "every  flag  in  Archer's  Brigade  except  one  was  cap- 
tured at  or  Avithin  the  Avorks  of  the  enemy." 

Scales'  Brigade  closely  folloAved  Archer's,  dashed  up  to 
the  projecting  Avail  and  planted  their  battle  flags  u]ion  the 
enemy's  breastv/orks.  PettigrcAv's  and  the  left  of  Archer's 
had  surged  forAvard  beyond  the  projecting  Avail,  and  had 
firmly  established  themselves  along  the  retired  portion  of  the 
Avail.  General  Baehelder,  of  the  Federal  army,  Avho  thor- 
oughly studied  the  field  for  days  after  the  battle,  than  Avhom 
no  one  kncAv  so  Avell  the  details  of  that  affair,  saA^s:     'The 

The  Pettigrew-Pickett  Charge.  151 

left  of  the  column  continued  to  move  on  towards  the  second 
wall,  threatening  the  right  and  rear  of  Gibbon's  Division 
which  held  the  advanced  line.  General  Webb,  whose  bri- 
gade was  on  the  right  (in  the  projection),  had  hurried  back 
to  bring  up  his  right  reserve  regiment  from  the  second  line. 
But  before  this  could  be  accomplished  the  first  line  broke  un- 
der the  tremendous  pressure  which  threatened  its  front  and 
flank,  and  fell  back  upon  the  reserve." 

Thus  while  Garnett  was  struggling  for  the  possession  of 
the  stone  wall  on  the  Confederate  right,  and  Kemper  was  en- 
gaged with  Harrow^  and  Hall  still  further  to  the  right,  seek- 
ing unsuccessfully  to  penetrate  into  the  enemy's  line  and 
turn  the  left  of  the  hill,  the  advance  of  Pettigrew's  command 
beyond  the  projecting  wall,  taking  Webb's  exposed  brigade 
on  the  riglit  flank,  caused  it  to  give  back  from  the  wall  and 
yield  that  part  of  the  projection  to  the  regiments  of  Archer 
and  Scales  that  pressed  them  in  front. 

Captain  JMcIntyre,  acting  Adjutant-General  of  Scales'  Bri- 
gade, says:  ''^ly  brigade,  or  a  larger  part  of  it,  went  inside 
of  the  enemy's  works." 

Captain  Guerrant,  acting  as  Brigade  Inspector,  says  that 
"Scales'  Brigade  entered  the  breastworks  and  remained  in 
possession  until  driven  out  by  the  enemy's  advancing  on  their 
flanks."  Major  Engelhard,  the  gallant  Adjutant-General  of 
the  two  brigades  of  Pender's  Division  commanded  by  Trim- 
ble, says :  "The  point  at  which  the  troops  with  me  struck  the 
enemy's  Avorks  projected  farthest  to  the  front.  T  recollect 
well,  my  horse  having  been  shot,  I  leaned  my  elbow  upon 
one  of  the  guns  of  the  enemy  to  rest,  while  I  watched  with 
painful  anxiety  the  fight  upon  Pickett's  right,  for  upon  its 
success  depended  the  tenableness  of  our  position. 

''Surrounding  me  were  the  soldiers  of  Pender's,  Heth's 
and  Pickett's  Divisions  and  it  required  all  the  resources  at 
ray  conimand  to  prevent  their  following  en  masse  the  retreat- 
ing enemy,  and  some  did  go  so  far  that  when  we  were  com- 
pelled to  withdraw,  they  were  unable  to  reach  our  lines,  the 
enemy  closing  in  from  the  right  and  left.  We  remained  in 
quiet  and  undisputed  possession  of  the  enemy's  works,  the 
men  flushed  Avith  victory,  eager  to  press  forward. 

152  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

"But  when  the  right  of  Pickett's  Division  was  compelled 
iby  the  overpo^vering  attack  upon  its  right  flank  to  give  way, 
there  was  nothing  left  for  us  to  do  hut  surrender  ourselves 
prisoners  or  withdraw  in  confusion  before  the  converging 
lines  of  the  enemy,  those  in  our  immediate  front  not  having 

The  retired  wall  in  front  of  Fettigrew's  North  Carolina 
Brigade  "was  higher  and  stronger  than  at  the  projection  and 
along  it  skirted  a  lane  enclosed  by  a  strong  fence. 

Hays'  Division  clung  to  the  wall  with  great  pertinacity  and 
the  second  line,  })rotected  by  the  high  crest  of  the  ridge,  com- 
manded it  completely,  while  Howard's  fresh  artillery  on  the 
sloi)e  of  Cemetery  Hill  swept  the  front  with  an  enfilading 
fire.  But  while  it  was  impracticable  for  any  troops  to  carry 
it  by  assault,  the  Confederate  line  much  weakened  by  the 
losses  suffered  in  the  march,  silenced  the  batteries  in  their 
front  and  suppressed  the  infantry  fire  from  the  wall,  and 
maintained  the  unequal  contest  there  to  the  last. 

Some  of  Pettigrew's  North  Carolinians  advanced  to  the 
wall  itself,  doing  all  that  splendid  valor  and  heroic  endur- 
ance could  do  to  dislodge  the  enemy — but  their  heroism  was 
in  vain. 

Majo'-  Jones,  in  command  of  Pettigrew's  Brigade,  says: 
"On  we  pushed  and  were  now  right  on  the  enemy's  works, 
wlien  we  recei^'cd  a  murderous  fire  upon  our  left  flank.  I 
looked  to  see  where  it  came  from  and  lo !  we  were  completely 
flanked  upon  our  left  not  only  by  infantry,  but  artillery. 
One  of  our  brigades  had  given  way.  The  enemy  had  seized 
upon  the  gap  and  now  poured  a  galling  fire  into  our  troops, 
forcing  them  to  give  way  in  succession  to  the  right.  The 
color-bearer  of  the  Twenty-sixth  North  Carolina  Regiment 
was  shot  down  while  attempting  to  plant  the  flag  on  the  wall." 
Gaston  Broughton,  commanding  Company  D,  Twenty-sixth 
North  Carolina  Begiment,  says:  "We  crossed  the  road  and 
went  to  the  enemy's  works,  where  we  continued  firing  until 
most  of  the  regiment  were  ca|)tured,  the  enemy  closing  in  on 
us  from  our  rear."  Lieutenant  W.  N.  Snelling,  Company  B, 
of  the  same  regiment,  says:  "We  went  to  an  old  road  some 
ten  sto])s  from  the  rock  fence  behind  which  was  the  enemv." 

The  Pettigrew-Pickett  Charge.  153 

Major  Haynes,  of  the  Eleventh  North  Carolina :  "I  was 
about  fifty  yards  (I  think  nearer)  of  the  wall  when  I  was 
shot  down.  When  shot  we  were  in  line  going  towards  the 
cemeter}'  wall.  We  were  all  cut  down — no  one  but  wounded 
left  in  my  company,  save  two." 

Captain  J.  J.  Davis  (since  Judge)  :  "My  company  was 
next  to  the  extreme  left  of  the  regiment,  Forty-seventh  l^orth 
Carolina  Kegiment,  and  when  not  far  from  the  enemy's 
works,  say  not  more  than  100  yards,  a  sergeant  of  an  adjoin- 
ing regiment  called  my  attention  to  the  fact  that  the  troops  to 
the  left  had  given  away.  I  looked  and  saw  that  at  some  dis- 
tance to  the  left,  the  troops  had  given  way,  but  our  supports 
were  then  advancing  in  admirable  style.  (Lane's  Brigade.) 
Colonel  Graves,  who  was  to  the  right  of  me,  had  kept  the  reg- 
iment well  in  hand  and  was  urging  the  men  on."  "And  we  ad- 
vanced," says  Captain  Davis,  "to  the  plank  fence  that  ran 
alongside  the  lane  just  under  the  stone  wall."  Here  he  and 
part  of  his  regiment  were  afterwards  captured. 

Lieutenant-Colonel  B.  F.  Little,  of  the  Fifty-second 
iS^orth  Carolina  Kegiment:  "I  was  shot  down  when  in  about 
fifty  yards  of  the  enemy's  works,  and  the  ground  between 
where  I  lay  and  the  works  was  thickly  strewn  with  killed  and 
wounded,  some  of  them  having  fallen  immediately  at  the 
works.  I  do  not  think  a  single  one  of  my  men  ever  got  back 
to  the  rear  except  those  who  were  slightly  wounded  before 
they  got  to  the  place  where  I  w^as  wounded.  And  such  was 
the  case  with  the  companies  on  either  side  of  mine.  When 
T  was  taken  prisoner  and  borne  to  the  rear,  I  passed  over 
their  works  and  found  some  of  my  men  killed  and  wounded 
immediately  at  their  works." 

It  is  of  Pettigrew's  Brigade  that  Colonel  Swallow  writes 
as  follows :  "Pettigrew's  Brigade  now  united  with  Archer's 
Regiment  wliich  had  not  entered  the  fortifications  and  at- 
tacked the  enemy  with  the  most  desperate  determination. 
While  the  writer  (Colonel  Swallow)  lay  wounded  with  Gen- 
eral Smyth,  of  Hays'  Division,  at  Gettysburg,  that  officer 
told  him  that  Pettigrew's  Brigade  all  along  his  front  were 
within  thii-ty  or  forty  feet  of  his  line  and  fought  with  a  de- 
termination he  liad  never  seen  equalled."     This  encomium. 

154  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

so  richly  merited,  is,  however,  to  be  shared  by  Lane's  Bri- 
gade equally  with  Pettigrew's,  for  Smyth's  front  was  the  ex- 
treme left  where  l.ane  fought  as  well  as  Pettigrew's  Brigade. 

While  snch  Avas  the  position  of  affairs  on  the  right  and 
center  when  the  smoke  of  battle  lifted  somewhat,  Brocken- 
borough's  Virginians  and  Davis'  Mississippians  not  having 
rallied  from  the  deadly  discharge  that  had  hurled  them  back, 
Lane's  ^orth  Carolinians  were  alone  on  the  left  and  bore  the 
brunt  of  the  conflict  on  that  part  of  the  field.  In  his  report 
Lane  says : 

''My  command  never  moved  forward  more  handsomely. 
The  men  reserved  their  fire  in  accordance  with  orders  until 
within  good  range  of  the  enemy  and  then  opened  with  telling 
effect,  driving  the  cannoneers  from  their  pieces,  completely 
silencing  the  guns  in  our  immediate  front  and  breaking  the 
line  of  infantry  on  the  crest  of  the  hill. 

"We  advanced  to  within  a  few  yards  of  the  stone  wall,  ex- 
l^osed  all  the  while  to  a  heavy  raking  artillery  fire  from  the 
right.  My  left  w;is  here  very  much  exposed,  and  a  column  of 
infantry  was  throAvn  forward  in  that  direction  that  enfiladed 
my  entire  line." 

This  was  a  column  of  regiments  that  was  thrown  forward 
from  Hay's  right :  and  despite  an  enfilading  artillery  fire, 
Lane  broke  off'  a  regiment  from  his  left  to  face  this  threat- 
ened danger. 

Captain  Lovell,  Company  A,  Twenty-eighth  N'orth  Caro- 
lina, Lane's  Brigade,  says:  "Some  of  my  men  were  wounded 
and  captured  inside  the  works." 

Captain  Norwood,  Company  E,  Forty-seventh  North  Caro- 
lina, says  that  regiment,  along  with  the  brigade,  advanced  to 
within  thirty  yards  of  the  enemy's  works,  where  they  encoun- 
tered a  plank  fence.  Several  officers,  myself  among  them, 
sprung  over  the  fence,  followed  by  the  whole  command  so  far 
as  T  know.      The  cannoneers  then  left  their  pieces." 

Lieutenant-Colonel  Morriss,  of  the  Thirty-seventh  N'orth 
Carolina,  says:  "T^ettigrew's  and  Archer's  men  reached 
the  enemy's  works  a  little  in  advance  of  us  and  succeeded  in 
driving  the  enemy  from  their  works  in  their  front,  but  were 
exposed  to  a  flank  fire  both  right  and  left.     We  drove  the  en- 

The  Pettigrew-Pickett  Charge.  155 

emy  from  his  position  on  the  road  and  from  behind  the  stone 
fence.  The  enemy  having  disappeared  from  onr  front,  we 
became  engaged  with  a  flanking  party  on  onr  left  and  were 
surronnded  and  captured.  Six  officers  on  the  right  of  my 
regiment  were  wounded  in  the  enemy's  works  and  captured." 

The  brave  Major  Jos.  H.  Saunders,  of  the  Thirty-third, 
says :  "1  went,  by  a  subsequent  measurement,  to  within 
sixty  yards  of  the  stone  wall,  where  I  was  wounded.  Just 
before  1  was  shot  I  saw  a  Federal  color-bearer  just  in  front 
of  the  left  wing  of  tlie  regiment,  get  up  and  run  waving  his 
flag  and  followed  by  his  regiment,  so  that  there  was  nothing 
to  keep  our  regiment  from  going  right  into  the  enemy's  works. 
I  Avas  shot  by  the  troops  on  our  left  flank.  At  the  time  I  was 
acting  as  left  gnide  to  the  line  of  battle,  directing  the  line  of 
march  more  to  the  right  so  as  to  strike  the  enemy's  works  in  a 
straighter  line." 

Rev.  Dr.  George  W.  Sanderlin,  who  was  (Captain  of  Com- 
pany E,  Thirty-third  iS^orth  Carolina,  says:  ''Our  bri- 
gade being  in  the  second  line,  advanced  in  fine  style  over  the 
field.  When  we  were  about  two  hundred  yards  from  the  en- 
emy's works.  General  Lane  ordered  a  half  wheel  to  the  left 
and  Ave  continued  our  advance,  our  organization  being  excel- 
lently preserved,  close  up  to  the  enemy's  Avork.  We  were 
subjected  to  a  rapid  artillery  fire  from  our  front  as  Avell  as  a 
deadly  musketry  fire,  and  also  an  enfilading  artillery  fire 
from  the  loft.  My  regiment,  the  Thirty-third  l^orth  Caro- 
lina, rested  at  the  enemy's  works,  the  artillerymen  being 
driven  aAvay  from  their  pieces  and  the  infantry  having  been 
driA'en  from  their  breastAvorks.  For  some  five  minutes  all 
Avas  comparatively  quiet  in  our  front  except  a  desultory  ^I'ing 
here  and  there.  We  could  hear  the  Federal  officers  just  over 
the  ridne  trving  to  rally  and  reform  their  men.  Attention 
was  called  to  a  piece  of  artillery  just  at  hand  Avliich  had  been 
struck  in  the  muzzle  b\'  a  shell  from  a  gun  of  like  calibre  from 
a  Confederate  battery,  Avhich  remained  fastened  in  the  bore. 
W^e  noticed  the  situation  on  the  extreme  right  of  the  line  and 
finally  saAv  it  driA^en  off  by  the  enemy.  A  coh;mn  had  been 
thrown  out  on  the  enemy's  right  that  flanked  us.  We,  being 
in  danger  of  being  cut  off,  Avere  ordered  back,  Pickett's  troops 

156  North  Carolkna  Troops,  1861-'65. 

on  our  right  having  in  the  meantime  been  repulsed.  Just 
then  the  enemy  opened  on  us  a  most  heavy  and  destructive 
fire,  and  as  \ve  began  to  retreat  the  enemy  in  our  front  rallied 
and  rushed  down,  crossing  their  breastworks,  attacking  us 
also  on  our  right.  Our  line  on  the  extreme  right  (Pickett's) 
had  given  away  before  this,  and  we  made  the  best  retreat  we 
could.  Our  organization  was  well  ju-eserved  up  to  the  time 
we  retreated.  I  am  absolutely  confident  that  Lane's  Brigade 
held  its  position  at  the  enemy's  w^orks  longer  than  any  other 
command,  and  that  we  did  not  move  towards  the  rear  until 
the  rest  of  the  line  was  in  full  retreat,  the  extreme  right  being 
well  advanced  to  the  rear." 

Tlie  Seventh  North  Carolina  and  that  i:)art  of  the  Thirty- 
thii'd  which  became  separated  from  the  rest  of  Lane's  Bri- 
gade uioved  forward  gallantly,  drove  the  enemy  from  the 
stone  wall,  silenced  the  guns  in  their  front  and  lost  ofiicers 
and  men  at  the  stone  wall,  many  being  captured  there. 

Tn  the  brief  minutes  that  had  elapsed  since  the  final  rush 
on  the  enemy's  works  had  begnn  the  carnage  had  indeed  been 
terrific.  Garnett  had  fallen  near  the  wall.  Kemper  was 
desperately  wounded  at  the  wall.  Pettigrew  was  disabled  by 
a  ball.  Trimble  was  knocked  hors  du  combat.  Fry,  Mar- 
shall and  Lowrance  had  fallen  among  the  thousands  of  ofiicers 
and  men  whose  life-blood  was  ebbing  on  that  bloody  field. 

But  if  the  Confederates  had  suffered  fearfully,  they  had 
also  inflicted  heavy  loss  upon  their  opponents.  "Hancock 
lay  bleeding  upon  the  ground,  Gibbon  was  being  taken  from 
the  field  wounded.  Webb  had  been  hit.  Sherrill  and  Smyth 
both  wounded,  the  former  mortally.  Stannard  had  received 
a  painful  wound,  but  liis  troops  continued  to  pour  volley 
after  volley  into  Pickett's  flanks." 

When  the  front  line  of  Webb's  Brigade  gave  way  under  the 
pressure  of  Pettigrew's  men  on  the  flank,  they  had  fallen 
back,  some  to  the  cover  of  a  chuup  of  trees  in  the  rear  and 
others  to  a  stone  wall  that  crossed  the  ridge.  From  these 
points  they  maintained  a  desultory  firing  upon  the  Confeder- 
ates, who  having  possession  of  the  wall  now  used  it  as  a  pro- 
tection for  themselves.  The  projection  was  practically 
cleared,  but,  though  Archer's  and  Scales'  and  Pickett's  men 

The  Pettigrew-Pickett  Charge.  157 

held  the  angle  next  to  Pettigrew,  there  was  no  general  effort 
made  to  penetrate  into  the  enemy's  line.  In  the  meantime 
regiment  after  regiment  had  hurried  to  cover  the  break  in  the 
Federal  line  nntil  the  men  stood  four  deep,  ready  to  hurl  back 
the  Confederates  if  they  should  seek  to  advance.  Such  was 
the  condition  of  comparative  repose  when  Armistead's  Bri- 
gade reached  the  wall  in  Garnett's  rear. 

"Seeing  his  men  were  inclined  to  use  it  as  a  defence,  as  the 
front  line  were  doing,"  Armistead  raised  his  hat  upon  his 
sword,  and  springing  upon  a  broken  place  in  the  wall,  called 
on  his  men  to  follow  him.  Nearly  one  hundred  of  the  gallant 
Fifty-third  Virginia,  led  by  Colonel  Martin  and  Major  Tim- 
berlake,  responded  with  alacrity  and  entered  the  works,  "only 
four  of  whom  advanced  with  these  officers  to  the  crest,  pass- 
ing, as  they  advanced.  General  Webb,  who  was  returning  to 
his  front  line."  Armistead  there  received  his  mortal  blow, 
and  forty-two  of  his  men  fell  within  the  works  as  the  enemy 
rushed  forward  to  recover  the  position.  It  was  the  work  of 
brief  moments,  for  as  the  pressure  on  the  Federal  line  had 
been  sharp  the  recoil  was  quick  and  decisive. 

On  the  right  Xemj^er  had  been  driven  back,  and  the  battle 
having  now  ceased  in  front  of  Hall's  and  Harrow's  Brigades, 
these  were  hurriedly  advanced,  at  the  moment  the  force  col- 
lected in  the  rear  of  Webb  rushed  forward,  taking  Garnett 
and  Armistead's  troops  in  the  flank  as  well  as  front,  and  en- 
tirely routing  and  dispersing  them. 

As  the  right  was  hurled  back  and  the  fragments  of  General 
Pickett's  Division  were  hurrying  to  the  rear,  the  battle  be- 
gan to  rage  more  furiously  on  the  left.  The  artillery  swept 
the  front  occupied  by  Pettigrew's  command  and  Hays' 
Division  renewed  the  contest  with  increased  ardor.  A  Dela- 
ware regiment  on  Smyth's  left  sprang  over  the  wall  and  pene- 
trating the  Confederate  line  opened  a  fire  to  the  right  and  left 
and  hurried  the  drama  to  its  close. 

The  remnants  of  Pettigrew's  and  Archer's  and  Scales'  Bri- 
gades that  could  not  escape,  were  taken  prisoners  by  the  victo- 
rious columns  closing  in  on  them  from  the  rear,  while  most 
of  ]^ane's  Brigade  further  to  the  left  had  the  better  fortune 
rtf  avoiding  a  like  fate  by  a  speedy  retreat ;  but  they  were  the 

158  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

last  to  relinquish  tlieir  position  in  the  immediate  front  of  the 
enemy's  works.  As  they  withdrew  they  saw  the  field  far 
down  the  valley  dotted  with  squads  of  Pickett's  broken  regi- 
ments, while  nearer  were  the  fragments  of  the  other  com- 
mands in  full  retreat.  Thus  ended  the  events  of  those  brief 
ten  ininutes — tlie  gallant  charge — the  successful  planting  of 
the  Confederate  standards  along  the  entire  line  of  the  Federal 
works — the  comparative  lull,  save  on  the  right,  where  Kem- 
j^er  made  his  fierce  entrance  into  the  enemy's  line,  his  speedy 
repulse — and  the  overwhelming  rally  of  Hancock's  forces, 
enveloping  and  dispersing  Pickett's  Division — the  terrible 
onslaught  on  the  left,  and  the  dispersal  of  the  last  of  that 
sjilendid  body  of  twelve  thousand  picked  troops  who  had  es- 
sayed to  do  what  was  impossible  of  accomplishment.  Con- 
spicuous gallantry  had  brought  to  the  Confederate  banner  an 
accumulation  of  martial  honor,  but  on  no  field  was  ever 
more  devotion  shown,  more  heroism,  more  nerve  than  on  that 
day  which  has  been  justly  considered  the  turning  point  in  the 
tide  of  Confederate  achievement. 

It  was  indeed  a  field  of  honor  as  well  as  a  field  of  blood, 
and  the  sister  States  of  Virginia  and  J^orth  Carolina  had 
equal  cause  to  weave  chaplets  of  laurel  and  of  cypress.  On 
their  sons  the  heaviest  blows  fell,  and  to  them  is  due  the  meed 
of  highest  praise.  Archer's  brave  men  doubtless  suffered 
heavily,  but  the  chief  loss  was  borne  by  the  three  ISTorth  Car- 
olina and  the  three  Virginia  Brigades  that  participated  in 
the  assault  upon  the  A\'orks. 

The  losses  of  the  latter  are  easy  of  ascertainment — for  they 
were  fresh  and  bad  been  in  no  other  conflict ;  while  the  former 
having  suffered  heavily  on  the  first  day  and  having  lost  most 
of  their  regimental  and  company  officers,  made  at  the  time 
no  special  return  of  the  loss  in  this  now  celebrated  charge. 

Lane  carried  in  1,300  and  lost  GOO,  nearly  all  killed  and 
wounded.  Pettigrew's  Brigade  was  about  1,700  strong,  and 
lost  1,100,  the  greater  part  killed  and  wounded.  Scales'  Bri- 
gade suifered  in  the  like  proportion.  These  three  brigades 
doubtless  lost  in  killed  and  wounded  1,500  men. 

The  three  Virginia  brigades  numbering  over  4,700  strong, 
lost  224  killed  and  1,140  wounded,  a  total  of  1,364.      They 

The  Pettigrew-Pickett  Charge.  159 

had  besides  1,499  missing.  While  the  North  Carolina  bri- 
gades did  not  have  so  many  captured  as  Pickett's  troops,  they 
doubtless  suffered  a  heavier  loss  in  killed  and  wounded,  al- 
though they  took  into  the  fight  a  smaller  force,  and  their  or- 
ganization was  much  disturbed  by  the  severe  loss  in  regimen- 
tal and  company  officers  in  the  battle  of  the  first.  But  despite 
this  drawback,  they  exliibited  a  heroism,  a  constancy  and  an 
endurance  unsurpassed  upon  that  field  where  they  accom- 
plished as  much  as  any  other  troops,  suffered  greater  losses, 
advanced  the  farthest,  and  remained,  the  longest.  Indeed  it 
was  to  them  a  day  of  immortal  glory  as  of  mournful  disaster. 

S.  A.  Ashe. 
Ralkigh,  N.  C, 

3  July,  1901. 


nORRIS    ISLAND,    5   JULY.    1S63. 

By  E.  K.  BRYAN,  Adjutant,  and  E.  H.  MEADOWS,  Sergeant  Co.  K. 
Thirty-First  N.  C.  Regiment. 

The  following  sketch  has  been  prepared  largely  from  report 
of  Major  Robert  C  Gilchrist,  together  with  the  personal  rec- 
ollection of  the  writers,  who  were  participants. 

BATTEKY   WAGXER^    S.    C. 

Skirting  along  ship  channel,  the  main  entrance  into 
Charleston  harbor,  and  commanding  the  only  approach  for 
large  vessels  to  the  city,  is  Morris  Island,  forever  prominent 
in  the  historv  of  the  United  States  for  beina-  the  site  of  the 
battery  that  fired  the  first  shot  in  the  war  between  the  States ; 
still  later  for  giving  to  the  world  its  first  lesson  in  iron-clad 
armor,  and  more  than  all,  for  being  the  theatre  of  a  defence 
of  an  earthwork  more  stnbborn  and  grave,  of  a  siege  as  mem- 
orable and  bombardments  the  most  formidable  in  the  annals 
of  war. 

This  island  is  three  and  three-fourth  miles  long,  and  varies 
in  width  from  twenty-five  to  one  thousand  yards. 

At  its  northern  extremity  it  is  flat,  and  with  the  exception 
of  a  low  line  of  sand  hills  is  only  two  feet  above  high  tide. 

At  the  northern  extremity  (Cumming's  Point)  was  situated 
Battery  Gregg.  The  marsh  on  the  west,  at  a  point  about  three- 
fourths  of  a  mile  from  Gregg  e^ncroached  upon  the  sea  face  of 
the  island  leaving  a  narrow  strip  of  250  yards.  At  this 
point  was  located  the  famed  Fort  Wagner.  The  island  is 
composed  of  quartjz  sand,  which  has  no  cohesion  and  weighs 
when  dry  86  pounds  per  cubic  foot.  To  its  power  in  resisting 
the  penetration  of  shot  and  when  displaced  of  falling  back 
again  to  the  very  spot  it  had  occupied,  is  due  the  comparative 
invulnerability  of  the  works  erected  on  the  island,  advanta- 
geous alike  to  its  defenders  and  assailants.  It  is  distant  from 

162  North  Carolina  Troops,   lSf)l-'()5. 

Fort  Sumpter  2,780  yards.  Wagner  was  an  enclosed  Earth- 
work measuring  within  the  interior  slojDe  froin  east  to  west 
six  hundred  and  thirty  (630)  feet,  and  from  north  to  south 
in  extreme  width  tAvo  hundred  and  seventy-five  (275)  feet. 
The  sea  face  measuring  along  the  interior  crest  two  hundred 
and  ten  (210)  feet,  contained  a  bomb-proof  magazine,  twenty 
by  twenty  feet,  forming  a  heavy  traverse  to  protect  the  three 
^ms  north  of  it  from  the  land  fire.  Behind  the  sea  face  was 
the  bomb-proof,  thirty  by  one  hundred  and  thirty,  within 
which  could  not  l)e  accommodated  more  than  900  men, 
standing  elbow  to  elbow  and  face  to  back  (not  1,500  to  1,600 
men,  as  General  Gilmore  said),  and  this  capacity  was  further 
reduced  by  cutting  off  more  than  one-third  for  hospital  pur- 

The  Confederate  force  which  had  been  doing  such  ardu- 
ous service,  were  no^v  relieved  by  the  Fifty-first  Xorth  Caro- 
lina Eegiment,  687  men  under  Colonel  H.  McKethan;  detach- 
ments from  Captains  Buckner's  and  Dixon's  companies  of  the 
Georgia  artillery;  Captains  Tateni's  and  Adams'  companies 
of  First  South  Carolina  artillery;  one  section  of  howitzers, 
DeSaussure  Artillery,  Captain  DePass ;  one  section  Blake 
Artillery,  Lieutenant  Waties ;  Cliarleston  Battalion,  Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel P.  C.  Gaillard,  and  Thirty-first  Regiment  Xorth 
Carolina  Troops;  Brigadier-General  William  Taliaferro  in 
command  of  the  whole. 

ASSAULT  OF  18  JULY^  1863. 

About  daylight  on  IS  July,  the  Federal  mortars  com- 
inenced  their  practice  which  they  kept  up  at  intervals  until 
noon.  The  new  Ironsides,  the  monitors  3IontavJc,  Catshill, 
NantucTiet,  Weeliavl-en  and  Patapsco,,  the  gunboats  Paul 
Jones,  OUciiva,  Seneca,  Chippeva  and  Wissaliickon  steamed 
in  and  took  position  abreast  of  Wagner.  At  12  o'clock  M., 
all  the  land  and  naval  batteries  opened  a  "feu  d'  enfer"  upon 
the  devoted  work.  For  eight  long  hours  it  was  as  a  continued 
reverberation  of  thunder,  peal  followed  peal  in  rapid  succes- 
sion. Nine  thousand  shells  were  hurled  against  Wagner 
— twenty  each  minute.  It  ceased  only  when  darkness  came 
on,    as   its    further    continuance    Avould    have    involved    the 

.  Defence  of  Fort  Wagner.  163 

slaughter  of  the  assauking  cohimn  of  the  enemy,  now  mass- 
ing in  cohimn  in  front  of  the  fort.  It  now  hecame  evident 
that  the  assauh  woukl  be  made  at  dark,  so  all  the  guns  were 
loaded  with  dotihle  charges  of  grape  and  canister,  trained  so 
as  to  sweep  the  beach  about  500  to  (300  yards  in  front.  Thus 
the  guns  on  the  fort  being  pre])ared  for  the  attack  which  was 
soon  to  come,  paid  no  attention  to  the  fleet,  preferring  to  save 
their  ammunition  and  tlieir  range  for  the  more  deadly  con- 
flict soon  to  ]>e  enacted.  Battery  Gregg  and  Fort  Surapter 
were  made  ready  to  fire  over  Wagiier  on  the  advancing 
column,  and  the  batteries  on  James  Island  to  enfilade  its 
face.  General  Hagood  was  ordered  to  be  in  readiness  to  sup- 
port or  relieve  General  Taliaferro  and  proceeded  to  reinforce 
the  garrison  with  the  Thirty-second  Georgia  Regiment,  Colo- 
nel Harrison. 

On  the  part  of  the  Federals  Brigadier-General  Strong's 
Brigade  was  to  lead  the  assault.  It  was  composed  of  the  Fif- 
ty-fourth Massachusetts  Itegiment,  Colonel  Shav/;  the  Sixth 
Connecticut  Regiment,  Colonel  J.  L.  Chatfield ;  a  battalion  of 
the  Seventh  Connecticut  Regiment,  Colonel  Barton;  the 
Third  ^N'ew  Hampshire;  the  Forty-eighth  ]^ew  York  Regi- 
ment, Colonel  Jackson ;  the  Xinth  Maine  Regiment,  Colonel 
Emery ;  and  the  Seventy-sixth  Pennsylvania  Regiment,  Col- 
onel Strawbridge,  and  was  to  be  supported  by  Colonel  Ptit- 
man's  Brigade,  composing  his  own  Regiment  (the  Seventh 
Xew  Hampshire),  Lieutenant-Colonel  Abbott;  the  One  Hun- 
dredtla  JSTew  York  Regiment,  Colonel  Dandy ;  the  Sixty-sec- 
ond Ohio  Regiment,  Colonel  Pond :  and  the  Sixty-seventh 
Ohio  Regiment,  Colonel  Voris.  Brigadier-General  T.  Sey- 
mour was  to  command  the  assaulting  column  and  to  arrange 
the  details  for  attack. 

Some  time  before  sunset  these  regiments  were  formed  on 
the  beach  in  rear  of  their  batteries,  in  columns  of  eight  com- 
panies, closed  at  half  distance.  The  Sixth  Connecticut  Reg- 
iment was  to  lead  and  attack  the  southeast  salient  angle  of 
Wagner.  The  Forty-eighth  ]Srew  York  was  to  pass  along  the 
sea  front  and  facing  inward,  to  attack  there ;  the  other  regi- 
ments of  the  brigade  to  charge  the  south  front,  extending  in- 
ward toward  the  marshes,  on  the  left ;  the  Fifty-fourth  Massa- 

164  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

chiisetts  (colored),  1,000  strong,  was  in  advance  of  all  and  to 
be  the  "enfans  pe^^dus."  Thej  formed  in  two  lines  ahead  of 
the  brigade.  Their  commander  was  Colonel  Robert  G.  Shaw. 
He  was  slender  and  under  the  medium  height,  with  light  hair, 
a  beardless  face,  and  looked  like  a  boy  of  17  years,  when  seen 
at  daylight  the  morning  after  the  assault,  cold  and  stiff  in 
death  on  the  very  tojj  of  our  breastworks  and  at  the  muzzle  of 
our  best  Columbiad  with  three  mortal  wounds,  either  of  which 
must  have  been  a  death  woimd,  a  bullet  wound  througli  the 
forehead,  another  through  the  lower  body,  and  a  bayonet 
thrust  in  his  chest.  His  Adjutant  lay  dead  only  three  feet 
to  his  right,  and  his  Sergeant  Major  about  the  same  distance 
to  his  left.  Had  the  supporting  column  of  6.000  came  to  the 
relief  Wagner  would  have  undoul)tedly  fallen  that  night, 
but  the  dreadful  slaughter  of  the  assaulting  column,  their 
cries  of  agony  and  death  so  paralyzed  them  that  they  broke 
in  gTcat  disorder  and  fled  to  the  rear.  Colonel  Shaw  with 
his  colored  troops,  led  the  attack.  They  came  forward  at  a 
'^'double-quick"  with  great  energy  and  resolution;  but  on  ap- 
proaching the  ditch  they  broke,  the  gi'eater  part  following 
their  intrepid  Colonel,  bounded  over  the  ditch,  mounted  the 
parapet  and  planted  their  flag  in  the  most  gallant  manner 
upon  the  ramparts,  where  Shaw  was  shot  and  bayonetted  to 
death ;  while  the  rest  seized  with  a  furious  panic  acted  like 
wild  beasts  let  loose  from  a  menagerie.  They  came  down 
first  on  the  Ninth  Maine,  and  then  on  the  Seventy-sixth  Penn- 
sylvania, and  broke  them  both  in  two.  Portions  of  the  Ninth 
and  Seventy-sixth  mingled  with  the  fugitives  of  the  Fifty- 
fourth  (colored),  and  could  not  be  brought  to  the  front.  The 
Sixth  Connecticut  (Colonel  Chatfield)  succeeded  in  passing 
through  the  deadly  fire,  and  made  a  furious  charge  on  the 
southeast  angle  and  took  it  and  held  it  for  three  hours,  no  sup- 
port having  dared  to  follow  across  the  fatal  stretch  before  the 
fort.     To  retreat  was  worse  than  to  advance. 

During  the  three  hours  that  tliis  portion  of  the  works  was 
held  by  Colonel  Chatfield  (it  was  on  top  of  the  bomb-proof 
about  thirty  feet  above  the  heads  of  the  defenders)  several  of 
our  men  were  shot  in  the  back,  while  standng  ready  to  defend 
the  fort  from  any  other  advance;  when  this  became  known, 

Defence  of  Fort  Wagner.  165 

as  it  did  in  a  few  moments,  General  Taliaferro,  in  command 
of  the  fort,  called  to  a  Federal  soldier  on  the  bomb-proof  and 
told  him  to  say  to  his  commanding  officer  that  he  wished  to 
speak  to  him.  In  a  moment  an  officer  came  to  the  edge  of  the 
bomb-proof,  inquired  what  was  wanted  of  him..  General 
Taliaferro  said  to  him  in  substance:  '"Your  men  have  fired 
into  the  backs  of  my  men  from  your  position  on  the  bomb- 
proof, and  have  wounded  several.  ^NTow  what  I  wish  to  say 
is  this :  'If  another  shot  is  fired  into  my  men,  I  will  put  to 
death  every  officer  and  man  I  find  up  there.  You  are  my 
prisoners.  If  you  do  not  consider  that  you  are,  you  Jiave  my 
permission  to  make  your  escape,  and  not  one  man  will  be  able 
to  reach  his  lines.'  "  This  quieted  matters,  and  in  a  short 
time  the  Thirty-first  Georgia  Eegiment  and  two  companies 
of  the  Charleston  Battalion  deployed  along  the  western  face, 
when  the  Sixth  Connecticut  surrendered. 

The  assault  was  bravely  made,  but  was  doomed  to  failure 
from  the  onset.  The  demoralization  of  the  negro  troops  at 
the  supreme  moment  threw  the  ranks  of  the  Federals  into  dis- 
order. The  converging  fire  of  the  artillery  and  infantry  on 
the  narrow  approach  prevented  a  rally.  Few  could  move 
within  that  fatal  area  and  live.  The  situation  of  the  works 
for])ade  any  feint  or  diversion,  so  that  the  garrison  could  con- 
centrate their  attention  on  one  point  alone.  Besides  the  in- 
creasing darkness  rendered  more  dense  by  the  smoke  of  con- 
flict, added  to  the  confusion  of  the  assailants,  and  helped  the 
assailed,  and  thus  the  fortunes  of  war  once  more  smiled  on 
Fort  Wagner,  giving  to  the  Confederates  a  complete  victory 
and  to  the  Federals  an  overwhelming  defeat. 

Language  has  not  the  power  to  describe  the  horrors  of  the 
niglit  of  the  assault.  The  shattered  column  of  the  enemy  was 
driven  back  to  the  shelter  of  the  sand  hills.  Four  thousand 
men  had  been  dashed  against  Fort  Wagner ;  when  reformed 
within  the  Federal  lines  only  600  answered  to  their  names. 
Brigadier-General  Strong  was  mortally  wounded  and  Colo- 
nels Chatfield,  Putman  and  Shaw  were  left  dead  within  our 
lines.  A  desnltnry  fii-e  oi  small  arms  wiih  an  oceasi'inal  dis- 
charge of  grape  and  canister  was  kept  up  for  a  time  at  an 
unseen  foe  from  the  ramparts  of  Wagner.      Soon  silence  and 

166  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

stillness  reigned  supreme,  broken  only  by  the  moans  of  the 
wounded  and  dying,  xit  last  the  long  night  was  ended  and 
the  sun  of  a  peaceful  Sabbath  rose  revealing  the  sickening 
scene.  ''131ood,  mud,  water,  brains  and  human  hair  matted 
together;  men  lying  in  every  possible  attitude,  with  every 
conceivable  expression  on  their  countenances ;  their  limbs 
bent  into  unnatural  shapes  by  the  fall  of  twenty  or  more  feet, 
the  fingers  rigid  and  outstretched  as  if  they  had  clutched  at 
the  earth  to  save  themselves;  pale,  beseeching  faces  looking 
out  from  among  the  ghastly  corpses,  with  moans  and  cries 
for  hel}>  and  -water  and  dying  gasps  and  death  struggles.  In 
the  salient  and  on  the  ramparts  they  lay  heaped  and  pent  up, 
in  some  places,  three  deep. 

All  of  Sunday  was  employed  in  burying  the  dead.  Eight 
hundred  ^\-ere  buried  by  the  Confederates  in  front  of  Wag-ner. 
The  wounded  and  dead  more  remote  from  Wagner  were  cared 
for  by  their  friends.  We  took  prisoners,  including  wounded 
and  not  wounded,  about  six  hundred. 

For  fifty-eight  days  Wagner  and  Gregg  with  a  force  never 
exceeding  sixteen  hundred  men,  had  withstood  a  thoroughly 
equijjped  army  of  eleven  thousand  five  hundred  men,  the  Iron- 
sides, eight  monitors  and  five  gunboats.  For  every  pound  of 
sand  used  in  the  construction  or  repair  of  Fort  Wagner,  its  as- 
sailants had  exploded  two  pounds  of  iron  in  the  vain  attempt 
to  batter  it  down.  At  the  end  of  the  liombardment,  as  at  the 
commencement,  Wagner  stood  sullen,  strong  and  defiant  as 

Federal  history  calls  the  capture  of  Batterv  Wagner  a 
great  victory.  Victory?  Seven  hundred  and  forty  men 
driven  out  of  sand  hills  by  eleven  thousand  five  hundred. 
Ta\'o  months  in  advancing  half  a  mile  towards  Charleston, 
they  made  their  boast  that  Sumpter  was  demolished  over 
Wagner.  This  only  teaches  the  world  that  sand  batteries 
are  more  impregiiable  than  the  most  solid  masonry,  especially 
when  men  are  behind  them  ^vho  know  ho\v  to  fio-ht  in  them  by 
d.ay  and  repair  them  by  night. 

To-day  that  famed  fort  is  leveled,  its  bomb-proof,  parapets 
and  traverses  are  blotted  out ;  not  by  the  iron  hail  of  hostile 
batteries,  but  by  the  wind  of  heaven  and  the  tides  of  ocean. 

Defence  of  Fort  Wagxer.  167 

What  the  wrath  of  man  could  not  accomplish,  the  ''still  small 
voice"  of  the  Almighty  has  done. 

Ere  long  the  sea  with  its  white  capped  waves  will  sweep 
athwart  the  page  of  our  country's  history,  which  has  been 
written  in  blood ;  even  the  site  of  Fort  Wagner  will  be  gone. 
ISTot  so  its  name  and  fame.  Sooner  will  Thermopylae,  Mar- 
athon, Salamis,  Sebastopol  and  the  other  places  where  in  the 
past  men  have  dared,  endured  and  died,  be  lost  to  memory, 
than  will  be  forgotten  the  heroic  patience  and  devoted  courage 
of  the  soldiers  who  manned  the  defences  of  Morris  Island. 

In  consequence  of  the  great  importance  of  a  proper  defence 
of  Wagner,  the  command  devolved  on  some  officer  of  high 
rank,  as  for  instance  during  this  siege  by  General  W.  B.  Tal- 
iaferro and  Colonel  Graham,  General  Johnson  Hagood,  Gen- 
eral A.  H.  Colquitt,  General  T.  L.  Clingman  (of  our  bri- 
gade), Colonel  Geo.  P.  Harrison  and  L.  M.  Keitt  succeeded 
each  other  in  command,  serving  generally  about  five  days 

The  Confederate  forces  engaged  in  repelling  this  famous 
assault  on  18  July,  1863,  was  as  follows:  The  Fifty-first 
^orth  Carolina  Regiment;  detachment  of  Captains  Buckner's 
and  Dixon's  companies  of  Sixty-third  Georgia  Artillery ;  Cap- 
tains Tatum's  and  Adams'  companies  First  South  Carolina 
Infantry  (as  artillery)  ;  section  of  howitzers  of  DeSaussure 
Artillery,  Captain  DePass ;  section  of  howitzers  Blake's  Ar- 
tillery, Lieutenant  Waties  ;  Charleston  Battalion,  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  P.  C.  Gaillard,  and  Thirty-first  ISTorth  Carolina  Reg- 
iment, General  W.  B.  Taliaferro  in  command — about  fifteen 
hundred  men  all  told. 

E.  K.  Bryan, 
E.  H.  Meadows. 
New  Bern,  N.  C, 

18  July,   1901. 


15-20   SEFTEMBER.    1863. 

By  captain  C  A.  CILLEY,  A.  A.  G..  Van  Derveer's  Brigade. 

Governor  C'arr,  in  order  that  the  valor  and  devotion  of 
the  five  regiments  from  this  State  which  fonght  at  Chica- 
manga,  hitherto  unnoticed  and  uncelebrated,  should  not  be 
forgotten,  took  advantage  of  the  Act  of  Congress,  and  during 
the  past  summer  (1893)  appointed  Commissioners  to  proceed 
to  the  field,  locate  the  position  of  the  Sixty-fifth  North  Caro- 
lina (Sixth  Cavalry),  Twenty-ninth,  Thirty-ninth,  Fifty- 
eighth  and  Sixtieth  North  Carolina  Infantry,  and  secure  the 
permanent  designation  of  the  same  upon  the  maps  and  upon 
the  ground. 

Five,  of  the  seven,  gentlemen  appointed  by  him,  on  the  even- 
ing of  25  October,  1893,  met  upon  the  battle  field,  and  duly 
organized  the  Commission  by  electing  Captain  Isaac  H. 
Bailey,  the  senior  Confederate  officer,  chairman,  and  Clinton 
A.  Cilley,  secretary  and  historian.  The  other  members  pres- 
ent were  Lieutenants  I).  F.  Baird  and  Wm.  S.  Davis,  of  Wa- 
tauga County,  and  J.  G.  Hall,  of  Hickory. 

Before  going  to  the  field,  the  reports  of  every  Confederate 
officer  who  had  commanded  North  Carolina  troops  there, 
from  Ca]:)tain  to  General,  were  read,  compared  and  carefully 
collated.  Maps,  furnished  by  the  War  Department  were 
laboriously  examined,  compared  with  the  reports,  and  the  re- 
sults thus  obtained  again  gone  over  in  the  light  of  the  reports 
of  the  Federal  Commanders.  Letters  received  from  survi- 
vors were  also  filed  with  the  reports,  and  a  history,  as  accu- 
rate as  the  times  and  material  at  our  conmiand  would  allow, 

*  It  may  appear  singular  that  this  account  of  North  Carohna  troops 
should  be  written  by  a  Federal  officer,  but  he  was  in  the  battle  on  the 
other  side  and  as  it  happened  just  opposite  North  Carolina  regiments. 
Being  well  informed  as  to  the  location  he  was  appointed  by  Governor 
Carr  Chairman  of  the  Conmiission  to  visit  the  field  and  locate  the  posi- 
tion of  the  troops  from  this  State.  This  sketch  is  an  extract  from  the 
report  of  the  Commissioners.  After  the  war  he  located  in  this  State 
and  was  one  of  its  best  citizens  — Ed. 

170  North  CarolIxXa  Troops,  1861-65. 

was  written  out,  of  each  regiment  in  action,  giving  its  halting 
places,  line  of  march,  jilaces  where  engaged,  and  where  finally 
located  at  the  end  of  the  battle. 

This  preparation  showed  four  pliases  of  the  battle  of  Chic- 
amauga  especially  Avorth  our  attention,  not  only  as  attended 
with  the  most  important  results  to  both  armies,  but  as  show- 
ing most  conspicuously  the  gallant  conduct  of  the  soldiery  of 
North  Carolina.  We  may  perhaps  be  pardoned  for  saying 
that,  since  this  great  struggle  has  of  late  been  given  its  true 
place  in  the  history  of  the  war,  as  the  most  critical  of  any  in 
the  West,  and  will  surely  take  its  position  in  the  history  of 
the  world  as  one  of  the  few  decisive  battles  of  the  century,  it 
becomes  more  and  more  necessary  to  put  in  enduring  form 
the  record  of  North  Carolina's  achievements  there,  thus 
grown  to  be  of  even  more  than  national  importance.  We 
noted  down  and  each  of  these  subjects  was  fully  and  patiently 
discussed  between  the  National  Commission  and  ourselves  the 
night  before  we  went  over  the  gTound. 

1.  The  attempt  of  General  Bragg  to  turn  the  Federal  left, 
and  thus  secure  control  of  the  contested  State  road  leading 
from  LaFayette  to  Chattanooga.  The  attack  was  opened  by 
Forrest's  horsemen.  Davidson's  Brigade,  in  which  was  the 
Sixty-fifth  North  Carolina  ( Sixth  Cavalry)  took  part  in  the 
movement,  and  we  had  already  secured  evidence  of  the  Sixth's 
honorable  position  on  the  right  of  the  line.  Some  Ex-Confed- 
erates, who  had  served  under  Forrest  here,  and  who  visited 
the  field  a  few  days  before  our  arrival,  had  so  located  the 
positions  as  to  corroborate  in  every  way  our  views. 

Forrest  was  soon  reinforced  by  Ector's  infantry  brigade, 
containing  the  Twenty-ninth  North  Carolina,  who  formed, 
advanced  and  fought  over  substantially  the  same  ground  as 
the  cavalry. 

As  neither  the  reports  of  the  brigade  or  regimental  com- 
manders of  either  the  cavalry  or  infantry  detachments  have 
been  found  or  printed,  we  had  to  rely  upon  other  evidence  as 
to  the  locations.  General  H.  V.  Boynton,  of  the  United 
States  Commission,  had  commanded  a  regiment,  and  one  of 
our  Commission  had  been  a  staff  officer,  in  the  brigade  which 
successively  met  the  assaults  of  Forrest,  and  Ector,  so  that 

Chicamauga.  171 

their  recollection,  aided  by  information  collected  before  leav- 
ing home,  enabled  us  to  fix  the  position  of  the  Sixth  and 
Twenty-ninth,  accurately,  and  to  the  satisfaction  of  all  pres- 

2.  The  famous  break  through  the  Federal  centre  about 
noon  on  Sunday.  Here  it  was,  according  to  the  report  of 
Colonel  David  Coleman,  Thirty-ninth  iSTorth  Carolina,  who 
towards  the  close  of  the  day  took  command  of  his  brigade  in 
consequence  of  General  McISTair  having  been  disabled,  that 
the  brigade,  under  Coleman's  command,  charged  across  an 
open  field  in  face  of  the  heavy  fire,  and  captured  nine  cannons 
whicli  had  been  playing  upon  it  from  the  eminence.  Colonel 
Coleman,  with  the  modesty  of  the  soldier,  contents  himself 
with  the  simple  statement,  and  says  no  more. 

The  commander  of  another  brigade  also  claims  the  honor 
of  the  capture,  fortifying  his  statement  by  certificates  from 
various  subordinates.  The  division  commander  refers  to 
both  reports,  bnt  does  not  decide  between  them.  He  inti- 
mates, however,  that  out  of  the  abundance  of  captured  can- 
nons, both  brigades  may  have  taken  the  number  claimed. 

This  made  it  necessary  for  us  to  collect  all  available  evi- 
dence, and  subject  it  to  the  United  States  Commissioners  the 
night  before  our  actual  inspection  of  the  ground.  Reports, 
maps  and  other  printed  matter  were  thoroughly  examined 
and  discussed,  and  we  were  assured  that  should  the  morning 
survey  confirm  the  conchision  arrived  at,  we  could  regard  our 
contention  as  successful. 

The  next  day,  after  establishing  the  point  where  the  guns 
Avere  massed,  we  walked  up  the  long  slope  of  Dyer's  field, 
over  which  ten  or  twelve  divisions  had  fought,  and  a  second 
comparison  of  all  the  evidence  available,  made  on  the  very 
spot  of  the  conflict,  so  plainly  showed  the  justice  of  Colonel 
Coleman's  claim,  tliat  we  were  directed  to  drive  down  a  stake 
marked  with  the  regiment's  name,  the  date  and  fact  of  the 
exploit,  at  the  location  contended  for. 

3.  The  attack  by  Breckinridge  on  the  Federal  left,  Sunday 
afternoon,  and  the  desperate  fighting  for  the  State  road  in 
Kelley's  field.  We  had  no  member  of  the  Sixtieth  ;N"orth  Car- 
olina with  us,  their  regiment  having  participated  in  the  bat- 

172  North  Carolina  Troops,  1S61-'65. 

tie  here  as  a  member  of  Stovall's  brigade,  bvit  as  two  of  our 
party  on  the  field  were  engaged  with  the  brigade  which  re- 
ceived the  charge  of  the  Confederates,  and  had  special  cause 
for  remembering  every  incident  of  the  struggle  there,  we  had 
no  difficulty  in  establishing  the  location.  Again  reports  and 
majjs  were  brought  out,  one  paced  off  the  distance,  another 
read  the  statement  of  brigade  and  regimental  commanders, 
General  Stewart  consulted  the  maps  and  announced  the  de- 
cision. The  result  was  that  an  oaken  tablet,  suitably  in- 
scribed, was  put  up  on  the  side  of  the  road,  marking  it  as  the 
spot  where  the  Sixtieth  North  Carolina  Infantry,  at  noon  20 
September,  reached  the  farthest  'point  attained  by  the  Confed- 
erate State  Troops  in  that  famous  charge. 

•1.  It  remained  now  only  to  trace  the  route  of  the  Fifty- 
eighth  Infantry  from  where  it  crossed  the  river,  to  the  scene 
of  its  magnificent  achievement  on  Snodgrass  Hill.  Three  of 
our  Commissioners  were  survivors  of  that  regiment,  and  un- 
der their  guidance,  consulting  as  ever  the  reports  and  maps, 
we  had  no  lr(nible  in  following  its  ]jath  from  its  first  service, 
supporting  batteries,  across  the  field  just  traversed  by  the 
Thirty-ninth,  to  the  place  where,  about  the  middle  of  the 
afternoon,  this  command,  never  before  under  fire,  plunged 
into  the  bloodiest  struggle  of  the  battle,  and  one  of  the  dead- 
liest conflicts  of  the  war.  Here  it  was  at  the  base  and  up  to 
the  crest  of  a  wooded  hill,  that  Longstreet  hurled  six  divisions 
in  an  attempt  to  drive  Thomas  to  retreat.  The  slopes  up 
which  it  toiled,  the  ravines  through  which  it  fought  its  way, 
were  again  trodden  by  some  of  its  old  officers,  and  after  the 
fullest  discussion,  careful  examination  of  printed  and  verbal 
testimony,  inspection  and  measurement  of  the  ground,  the 
point  vherc  the  topmost  vare  of  the  tide  of  Southern  battle 
brolce  nearer  than  any  other  to  the  unbroken  lines  of  Thomas' 
defence,  was  agreed  by  us  all  to  have  been  reached  by  the 
Fifty-eighth  North  Carolina  Infantry.  During  its  three 
hours  fighting  here,  the  command  lost  one-half  of  its  men 
killed  and  wounded.  This  point  designated  by  the  tablet 
which  we  jnit  up,  was  not  a  stone's  throw  from  the  place 
selected  l)y  the  Second  Minnesota  (Federal)  Regiment, 
(whose  loss  was  precisely  the  same),  for  its  monument. 

Chicamauga.  173 

We  mav  be  pardoned  for  saying  that  such  an  interview  has 
seldom  taken  place  upon  the  battlefield  as  we  witnessed. 
There  were  six  veterans,  some  from  each  contending  army, 
who  had  borne,  among  them,  every  commission  from  Second 
Lieutenant  up  to  Lieutenant-General,  who  thirty  years  ago 
had  met  almost  face  to  face  in  the  conflicts  intent  only  on 
designating  without  error,  the  exact  position  of  their  ancient 

Plaving  made  this  location,  our  task  was  over.  We  beg 
leave  to  express  the  hope,  however,  that  men  Avho  so  highly 
distinguished  themselves  as  the  troops  of  this  State  did  in 
Kelley's  and  Dyer's  fields,  and  on  Snodgrass  Hill,  should  re- 
ceive from  i^orth  Carolina  statelier  monuments  and  more 
enduring  memorials  than  simple  tablets  of  oak  or  iron. 

This  battle  field  is  now  visited  almost  daily.  It  will  surely 
become  the  point  to  which  students  and  travellers  will  turn 
by  thousands  every  year,  and  when  it  is  seen  that  the  South- 
ern State,  which  sent  the  bravest  soldiers  to  the  field,  has  neg- 
lected them,  it  will  read  ill  for  this  Commonwealth. 

]S[o  official  location  being  as  yet  allowed  upon  Missionary 
liidge,  we  did  not  attempt  to  make  any  there. 

While  at  Chattanooga  we  were  visited  by  Mr.  J.  P.  Smartt 
and  Mr.  E.  S.  Pinion,  the  former  a  soldier  in  Cheatham's 
Division,  who  knew  the  position  of  the  cavalry  brigade  and 
Ector's  Infantry,  the  latter  a  soldier  of  the  Twenty-ninth 
^orth  Carolina  from  Jackson  County. 

Their  recollection  perfectly  coincided  with  the  results  we 
had  reached  as  to  the  location  of  these  troops. 

Clinton  A.  Cilley. 


Lenoir,  X.  C, 

3  November,  1893. 

Note  — The  North  Carolina  regiments  at  Chicamauga  were  brigaded  as 

Twenty-ninth — in  Ector"s  Brigade,  Walker's  Division. 

Thirty-ninth—m  McNair's  Brigade,  Johnson's  Division,  Buckner's 

Fifty-eighth— \n  Kelly's  Brigade,  Preston's  Division,  Bnckner's  Corps. 

Sixtieth— in  Stovall's  Brigade,  Breckinridge's  Division,  D.  H.  Hill's 

Sixty-fifth  {Sixth  Cavalry) — in  Davidson's  Brigade,  Pegram's  Division, 
Forrest's  Corps. — Ed. 





1.  R.  F.  Hoke,  Major-General 
a.  M.  W.  Ransom,  Brigradier-General. 
3.  W.   G.   Lewis.   Lieut  -Colonel,    Com- 
manding Hoke's  Brigade. 

4.  J.  W.  Cooke,  Commanding  the  "  Albe- 


5.  John  W.  Graham,  Major,  56th  N.  C.  T., 

Historian  of  the  Battle. 


20   APRIL,    1664. 

By  major  JOHN  W.  GRAHAM,  Fifty-Sixth  Regiment  N.  C.  T. 

The  Confederate  forces  on  this  expedition  under  command 
of  Brig-adier-General  E.  F.  Hoke,  were  Kemper's  (Va.)  Bri- 
gade, under  Colonel  Terry ;  Hoke's  Brigade  composed  of  the 
Twenty-first  Georgia,  Sixth,  Twenty-first  and  Forty-third 
Xorth  Carolina  Regiments  under  Colonel  Mercer,  of  the 
Twenty-first  Georgia,  the  Senior  Colonel ;  and  Eansom's  Bri- 
gade under  Brigadier-General  M.  W.  Ransom,  composed  of 
the  Twenty-fourth,  Twenty-fifth,  Fifty-sixth,  Eighth  and 
Thirty-fifth  iNrorth  Carolina  Regiments. 

The  Eighth,  which  belonged  to  Clingman's  Brigade,  had 
been  temporarily  substituted  for  the  Forty-ninth,  left  on 
picket  duty  on  the  Chowan  river.  There  were  also  a  part  of 
a  regiment  of  cavalry  under  Colonel  Bearing,  and  several 
batteries  of  artillery,  under  Lieutenant-Colonel  Branch  and 
Major  Reid,  all  from  Virginia,  except  a  section  of  Captain 
Miller's  (Co.  E,  10th  K.  C.  Regiment)  Capt.  Lee's  Mont- 
gomery Blues,  of  Alabama,  and  Bradford's  (Miss.). 

The  Federal  foi'ces  under  command  of  Brigadier-General 
H.  W.  Wessels,  consisted  of  the  Eighty-fifth  IsTew  York,  Six- 
teenth Connecticut,  One  Hundred  and  First  and  One  Hun- 
dred and  Third  Pennsylvania,  two  companies  of  Second  Mas- 
sachusetts Heavy  Artillery,  Twenty-fourth  JSTew  York  Inde- 
pendent Battery  of  Light  Artillery  (six  guns),  two  compa- 
nies (A  and  F)  of  the  Twelfth  ISTew  York  Cavalry,  besides 
two  companies  recruited  in  iSTorth  Carolina,  aided  by  the  gim- 
boats  Miami,  Soutlifield,  WJiitehead  and  Ceres. 

The  ram  Albemarle ,  which  had  been  partially  completed 
at  Edwards'  Ferry  on  the  Roanoke  river,  was  expected  to  go 
down  and  join  in  the  attack,  and  especially  to  encounter  the 
four  gunboats  above  named,  commanded  by  Captain  Flusser, 
a  Eentuckian,  said  to  be  an  officer  of  rare  intrepidity  and 

176  North  Carolina  Troops,   186l-'65. 

merit.  In  order  to  give  a  better  understanding  of  the  natural 
strength  of  Plymouth  and  its  surroundings,  I  will  state  that 
there  are  two  creeks  emptying  into  the  Eoanoke  above  the 
town  of  Plymouth,  the  land  between  them  l^eing  called  War- 
ren's iSTeck,  on  which  ^^'as  erected  a  fort  of  three  guns — one 
100-pounder,  and  two  32-pound  Parrotts.  Immediately 
west  of  the  town  and  outside  of  the  fortifications  was  a  marsh 
extending  around  to  the  southwest  corner,  and  crossed  only 
at  one  point  by  a  causeway  on  the  Boyle's  Mill  road.  The  for- 
tifications were  somewhat  in  the  shape  of  a  parallelogram,  the 
longest  side  parallel  to  the  river,  Fort  Williams  with  six 
guns  about  the  center  of  the  line,  and  projecting  forward  to 
the  south. 

On  the  lo^wer  side  of  Plymouth  Conaby  creek  flows  into  the 
Roanoke,  but  a  mile  or  more  to  the  east  of  the  town. 

AVhere  the  Columbia  road  enters  on  this  side,  the  breast- 
works were  not  continuous,  btit  the  road  was  commanded  on 
the  left  as  yoii  enter,  near  the  town  boundary  by  redoubts 
Avith  two  guns  each  at  James  Bateman's  and  Charles  La- 
tham's, and  to  the  right  was  Port  Comfort  with  three  guns,  and 
between  that  and  the  river  was  a  swamp,  the  passage  through 
which  was  very  difficult,  and  these  together  were  considered  a 
sufficient  defence  for  that  side.  Two  roads  entered  the  town 
from  the  south,  the  Lee's  Mill  road  a  little  to  the  east  of  Fort 
Williams,  and  the  Washington  and  Jamesville  road  near  the 
southwest  comer.  To  more  effectually  command  this  last 
road,  and  a  road  which  branched  off  to  the  left,  the  Eighty- 
fifth  redoubt,  with  three  guns,  called  Fort  Wessels  (or  Fort 
Sanderson)  had  been  erected  to  the  left  of  the  Washington 
road,  aliout  half  a  mile  from  the  line  of  breastworks,  and  be- 
yond the  ravine  which  goes  intO'  the  swamp  heretofore  de- 
scribed. Inside  of  the  fortifications  a  marsh  commences  near 
the  corner  of  Monroe  and  Water  streets,  and  extends  out  be- 
yond the  fortifications.  Between  this  marsh  inside  the  town 
and  the  Eoanoke  river,  on  a  mound  or  hill  now"  called  Fort 
Worth,  was  an  intrenched  camp,  where  the  line  of  breast- 
works came  to  the  river,  and  sweeping  over  it  had  been  placed 
a  200-pound  gun,  intended  expressly  for  the  ram  Albemarle. 

Between  Second  and  Third  streets,  where  they  reached  the 

The  Capture  of  Plymouth.  177 

line  of  breastworks  at  the  west,  and  across  another  ravine  ex- 
tending out  into  the  swamp,  had  been  erected  an  intrenched. 
canip  with  redoubt,  and  also  another  redoubt  was  at  the  south- 
west corner  of  the  intrenchments  near  the  Toodles  house. 

As  the  Federal  forces  had  occupied  Plymouth  for  more 
than  twelve  months,  every  effort  had  been  made  to  ren- 
der the  place  secure  from  attack,  the  different  forts  and 
other  redoubts  along'  the  line  of  breastworks  being  protected 
by  moats,  palisades,  chevaux  de  frise,  and  made  as  strong  to 
resist  bombardment  or  assault  as  engineering  skill  could  de- 
vise. The  Confederate  forces  had  been  collected  rapidly  at 
Tarboro,  from  which  the  expedition  started  on  15  April, 
1864,  and  arrived  within  five  miles  of  Plymouth  by  4  p.  m., 
on  Sunday,  the  ITth,  capturing  the  pickets  and  routing  a 
company  of  cavalry. 

The  First  Virginia  Regiment,  under  ]\Iajor  Xorton,  was 
thrown  forAvard  as  skirmishers,  and  Kemper's  Brigade,  with 
Bearing's  cavalry  and  two  batteries  of  artillery  under  Major 
Reid  turned  off  on  a  road  to  the  left  leading  to  Warren's 
Neck,  to  threaten  the  town  from  that  direction ;  and  Generals 
Hoke  and  Ransom,  with  their  brigades,  not  following  the 
direct  road  from  Jamesville,  as  the  bridge  across  the  creek 
had  been  destroyed,  turned  to  tlie  right  and  crossing  the 
troops  on  a  mill  dam,  made  a  circuit  around  into  the  Wash- 
ington road,  a  mile  below  its  junction  with  the  Jamesville 
road.  Sending  on  a  company  of  cavalry,  two  Yankees  were 
killed  of  the  picket  at  this  post  (Red  Top),  two  only  escap- 

Soon  we  hear  the  "long-roll"  of  the  enemy,  and  our  line 
is  formed  to  receive  a  shelling. 

General  Hoke's  Brigade  is  some  distance  in  advance  and 
on  both  sides  of  this  road,  and  Ransom's  further  to  the  right 
and  along  a  road  Avhich  goes  perpendicular  to  the  line  of 
breastworks  on  the  south  of  the  town. 

Skirmishers  are  sent  forward  by  both  sides,  the  enemy  also 
opening  briskly  with  his  artillery.  I^ight  soon  comes  on, 
and  all  is  quiet  on  this  part^  of  the  line  except  an  occasional 
interchange  of  shots  between  the  skirmishers. 

It  is  understood  that  the  women  and  children  in  the  town 

178  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

were  sent  off  to  Roanoke  Island  Sunday  night.  During  the 
night  and  next  morning  Hoke's  Brigade  is  moved  entirely  to 
the  left  of  the  Washington  road  and  all  his  skirmishers  in 
front  of  Ransom's  Brigade  are  relieved  by  the  Twenty-fifth 
and  companies  from  the  other  regiments.  A  detail  of  250  men 
has  been  engaged  during  the  night,  under  CoIodcI  l'ais(m,  in 
building  works  near  the  Washington  road  from  which  our  ar- 
tillery can  play  upon  Fort  Sanderson  (or  Wessels).  These 
are  so  far  finished  next  morning  that  one  company  at  a  time 
is  left  to  complete  the  work,  and  three  guns  were  placed  in 

The  enemy  can  now  see  what  has  been  done,  and  open  upon 
them.  The  fire  is  returned,  but  slowly  at  first.  Company  H, 
of  the  Fifty-sixth  Regiment,  still  continuing  the  work  for 
•other  guns,  and  some  of  them  being  wounded  by  a  shell. 

After  a  while  our  pieces  began  in  earnest  and  nearly 
silenced  Fort  Sanderson,  though  receiving  a  hot  fire  from 
Fort  Williams.  The  day  is  passed  in  shelling  by  our  artil- 
lery at  different  points,  our  cavalry  being  around  on  the  Co- 
lumbia road  to  watch  any  movements  in  that  direction. 

In  the  afternoon  Dearing  and  Reid,  with  field  artillery, 
had  opened  a  brisk  fire  on  Fort  Warren  on  the  river  above  the 
town  at  1,500  yards,  with  marked  effect,  soon  cutting  down 
the  garrison  flag  staff". 

The  gun  boats  steamed  up  to  the  assistance  of  the  fort,  but 
one  was  so  seriously  disabled  that  she  sank  on  her  return 
down  the  river.  Late  in  the  afternoon  we  learn  that  General 
Hoke,  with  his  brigade,  will  assault  Fort  Sanderson,  while 
Ransom's  Brigade  with  fourteen  pieces  of  artillery  under 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Branch,  will  make  a  demonstration  on 
the  enemy's  left  center  (that  part  of  the  works  on  tlie  long 
side  of  the  parallelogram,  on  the  enemy's  left  east  of  Fort 
Williams.)  About  5  p.  m..  Ransom's  Brigade  moves  to  the 
right  through  some  woods,  and  at  the  open  space  in  front 
skinnishers  are  throA\m  forward  from  the  different  regiments 
to  relieve  the  Twenty-fifth,  which  now  assembles  to  the  left, 
and  connects  with  Hoke's  right,  distant  about  three-fourths  of 
a  mile  from  Ransom's  left. 

Four  companies  of  the  Fifty-sixth  on  its  right,  B,  I,  E  and 

The  Capture  of  Plymouth.         179 

A  (Captains  Roberts,  Harrill,  Lockhart  and  Hughes),  go 
forward  as  skirmishers,  and  the  brigade  (Ransom's)  now 
moA^es  by  the  right  flank  and  at  the  edge  of  the  woods  forms 
line  of  battle  in  the  following  order:  the  Twentv-foiirth  on 
the  right,  next  the  Eighth,  Fifty-sixth  and  Thirty-fifth. 

The  line  is  now  in  full  view  of  the  enemy,  as  for  a  mile 
out  f]*om  the  fortifications  everything  had  been  cleared  up, 
and  targets  planted  to  indicate  distance,  upon  which  frequent 
practice  had  been  made. 

The  skirmishers,  under  Captain  Jno.  C.  PegTam  and  Lieu- 
tenant Applewhite,  of  the  brigade  staff,  rush  forward,  those 
of  the  enemy  giving  way  after  a  slight  resistance.  Our  ar- 
tillery, consisting  of  Pegram's,  Bradford's,  ]\Iiller's  and  other 
batteries,  gallop  to  the  front  and  quickly  unlimber.  It  is 
now  tbat  we  learn  that  our  demonstration  is  to  march  behind 
these  batteries,  and  receive  the  fire  of  the  enemy  from  more 
than  twenty  pieces  of  artillery,  besides  two  gun  boats,  throw- 
ing every  grade  of  shell  from  the  200-pound  gun  to  the  12- 
pound  iS[apoleon. 

vSteadily  our  line  advances,  lying  down  at  every  halt,  the 
iron  bolts  falling  thickly  in  front  and  rear,  and  sometim<^s 
in  the  line  itself.  Our  skirmishers  have  run  those  of  the 
enemy  over  their  In-eastworks,  and  are  now  lying  down  to 
avoid  as  far  as  possible  the  heavy  shower  of  grape  with  which 
they  are  greeted.  The  demonstration  is  kept  up  from  6  until 
nearly  10  p.  m.,  our  guns  having  fired  rapidly  and  the  cais- 
sons several  times  bringing  up  new  supplies  of  ammunition, 
and  our  line  has  advanced  three-fourths  of  a  mile  and  within 
800  yards  of  Fort  Williams,  the  infantry  being  ordered  to 
reserve  their  fire. 

A  correspondent  of  the  Richmond  Examiner  signed  "R." 
on  24  April,  1864,  says:  "The  action  commenced  about 
sunset,  the  night  being  perfectly  clear  with  a  full  moon,  every 
object  was  visible.  The  sight  was  magTiificent^ — the  scream- 
ing, hissing  shells  meeting  and  passing  each  other  through 
the  sulphurous  air,  appeared  like  blazing  comets  with  their 
burning  fuses,  and  would  burst  with  frightful  noise,  scatter- 
ing their  fragments  as  thick  as  hail."  To  show  how  deadly 
were  some  of  these  missiles,  I  quote  from  the  sketch  of  the 

180  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'G5. 

Eig-lith  Regiment  bv  Prof.  Lnchvig,  Vol.  1  of  this  work, 
jiage  399:  "The  gimboats  in  the  river  also  took  part  in 
shelling  our  batteries  and  line.  One  shell  from  a  gunboat 
came  o^'er  the  town,  stimck  the  ground  about  one  hundred  and 
fifty  yards  in  front  of  the  Eighth,  ricocheted,  and  the  next 
time  struck  the  ground  in  the  line  of  the  regiment  and  ex- 
ploded, killing  and  wounding  fifteen  men  of  Company  H. 
Three  of  the  men  were  killed  outright,  two  were  mortally 
wounded,  and  of  the  others  some  were  severely  and  some 
slightly  wounded." 

Lieutenant  C.  R.  Wilson,  of  Company  D,  and  fourteen 
men  of  the  Fifty-sixth  Regiment,  were  wounded,  several  seri- 
ously, but  none  mortally.  In  the  Twenty-fourth  Lieutenant 
Wilkins  was  killed  and  five  men  wounded.  I  do  not  know 
the  casualties  in  the  Thirty-fifth  and  TAventy-fifth. 

At  12  o'clock  Ransom's  Brigade  is  moved  back,  leaving  a 
line  of  skirmishers. 

While  this  demonstration  was  going  on,  Hoke's  Brigade 
had  gallantly  charged  Fort  Sanderson  from  Welch's  creek 
swamp,  and  supported  by  artillery,  a  fierce  fig-ht  had  raged, 
the  enemy  opposing  a  spirited  resistance.  Our  infantry 
again  and  again  charged  the  fort,  the  enemy  hurling  at  them 
hand  grenades,  while  the  strong  stockade,  deep  ditch  and' 
high  parapet  prevented  our  men  from  scaling  it.  During 
one  of  these  charges,  the  intrepid  Colonel  Mercer,  command- 
ing Hoke's  Brigade,  fell  mortally  wounded  at  the  head  of  his 
command.  Also  Captain  Macon,  of  the  Forty-third  North 
Carolina,  was  killed  and  twenty  or  more  of  the  brigade. 
Finally  the  infantry  having  entirely  suiTounded  the  fort, 
the  artillery  was  advanced  to  within  200  yards,  when  a  sur- 
render was  made.  Captain  Chapin,  of  the  Eighty-fifth  New 
York,  commanding  this  fort,  was  also  killed.  This  was 
deemed  an  important  position,  where  the  artillery  could  be 
concentrated  and  an  assault  made  on  the  town,  if  the  gun- 
boats could  be  driven  off  by  our  iron-clad  Albemarle. 

A  contemporary  letter  to  the  Raleigh  Confederate  makes 
this  statement  as  to  the  cause  of  the  delay  in  her  arrival: 
'Tt  was  intended  that  she  should  go  down,  engage  the  enemy's 
g-unboats  and  pass  below  on  Sunday  night.     With  that  pur- 

The  Capture  of  Plymouth.  181 

pose  she  left  Hamilton  on  Sunday  at  3  o'clock,  and  took  on 
her  deck  enough  iron  to  tack  on  imperfectly  on  the  way  down. 
Twenty  sailors  overtook  her  on  the  Cora  below  Hamilton,  in- 
creasing her  crew  to  fifty;  but  her  machinery  became  dam- 
aged on  the  way — her  rudder  head  twisted  off.  This  de- 
layed her  twelve  hours,  and  she  only  reached  Gray's  Land- 
ing at  8  p.  m.  on  Monday.  The  Yankee  steamer  Wliitehead 
•was  at  the  mouth  of  the  thoroughfare  when  the  Albemarle 
passed,  and  immediately  steamed  into  the  Cashie  and  to  Ply- 
mouth, and  reported  her  coming. 

Cooke's  passage  was  slow,  to  avoid  obstructions  and  torpe- 
does. Having  passed  them  safely,  he  steamed  past  Plymouth 
and  without  answering  the  shots  from  the  forts,  made  for  the 
Miatni  (Flusser's),  and  the  South  field  (French's)  Yankee 
boats.  They  had  been  chained  together  that  they  might  get 
Cook  betAveen  and  press  him  back  upon  a  river  flat.  He 
avoided  the  trap  and  ran  into  the  SoiithfieJd,  his  prow  was  so 
sharp  and  his  momentum  so  gTc-at  that  he  rail  ten  or  twelve 
feet  into  her,  sinking  her  instantly.  The  whole  weight  of 
the  sinking  boat  rested  on  his  bow,  depressing  it  so  that  water 
poured  into  the  forward  ports.  The  Souihfield  had  deliv- 
ered her  broadside  of  eiglit  guns,  making  not  the  least  impres- 
sion, as  this  was  on  the  bow  which  had  been  finished.  The 
current  swept  his  stern  around  and  disengaged  him  from  the 
wreck.  ]\Ieantime  Flusser  seeing  his  companion  wrecked, 
loosed  the  chains  and  steamed  to  Cooke's  stern,  gave  him  a 
broadside  of  six  100-pound  rifie  gims  at  a  few  feet  distance, 
upon  the  iron  that  !iad  been  imperfectly  l)olted,  and  dam- 
aged this  iron  in  three  places."  An  account  in  the  Richmond 
Examiner,  writtten  on  24  April,  18G4,  says:  "The  Miami 
fled,  but  not  nntil  she  was  seriously  punished,  her  commander 
(Flusser)  and  inany  of  lier  crew  being  killed.  Eighty  of  the 
BovfJificId's  crew  were  said  to  have  been  killed." 

Commander  James  ^\^  Cooke  was  an  accomplished  officer, 
who  had  entered  tlie  United  States  Xavy  from  Xortli  Caro- 
lina in  1828. 

The  noise  of  the  guns  betvx'een  2  and  3  a.  m.  on  Tuesday 
morning  had  informed  us  of  Cooke's  arrival,  and  we  were 
glad  to  hear  of  his  success  in  relieving  us  from  further  an- 

182  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

noyaiice  from  the  gunboats.  This  morning  General  Ransom 
is  ordered  to  take  the  Twentj-fourth  and  Fifty-sixth  Regi- 
ments to  the  riglit  of  the  Lee's  Mill  road,  and  make  a  demon- 
stration against  the  enemy's  works  from  that  quarter.  The 
other  three  regiments  of  his  brigade,  with  Branch's  artillery^ 
are  held  by  General  Hoke  to  su]^port  an  attack,  if  after 
thorough  reconnoissance,  he  shall  detennine  to  make  an  as- 
sault with  Hoke's  and  Kemper's  Brigades  from  the  direction 
of  Fort  Sanderson,  captured  the  night  before.  Heavy  firing 
between  the  artillery  is  kept  up  with  an  occasional  shot 
from  the  ram  Albemarle  now  below  the  town,  and  also  the 
guns  from  Fort  Sanderson  are  turned  against  the  enemy,  and 
the  skirmishers  are  pushed  close  to  the  works  at  various 

After  this  reconnoissance.  General  Hoke  determined  not  to 
make  this  attack,  and  the  three  regiments  and  Branch's  artil- 
lery are  sent  to  rejoin  General  Ransom;  and  the  Virginia 
brigade,  except  a  small  portion  left  near  Warren's  jSTeck,  is 
brought  around  to  the  south  of  the  town.  This  brigade  had 
by  its  sharpshooters,  prevented  the  enemy  from  working  the 
guns  at  the  fort  wp  the  river,  either  upon  the  ram  Albemarle 
or  upon  our  forces  to  the  left  of  the  town.  Ransom's  Bri- 
gade is  ordered  in  the  afternoon  to  cross  Conaby  creek  to  the 
east,  and  make  a  detour  of  four  or  five  miles  around  to-  the 
Columbia  road.  Colonel  Bearing,  with  some  cavalry  and 
artillery,  comes  up,  and  is  allowed  to  pass  the  brigade  in  the 
road.  That  intuitive  perception,  Avith  wliich  tlie  private  sol- 
diers could  often  foretell  the  intent  with  Avliicli  a  move  is 
made,  now  comes  into  play,  and  through  the  brigade  the  feel- 
ing becomes  universal  that  it  has  been  determined  to  make  the 
final  assault  from  the  east  side  of  the  town,  and  that  Ran- 
som's Brigade  would  be  required  to  perform  this  duty. 
Laughing  and  joking  almost  cease,  and  a  grim  determination 
to  do  all  that  could  he  expected  seems  to  pervade  the  ranks. 
Although  marching  at  will,  there  is  no  straggling,  and  tlie 
companies  close  up  and  each  soldier  is  glad  to  feel  the  touch 
of  a  comrade's  elbow.  A  screen  of  woods  hides  the  move- 
ment from  the  enemy.  About  sunset  the  column  strikes 
the  Columbia  road  and  now  turns  west  towards  Plvmouth. 

The  Capture  of  Plymouth.  183 

After  dark  we  reach  Conaby  creek,  about  a  mile  or  more 
from  the  town,  and  the  skirmishers  thrown  fonvard  find  the 
enemy  in  strong  position  on  the  opposite  side,  and  the  bridge 
destroyed.  Three  pieces  of  artillery  under  Captain  Blount 
are  advanced  to  within  300  yards,  and  the  enemy  soon  dis- 
lodged. Our  sharpshooters  again  advance  and  the  enemy 
reappear.  Some  gallant  member  of  the  Twenty-fourth 
plunges  into  the  creek,  swims  across  and  brings  back  a  skiff 
and  a  party  soon  crosses  in  it.  The  pontoons  w^hich  are  in 
charge  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  S.  D.  Pool,  of  the  Tenth,  are 
hurried  to  the  front,  placed  in  the  creek,  and  three  or  four 
companies  pass  over  and  are  deployed  as  skirmishers  and 
drive  the  enemy  back. 

The  pontoons  are  then  swung  around,  and  a  bridge  rapidly 
constructed  on  which  the  infantry  pass  over,  and  are  formed 
into  line  about  a  mile  from  the  enemy's  forts  on  the  (Colum- 
bia) road,  the  right  flank  resting  on  the  Roanoke  and  the  left 
extending  beyond  the  road  in  the  following  order:  Pifty- 
sixth,  Colonel  Faison,  on  the  extreme  right ;  then  the  Twenty- 
fifth,  Colonel  Rutledge;  Eighth,  Colonel  Murchison ;  Thirty- 
fifth,  Colonel  Jones,  and  then  the  Twenty-fourth,  Colonel 
Clarke,  successively  to  the  left.  It  is  now  near  midnight^ 
as  we  had  thrown  up  a  slight  breastwork,  and  the  men  lie 
down  to  sleep  on  the  bare  ground,  covered  with  their  blankets 
in  groups  of  two  or  three  for  warmth,  as  the  air  is  sharp  and 
piercing,  so  as  to  get  soane  rest  for  the  morrow  and  the  terri- 
ble work  ahead.  The  enemy  keep  up  a  shelling  through  the 
night,  but  without  much  effect.  Our  gunboat,  Albemarle^ 
now  on  the  right  of  our  line,  exchanges  shots  with  the  200- 
pound  gun  at  the  upper  end  of  the  town.  The  night  was 
perfectly  calm  and  cloudless,  with  a  full  moon  lending  beauty 
to  the  scene  and  the  skirmishing  is  at  times  sharp  and  ter- 
rific, but  the  enemy  are  kept  off  at  some  distance  froin  our 
line.  Just  as  the  moon  is  going  down  (and  day  breaking) 
the  troops  are  aroused  and  the  line  of  battle  formed,  and  the 
signal  rocket  gives  notice  to  General  Hoke,  who  is  with  his 
Brigade  near  Boyle's  Mill,  on  the  west  side  of  the  town,  that 
Ransoin  is  ready  to  advance.  The  skirmishers  under  the 
gallant  Captain  Cicero  Durham,  the  fighting  quartermaster 

184  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

of  the  Fortv-ninTli,  now  on  Ransom's  staff,  drove  those  of  the 
enemy  before  them.  Tlie  infantry  now  moA^e  forward,  and 
the  artillery,  consisting  of  Blount's,  Pegram's,  Marshall's 
and  Lee's  batteries,  under  Colonel  Branch,  dash  forward  on 
the  left  at  a  full  gallop  and  o^^en  upon  the  town  and  the  forts 
ahead  on  both  sides  of  the  Columbia  road. 

The  enemy  has  brought  to  bear  both  siege  and  field  guns, 
and  concentrated  a  terrible  fire  in  the  face  of  our  assaulting 
column.  Just  at  this  time  General  Hoke  opens  with  his  ar- 
tillery under  Majors  Moseley  and  Reid  a  rapid  fire,  and  his 
infantry  sent  up  yell  after  yell  as  if  about  to  charge.  The 
Virginia  Brigade  on  the  south  is  also  obeying  the  command 
to  "shout,''  and  several  of  that  brigade  are  killed  and 
wounded  by  the  enemy  slijelliiig;  them  from  Fort  Williams. 

As  our  artillery  is  kept  soiiiewhat  in  rear  of  the  advancing 
line,  the  enemy  fire  over  the  heads  of  Ransom's  Brigade  at 
first,  but  so<in  get  a  more  accurate  range. 

Steadily  the  line  goes  forward,  and  performs  the  duty  .as- 
signed, carrying  out  to  the  letter  the  precept,  ''Whatsoever  thy 
hands  find  to  do,  do  it  with  all  thy  might." 

It  will  be  best  to  describe  the  course  taken  by  each  regi- 
ment of  the  brigade,  so  far  as  can  be  gathered  from  the  ac- 
counts written  shortly  after  the  battle,  or  subsequent  authen- 
ticated statements. 

In  the  communication  of  ''Lone  Star"  on  22  April,  1S64, 
the  Twenty-fcTirth  is  fortunate  in  having  its  deeds  recorded, 
which  shows  that  regiment  took  the  two  works  immediately 
on  tlie  Columbia  road — ''the  one  on  the  south  of  the  road,  by 
the  left  of  the  I'wcnty-fourth,  led  by  Colonel  Clarke,  an.d  the 
one  on  the  uortli  by  tlie  right  of  the  Twenty-fourth,  assisted 
by  the  Thirty-tifrli."  And  the  account  further  states:  "We 
were  now  in  the  town,  and  the  head  of  every  street  running 
east  and  west,  -was  licld  by  one  or  more  of  our  regiments,  but 
their  positions  in  line  were  somewhat  changed.  The  Twenty- 
fourth  was  still  on  the  Columbia  road,  now  street  (Second), 
witli  the  Fifty-sixth  and  Twenty-fifth  to  the*  right,  and  the 
Thirty-fifth  and  Fighth  to  llie  left.  Halting  a  moment  to 
breathe  the  men  and  dress  the  line,  we  pushed  slowly  and 
carefullv  forward,  clearing  the  enemv  from  everv  street,  vard 





April  17-  20, 1864. 

By  Capt  R.  D.  Graham,  56tt>  Reg.  N.C.S.T. 

Affer  Or'ginal  by  Solon  E.  All  is,  Zl^Reg.  Mass.V.Milifla , 

Ocfobe^r,  1665. 

And  Comrmnfs  of  W.  M.  Bateman,  Superior  Court  Clzrk. , 


0  500      1000     1500     2000 



*"  -  ON*. 


The  Capture  of  Plymouth.  185 

and  liouse,  from  the  windows  of  wliich  and  from  behind  the 
fences   they   poured   an   incessant  fire.     But   nothing   could 
check  our  progress,  and  witliin  an  hour  they  were  driven  into 
Fort  Williams,  or  into  the  entrenched  camp  at  the  west  of 
the  town.      The  fort  was  on  our  left,  and  the  camp  in  front. 
In  a  few  minutes  the  Fifty-sixth  came  up  on  our  right  hx  an- 
other street,  and  by  their  arrival  decided  the  contest,  for  im- 
mediately on  the  appearance  of  this  additional  force,  the  en- 
emy threw  down  their  arms  and  raised  the  white  flag.      Cap- 
tain Locldiart,  of  the  Fifty-sixth,  ran  in  to  receive  the  sur- 
render and  instantly  both  regiments  poured  into  the  camp." 
This  sho^\-s  beyond  question  that  the  Twenty-fourth  Kegi- 
ment,  when  it  reached  the  town,  kept  its  right  on  Second 
street  and  passed  through  the  town  to  the  west  end,  keeping 
between  Second  and  Third,  or  on  Third  street,  as  nothing 
could  pass  up  Second  street,  OA\ing  to  the  rapid  fire  kept  up 
by  the  battery  at  the  west  end. 
'  In  the  account  given  by  ]\Ir.  Ludwig  of  the  part  taken  by 
the  Eighth  Regiment  on  page  -tOO  of  Vol  1,  it  is  stated:     "At 
earlv  dawn  on  the  morning  of  the  20th  the  signal  rockets  went 
up,  and  the  order  came  to  advance.      In  the  meantime  a  bat- 
tery of  artillery  took  position  in  front   (on  the  left)  of  the 
Eighth  Eegiment  and  opened  a  rapid  fire  on  the  fort  in  our 
front.      The  regiment,  in  fact  the  whole  lu'igade,  as  ordered 
moved  oft"  in  common  time.     Xot   a  rifle  was  fired,  not  a 
word  spoken.      The  artillery  was  doing  its  full  duty  in  keep- 
ing the  enemy's   infantry   quiet.     When   the  regiment  had 
advanced  to  within  al:)0ut  150  yards  of  the  fort,  the  order  to 
charge  was  given.      The  ''yell"  was  raised,  and  the  regiment 
rushed  forward  to  mount  the  fort.     Just  at  the  moment  the 
"veil"  was  raised,  the  enemy's  infantry  poured  a  destructive 
fire  into  the   ranks  of  the  regiment.      Our  artillery  ceased 
firing  as  the  regiment  approached  near  the  fort.      The  men 
rushed  on,  leaped  into  the  ditch  and  attempted  to  scale  the 
fort.     While  the  men  were  attempting  to  climb  over  the  out- 
side of  the  fort,  the  enemy  threw  hand  grenades  into  the 
ditch.      Those  who  were  in  the  ditch  had  to  get  out  of  it. 
The  regiment  then  swung  around  to  the  right,  and  attempted 
to  break  through  the  palisades  <.n  that  side  of  the  fort.      The 

186  North  Carolina  Troops,   1S61-'65. 

palisades  had  loop  holes  through  which  the  enemy  fired  on 
our  line.  At  this  puint  many  of  the  men  were  shot  through 
the  head.  The  regiment  rushed  up  to  the  palisades,  and  as 
the  enemy  pulled  their  guns  out  our  men  put  theirs  in  and 
fired  at  on  the  inside.  Such  deadly  work  could  not 
last  long.  The  Eighth  Eegiment  swung  a  little  further 
around  to  the  gate  leading  to  tlie  rear  of  the  fort.  The  gate 
was  burst  open.  The  regiment  rushed  in  and  the  fort  surren- 
dered. "Three  cheers  for  North  Carolina"  were  given  by 
the  regiment,  thus  announcing  that  the  assault  had  l^een  suc- 

The  question  naturally  arises,   what  fort  was  this?     As 
will  be  hereafter  stated,  the  capture  of  "Fort  Comfort"  on 
the  right  of  the  road  was  conceded  by  General  Ransom  to  the 
Thirty-fifth.     Where  the  advance  of  the  brigade  began,  the 
Columbia  road  does  not  run  parallel  to  the  river,  but  obliquely 
to  the  right.      The  Twenty-fourth  kept  on  both  sides  of  the 
road;  the  command  given  to  the  brigade  had  been  "Guide 
center."     There  is  a  pressure  to  the  left  by  the  Thirty-fifth 
to  avoid  the  branch,  canal  and  the  SAvamp  which  the  Twenty- 
fifth  and  Fifty-sixth  had  to  cross,  and  in  this  pressure  the 
Twenty-fourth  passes  ahead,  and  leaves  the  left  flank  of  the 
Eighth  exposed  to  an  enfilade  fire  from  the  left,  and  the  regi- 
ment naturally  swings  around  in  that  direction  to  meet  the 
gi-eatest  danger  and  injury  to  them.    This  brings  them  around 
towards  the  fort  south  of  Charles  Latham's  liouse,  less  than 
three  hundred  yards  from  Fort  Comfort,  and  called  "Conaby 
Redoul)^;'  ^^■hich  was  opposite  or  near  the  head  of  Third 
street,  and  thus  carried  the  Eighth  Regiment  to  the  extreme 
left  of  the  brigade,  as  stated  in  the  contemporaneons  account 
given  by  "Lone  Star,"  and  on  the  direct  conrse  to  Fort,  Wil- 
liams; and  Conaby  Redoubt  answers  exactly  the  description 
of   the   Fort   wath   palisades,    which    Mr.    Ludwig   says   the 
Eighth   Reg-iment  attacked  and   carried,   and  its  capture  is 
claimed  by  no  other  regiment  and  would  he  otherwise  unac- 
counted fr)r. 

The  graphic  history  of  Mr.  Ludwig  continues:  "But  a 
strong  fort  (Fort  Williams)  remained  in  possession  of  the 
enemy.      The    Eighth   Regiment   formed    and    attempted   to 

The  Capture  of  Plymouth.         187 

storm  that.  The  men  charged  np  to  the  edge  of  the  siir- 
rounding  ditch,  only  to  find  that  it  could  not  be  crossed. 
There  was  but  one  of  two  courses  to  t^ke,  to-wit :  either  to  fall 
back  or  to  surrender.  The  regiment  chose  the  former.  When 
the  retreat  began,  the  enemy  poured  a  fearful  volley  into  the 
ranks,  killing  and  wounding  many  of  the  men.  This  charge 
was  reckless  and  unnecessary.  It  was  made  under  the  flush 
of  victory,  and  not  by  order  of  the  commanding  general. 
The  fort  being  surrounded,  would  have  had  to  surrender  any 
way,  as  it  did  a  few  hours  aftersvards." 

In  the  Tayetteville  Observer  of  9  May,  1864,  it  is  said: 
We  have  received  a  communication  from  an  oflicer  of  the 
Thirty-fifth  Xorth  Carolina  Troops  complaining  that  the 
Richmond  papers  have  given  to  others  the  credit  due  to  that 
regiment.  He  says  "Ransom's  brigade  charged  the  Yankee 
fortifications,  and  our  regiment  (Thirty-fifth)  took  the  first 
fort,  the  key  to  the  position.  Its  Colonel,  J.  G.  Jones,  of  Per- 
son County,  was  the  first  to  mount  the  fortifications  and  in 
honor  of  him  and  his  regiment,  General  Ransom  changed  the 
name  from  Fort  C<>mfort  to  Fort  Jones.  To  Colonel  Jones 
the  Yankee  commander  of  that  fort  surrendered,  and  a  detail 
of  that  regiment  took  charge  of  the  first  prisoners  captured 
(on  that  day)  at  Plymouth,  and  conducted  them  to  the  rear. 
Our  three  centre  companies  covered  the  front  of  the  fort,  and 
our  rigbt  and  left  wings  completely  surroun;led  it.  Our  dead 
were  around  the  fort,  and  the  dead  of  no  other  regiment." 
I  regret  that  I  have  no  fuller  account  of  the  operations  of  this 
regiment,  whose  noble  Colonel,  in  less  than  two  months  af- 
terwards, on  the  night  of  IT  June,  186-i,  yielded  his  life  in 
a  heroic  and  successful  charge  at  Petersburg  made  by  Ran- 
som's Brigade  to  recapture  works  lost  by  another  command. 

Before  the  capture  of  Fort  Comfort  has  been  completed  by 
the  Thirty-fifth,  and  the  works  in  their  immediate  front  car- 
ried by  the  Twenty-fourth,  the  Eighth  Regiment  is  found 
doing  equally  effective  work  to  the  left  of  both  of  them,  as 
shown  above.  The  Twenty-fifth  Regiment  after  getting 
through  the  swamp,  finding  the  Fifty-sixth  across  its  course, 
obliqued  to  onr  right,  and  proceeded  up  Water  street  and  be- 
tween that  and  the  river,  and  assisted  in  the  capture  of  the 

188  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

intrenched  cam])  beyond  Fort  Worth  at  the  northwest  corner 
of  the  town.  Company  I,  of  the  Fifty-sixth,  under  Captain 
Harrill,  was  sent  in  advance  of  the  regiment  with  orders  to 
keep  along  the  river,  and  was  thus  the  first  company  to  enter 
the  town,  and  aljoiit  sunrise  captured  twenty  artillerists,  who 
were  serving  the  200-pound  gun  intended  for  the  Albemarle, 
which  was  proceeding  up  the  river  with  our  line  and  secured 
Captain  Cooke  from  further  opposition  of  any  moment. 

A  cotem]3oraneous  account  of  the  operations  of  the  Fifty- 
sixth,  dated  1  May,  1864,  was  written  by  Major  Jno.  W. 
Graham  signed  "Tar  Heel,"  and  at  the  special  request  of 
Captain  Frank  X.  Roberts,  who  sent  it  to  the  Fayetteville 
Observer,  and  this  has  been  elaborated  from  his  war  journal 
and  researches  by  its  historian.  Captain  E.  D.  Graham. 
Out  of  somewhat  voluminous  data,  what  is  here  stated  must 
be  condensed  to  come  within  the  proper  limits. 

Fortunately  we  had  no  forts  to  encounter  directly  in  our 
front,  but  there  were  other  obstacles  nearly  as  fonnidable. 
First,  a  large  herd  of  cattle,  which  we  drive  to  a  deep  canal 
in  our  front,  when  with  wild  snorts  of  terror,  they  turn  and 
break  through  our  line  of  battle.  Into  this  ditch  more  than 
six  feet  deep,  we  have  to  go  and  climb  out  on  the  other  side 
and  ag-ain  form  our  line.  The  next  obstacle  is  a  terrible 
swamp  of  untried  and  therefore  unknown  bottom,  through 
which  we  flounder,  many  ^vet  to  the  waist,  and  some  all  over, 
from  falling  down. 

Getting  through  the  swamp  our  line  is  quickly  formed 
again,  but  here  we  receive  an  oblique  fire  from  our  left,  and 
under  a  heavy  shower  of  "niinies"  go  up  a  hill  and  drive  an 
opposing  regiment  from  the  shelter  of  houses  and  palings  on 
the  eastern  end  of  the  town,  between  Water  and  Second 
streets.  Here  the  Twenty-fifth  comes  up  and  enters  the 
town  on  our  right.  We  have  several  killed  and  \vounded, 
and  among  the  killed,  Jas.  W.  Hall,  of  Company  D. 

A  part  of  the  Fifty-sixth  enter  on  Second  street  and  pro- 
ceed as  far  as  Madison  street ;  but  Major  Graham  appre^ 
hending  that  this  (Second)  street  would  be  swept  by  artil- 
lery, as  we  have  reached  an  open  square,  throws  the  regiment 
forward  into  line  with  the  left  resting  on  Second  street,  and 

The  Capture  of  Plymouth.         189 

the  right  extending-  over  to  Water  street,  which  the  other 
part  has  entered  under  Colonel  Faison.  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Luke  has  been  gallantly  leading  the  extreme  right. 

Second  street  is  now  swept  by  a  ten^ific  fire  from  the  guns 
at  the  western  end.  The  advance  is  steadily  continued,  but 
bullets  seem  to  come  from  every  direction,  both  from  houses 
and  excavations  in  the  ground.  Our  line  pushes  down  fences, 
jerks  oft  palings  and  presses  forward,  passing  Adams,  Wash- 
ington and  Jefferson  streets.  On  this  last  we  get  a  cross  fire 
from  Fort  Williams  which  is  especially  severe.  Lieutenants 
Palmer,  Holton  and  Thornton  have  fallen  wounded,  and 
many  of  the  men.  We  next  reach  Monroe  street  and  in  ad- 
vance of  any  other  regiment  on  either  side. 

Here  Company  B,  under  Captain  Roberts,  with  Colonel 
Faison,  keep  to  the  right  of  the  swamp  beginning  at  this 
point,  as  heretofore  described.  They  thus  become  detached 
and  aid  in  the  capture  of  Fort  Worth  and  the  intrenched 
camp,  at  the  west  end  of  Water  street,  which  makes  a  liot 
fight  kept  up  until  about  10  a.  m.,  when  Colonel  Bearing 
reaches  this  point  with  one  of  his  guns,  and  its  capture  is  ef- 
fected. Company  I,  under  Captain  Harrell  has,  as  already 
stated,  captured  the  artillerists  around  the  big  gim,  and  also 
strikes  the  entrenchments  just  north  of  the  marsh,  and  secures 
the  surrender  of  prisoners  at  that  point,  and  the  most  efi^ec- 
tive  service  during  the  rest  of  the  battle  is  to  hold  them 
securely — the  intervening  hill  and  swamp  separating  them 
from  Ijoth  contending  forces  who  are  continuing  the  contest. 

The  other  eight  companies  of  the  regiment  keep  to  the 
left  of  the  swamp,  nnder  !^^ajor  Graham,  and  capture  the 
batteiy  of  artillery  which  has  been  raking  Second  street. 

As  we  now  pass  from  beyond  the  cover  of  the  houses,  the 
Yankees  are  pouring  a  hot  fire  into  us  from  the  intrenched 
camp  ou  the  western  breastworks  between  Second  and  Third 
streets,  somewhat  to  our  left,  and  we  find  the  Twenty-fourth 
engaged  with  them  in  front.  As  we  are  about  to  charge,  the 
Avhite  flag  goes  up,  and  the  surrender  is  made  to  Major  Gra- 
ham, who  directs  Captain  Lockhart,  of  Company  E,  to  take 
charge  of  the  prisoners.  The  flag  of  the  Fifty-sixth  is  handed 
to  Major  Graham  on  the  breastworks  and  waved  bv  him  to 

190  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

Hoke's  Brigade,  on  the  west  of  the  town,  which  had  been 
aAvaiting  our  progress,  more  than  600  yards  distant,  as  the 
works  were  too  strong  to  be  carried  from  the  west  side.  Pass- 
ing over  another  ravine,  we  receive  the  last  prisoners  on  that 
side  of  the  town.  Hoke's  Brigade  under  Colonel  W.  G. 
Lewis,  of  the  Forty-third  i^orth  Carolina,  now  comes  up, 
and  it  is  a  relief  when  he  suggests  that  no  further  charging  is 
necessary,  as  in  the  opinion  of  himself  and  General  Hoke  the 
surrender  of  Fort  "W^illiams  can  be  compelled  by  artillery. 
The  town  was  now  entirely  ours,  except  this  last  strong  fort 
on  the  south,  and  its  surrender  was  demanded  and  refused. 
Sharpshooters  occupy  all  advantageous  positions  in  houses 
and  other  points  to  keep  the  enemy  from  serving  their  guns, 
and  our  artillery  fire  is  concentrated  on  the  doomed  fort  and 
a  shell  from  the  Albemarle  explodes  upon  it.  General  Wes- 
sels  has  made  a  gallant  fight,  but  as  "the  stars  in  their  courses 
fought  against  Sisera,"  the  converging  batteries  and  mus- 
ketry now  jDrevent  him  from  firing  a  gun.  General  Hoke 
informs  him  that,  if  he  provokes  a  useless  sacrifice  of  life  in 
requiring  an  assault,  not  a  man  in  the  garrison  will  be 
spared,  and  between  11  and  12  o'clock  a.  m.,  the  flag  comes 
down  on  Fort  Williams  and  success  crowns  our  struggle.  All 
fighting  is  now  over,  except  the  pursuit  of  some  Yankees  and 
negroes  who  escaped  from  the  fort  at  the  left  of  Fort  Wil- 
liams, and  some  Buffaloes  who  had  crossed  the  river,  many 
of  whom  Avere  captured. 

General  Wessels'  oflftcial  returns  of  casualties  with  the 
loss  of  Plymouth,  was  a  total  in  killed,  wounded  and  missing 
(not  distinguished  by  him)  of  127  officers  and  2,707  men. 

Our  losses  were  understood  to  be  125  killed  and  between 
400  and  500  wounded  in  the  brigade  and  artillery  altogether, 
though  I  have  seen  no  official  returns,  being  greatest  in  the 
Eighth  North  Carolina,  as  it  is  stated  by  Mr.  Ludwig:  "The 
regiment  lost  one  hundred  and  fifty-four  men  killed  and 
wounded,  about  one-third  of  its  number."  In  the  Thirty- 
fifth  twenty  were  killed  and  84  wounded,  including  Major 
S.  B.  Taylor.  The  losses  in  other  regiments  are  supposed 
to  be  stated  in  their  separate  history,  as  I  know  is  the  case 
in  that  of  the  Fiftv-sixth.     In  this  regiment  the  colors  were 

The  Capture  of  Plymouth.  191 

borne  by  Ensign  Jas.  M.  Clark,  of  Orange  County,  whose 
stalwart  figure  was  conspicuous  at  every  step,  and  he  never 
swerved  from  any  point  to  which  he  was  directed.  He  came 
through  with  a  rent  banner,  but  untouched  himself,  though 
his  color  guard  suffered  a  loss  of  one-third,  as  shown  in  the 
history  of  the  regiment. 

It  will  be  interesting  to  survivors  to  here  record  the  regu- 
lar order  of  succession  from  left  to  right  in  which  the  ten 
companies  of  the  Fifty-sixth  stood  in  line  of  battle.  It 
was  C,  K,  G,  F,  H,  D  (colors),  A,  E,  I  and  B.  The  action 
of  the  two  right  companies  under  their  captains  have  been 
given  above.  The  other  eight  going  through  to  the  end  of  the 
battle  with  the  Hag,  l^eginning  with  E,  were  led  respectively 
by  Captain  Joseph  G.  Lockhart,  Captain  Xoah  H.  Hughes, 
Captain  Robert  D.  Graham,  Captain  Wm.  G.  Graves,  Lieu- 
tenant Valentine  J.  Palmer,  Lieutenant  Otis  P.  Mills,  Cap- 
tain Frank  R.  Alexander,  and  Captain  Alexander  P.  White. 
When  Lieutenant  Palmer  fell  in  the  charge  wounded  as  the 
regiment  passed  the  jail,  Company  F  pressed  steadily  for- 
ward with  Lieutenant  John  R.  Williams  in  command.  All 
these  officers  and  their  men  without  an  exception,  displayed 
a  coolness,  discipline  and  courage  that  any  commander  might 
be  proud  to  witness.  I  would  be  glad  to  mention  by  name 
officers  and  men  of  other  conuuands,  reported  as  conspicuous 
for  bravery,  but  where  all  so  well  did  the  work  assigned,  I 
have  deemed  it  best  to  narrate  the  main  facts  as  I  have  col- 
lected them,  and  not  attempt  details  of  individual  prowess 
or  give  names  except  of  those  directing  some  separate  move- 
ment, and  of  those  under  my  immediate  command,  from 
whom  I  could  not  withhold  the  meed  of  praise  to  which  they 
are  justly  entitled.  But  I  do  not  wish  to  seem  to  ignore  the 
splendid  work  done  hy  Hoke's  Brigade  or  the  Virginia  Bri- 
gade under  Colonel  Terry. 

An  officer  in  the  line,  will  of  course  be  unable  to  do  more 
than  observe  the  part  taken  by  his  own  regiment  or  one  im- 
mediately adjoining,  and  has  little  opportunity  of  gaining 
correct  information,  except  in  a  general  way,  of  the  opera- 
tions of  other  commands  at  distant  points. 

A  correspondent  of  the  Richmond  Examiner  of  24  April, 

192  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

■^igiKd  "Tt,''  savs :  "'The  result  ct  tlii^  uiost  'n'illianr  suc- 
cess Avas  the  capture  of  some  2,500  prisoners,  28  pieces  of  ar- 
tillery, heavy  and  light,  some  500  horses,  5,000  stands  of 
small  arms,  TOO  harrels  of  flour,  with  other  commissary  and 
quartermaster  supplies,  immense  ordnance  stores,  and  the 
strong  position  of  Plymouth,  which  protects  the  whole  Roan- 
oke Valley,  and  furnishes  a  base  for  our  iron-clad  to  drive  out 
from  Albemarle  and  Pamlico  Sounds,  the  large  fleet  of  the 
enemy's  gunboats,  and  open  a  large  and  rich  counti*y  from 
which  we  can  obtain  supplies.  General  Hoke,  who  com- 
manded the  expedition,  though  only  27  years  of  age,  may 
well  rank  with  our  ablest  division  commanders  in  the  service. 
He  has  wonderful  tact,  force,  activity  and  an  endurance 
that  despises  fatigue ;  handles  troops  with  great  ease  and 
celerity,  and  has  their  unbounded  confidence.  Ransom's 
charge  has  not  been  surpassed  at  any  time :  his  military 
genius  coniprehended  the  situation,  and  he  was  master  of 
it ;  he  determined  on  the  charge,  knowing  what  dash  and 
pluck  could  accomplish,  when  satisfied  as  to  the  proper  point 
of  attack.  Colonel  Dearing,  of  the  cavalry,  not  ojily  handled 
his  own  connnand  with  great  success,  but  in  the  charge  of  ar- 
tillery and  infantry  at  Port  Warren,  and  both  on  the  right 
and  left  with  Ransom  and  Hoke,  and  on  Wednesday  morn- 
ing in  Ransom's  charge,  his  services  were  invaluable." 

Tn  the  message  of  Governor  Vance  to  the  General  Assem- 
bly of  North  Carolina  17  May,  1864,  he  says:  "In  addition 
to  the  manv  brilliant  victories,  which  have  crowned  our  arins 
this  spring  in  all  parts  of  the  Confederacy,  I  have  the  sincere 
pleasure  to  congratulate  you  upon  the  splendid  success  of 
the  opening  of  the  campaigii  in  our  State,  resulting  in  the 
recapture  of  the  towns  of  Washington  and  Plymouth,  and  the 
rescue  of  a  considerable  portion  of  our  territory  from  the  en- 
emy. This  is  the  more  gratifying  because  it  was  accomplish- 
ed by  troops  under  the  command  of  two  distinguished  sons 
of  North  Carolina — Brigadier,  now  ]\rajor-General,  Hoke, 
commanding  the  land  forces,  and  Commander  Cooke,  with  the 
steam  ram  Albemarle.  I  doubt  not  you  will  see  .the  propri- 
ety of  rendering  suitable  thanks  to  these  gallant  officers,  and 
the  brave  officers  and  men  under  their  command,  for  the  con- 

The  Capture  of  Plymouth.         193 

spieiions  heroism  which  has  been  rewarded  by  such  splendid 

How  the  result  was  viewed  at  headquarters  is  shown  by  the 
telegram  sent  by  President  Davis : 

"Brigadier-General  Hoke:  In  the  name  of  the  Confeder- 
acy, I  thank  you  for  your  success.  You  are  a  ]\Iajor-Gen- 
eral  from  the  date  of  the  capture  of  Plymouth." 


Twentij-fiftli  Notih  Cavolina  :  The  killed  reported  at  the 
time  were:  In  Company  A,  Jos.  L.  Edney  and  W.  W. 
Owenby ;  in  Company  B,  W.  B.  Grant ;  in  Company  H,  J.  M. 
Cartland;  and  in  Company  K,  G.  W.  Black.  Its  wounded 
were  20. 

Tirenty -fourth  Noiili  Carolina.  Lieutenant  Wilkins  was 
killed,  and  five  men  wounded  on  the  night  of  IS  April.  In 
the  same  regiment  20  April,  the  killed  were:  J.  W.  Puck- 
ett,  of  Company  B ;  E.  K.  Hocutt,  of  Company  C ;  A.  J. 
Young  and  K.  B.  Taylor,  of  Company  E ;  Jos.  Mangum,  of 
Company  H;  Joshua  Canady,  of  Company  I;  and  J.  F. 
Baker,  of  Company  K ;  Lieutenants  E.  S.  Sanders  and  T.  T. 
Lee,  of  Company  E,  and  Ca])tain  W.  J.  Squiggins,  of  Com- 
pany D,  and  84  men  wounded. 

Thirty- fifth  North  Carolina.  The  killed  reported  were: 
Robert  W.  BroAvn,  of  Company  A ;  Corporal  W.  H.  Council, 
of  Company  I) ;  Lieutenant  J.  X.  Loy,  Sergeants  H.  W. 
Oakley  and  J.  J.  Yarborough,  and  T.  S.  Drake,  T.  R.  Gen- 
try and  \.  Evans,  of  Company  E ;  Sergeant  John  Dulin,  J. 
E.  Harris  and  John  Xoles,  of  Com])any  H;  and  Sergeant  T. 
W.  Conley,  J.  AV.  Abernathy,  D.  Denton,  D.  Moore,  J.  C. 
Whisenhundt  and  P.  S.  Whitener  were  killed,  and  Lieutenant 
D.  P.  Glass  mortally  wounded  in  Company  K.  Major  S.  B. 
Taylor  and  84-  men  were  vrounded. 

Eighth  North  Carolina.  The  killed  were:  H.  C.  Stoke- 
ly,  of  Company  A  ;  George  W.  Graves,  of  Company  B ;  W. 
J.  Baker,  of  Company  C ;  B.  F.  Patterson,  of  Company  D ; 
Lieutenant  D.  A.  Patterson  and  John  Coddle,  of  Company 
E;  Lieutenant  L.  D.  Lauirley  and  Sergeant  J.  J.  Tunnage,  of 


194  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Company  G;  First  Sergeant  J.  A.  Barringer  and  J.  C. 
Klutts,  W.  M.  Sides,  ]Srelson  Barringer,  Moses  Dvy,  J.  C. 
Linebei'gcr,  E.  J.  Patterson  and  J.  E.  Barringer,  J.  J. 
Ketchey,  John  Raney,  J.  S.  Murph,  and  Wiley  S.  Seaford. 
Lieutenants  A.  II.  Gregory,  D.  W.  Weaver,  S.  J.  Thornton, 
James  K.  McKethan  and  P.  J.  Miller,  and  Ensign  Frank 
Perkins,  and  101  others  were  wounded. 

Sixth  North  Carolina.  The  killed  were:  John  McDan- 
iel,  of  Company  C ;  Harvey  Hanna  and  Joshua  Johnson,  of 
Company  H;  John  W.  Faucett,  of  Company  F  ;  Henry  Capps 
of  Company  K,  mortally,  and  Lieutenant  W.  S.  Clinton  and 
29  others  severely  wounded. 

Tivcnty-first  North  Carolina.  The  killed  were :  Sergeant 
F.  C.  Clinard,  of  Company  A ;  J.  W.  Hodges  and  A.  F.  Pat- 
terson, of  Company  C ;  Corporal  J.  F.  Beek  and  Chas.  K. 
Kallum,  of  Company  D ;  Wm.  Hancock  and  Cal.  Edwards, 
of  Company  F;  Captain  J.  O.  Blackburn,  of  Company  G; 
D.  A.  Pay,  of  Company  H;  S.  W.  Dick,  of  Company  I;  B. 
F.  Loinhack  and  Jos.  Long,  of  Company  K ;  Corporal  J.  G. 
Wilkinson,  of  Company  L ;  and  M.  M.  Wright,  George  Wy- 
rick  and  Wm.  Pichardson,  of  Company  M.  The  wounded 
were  35  and  one  missing. 

F orty-tliird  North  Carolina.  The  killed  were:  P.  B. 
Mclv  orkle,  of  Company  B ;  Stephen  Penf  ree,  of  Company 
C ;  Captain  H.  A.  Macon,  of  Company  F,  and  Lewis  Duke,  of 
Company  G.  There  were  13  wounded,  including  Lieutenant 
H.  Brown  and  Sergeant  T.  H.  Bobbitt.  It  is  to  be  regretted 
that  a  full  list  of  casualties  in  the  gallant  Twenty-first  Geor- 
gia Pegiment,  forming  with  the  above  named,  Hoke's  Bri- 
gade, was  not  given  to  the  T^orth  Carolina  papers.  It  is 
noted  that  the  list  of  wounded  at  Plymouth  and  received  at 
the  hospital  in  Wilson,  jST.  C,  including  the  following  from 
the  Twenty-first  Georgia:  D.  Dyal,  J.  F.  Cook,  W.  M. 
Hensly,  F.'  M.  Pawls,"w.  B.  Phillips,  L.  W.  Jones,  L.  A. 
Hudgins,  P.  Marshall,  J.  C.  Booles,  J.  B.  Peid,  J.  T.  Wil- 
liams, John  Dempsey,  L.  B.  Davis,  B.  F.  Gross,  and  G.  L. 

At  the  same  hospital  there  were  from  the  Seventh  Vir- 
ginia Pegiment  Heniw  Bowen,  and  from  the  Twenty-fourth 

The  Capture  of  Plymouth.  195 

Virginia  W.  D.  Mountcastle,  H.  A.  Mills,  James  Thomason, 
G.  H.  Rut  ledge  and  J.  P.  Wyson. 

From  Bradford's  Mississippi  Battery,  Corporal  T.  L.  Rns- 

John  W.  Graham. 

HiLLSBORO,    N.    C, 

20  April,  1901. 



x\bout  2  o'clock  in  the  morning  of  3lMay,  1864,  while  lying 
in  the  trenches  at  Bermiida  Hundreds,  I  received  an  order  to 
move  to  join  General  Lee's  army^  directing,  however,  one 
regiment  of  my  brigade  to  hold  temporarily  the  line  I  was 
leaving.  I  at  once  moved  to  the  railroad  station  with  the 
Eighth,  Thirty-first  and  Fifty-first  Regiments,  !N^orth  Caro- 
lina Troops,  the  Sixty-first  being  left  in  position.  A  little 
after  daylight,  at  the  railroad  station,  the  brigade  of  Hoke's 
Division  which  was  to  have  moved  first,  not  being  there,  I 
was  ordered  to  take  the  lead.  I  arrived  in  Richmond 
soon  after  sunrise ;  on  calling  to  see  General  Bragg,  was 
directed  by  him  to  take  the  railroad  to  Atlee's  Station,  and 
report  to  General  Lee — then  having  his  headquarters  there. 
Two  miles  short  of  that  place  I  met  Colonel  Crawley,  Gen- 
eral Lee's  Quartermaster,  who  delivered  to  me  an  autograph 
letter  from  General  Lee,  directing  me  to  proceed  by  Mechan- 
icsville  and  Gaines'  Mill  to  Old  Cold  Harbor,  and  there  sup- 
port Major-General  Fitzhugh  Lee's  cavalry,  and  also  direct- 
ing me  to  communicate  this  order  to  any  other  portion  of 
Major-General  Hoke's  Division.  After  I  had  passed  two  or 
more  miles  beyond  Mechanicsville,  I  received  an  order  from 
Major-General  Hoke  directing  me  to  await  further  orders  at 
that  place.  After  remaining  there  about  three  hours,  I  re- 
ceived a  second  order  from  General  Hoke  to  move  on  to  Cold 
Harbor.  On  arriving  there,  I  found  General  Hoke,  who 
directed  me  to  take  a  position  on  the  left  of  that  occupied  by 
the  main  body  of  the  cavalry.  The  Thirty-first  Regiment, 
commanded  by  Lieutenant-Colonel  Knight,  was  placed  on  my 
right :  the  Eighth,  under  Lieutenant-Colonel  Murchison,  in 
the  center,  and  the  Eifty-first  under  Colonel  McKethan,  on 
the  left.      Soon  after,  Major-General  Hoke  ordered  that  the 

198  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'6o. 

Fifty-first  should  move  forward  and  to  the  left  about  four  or 
■five  hundred  yards,  to  support  a  portion  of  the  cavalry  who 
were  acting  as  infantry,  and  engaged  with  the  enemy.  I 
therefore  carried  forward  this  regiment  and  placed  it  in  posi- 
tion, and  as  this  was  the  most  exposed  and  dangerous  part  of 
my  line,  I  remained  with  it.  We,  though  subjected  to  a 
heavy  fire  both  of  artillery  and  musketry,  sustained  little 
loss.  After  we  had  been  engaged  for  some  time,  the  cavalry 
on  my  left  gave  way,  and  the  enemy's  advance  then  enabled 
them  to  annoy  us  a  good  deal  by  their  fire  on  the  left  flank  of 
our  position  where  I  was  stationed.  Two  companies  de- 
tached from  the  Fifty-first  to  the  left,  owing  to  the  miscon- 
duct of  their  commander,  Captain  - — .  • — . ,  failed  to 

drive  back  the  enemy  there.  Though  he  was  three  times  or- 
dered to  open  on  them,  yet  he  failed  to  do  so,  but  kept  his 
men  lying  down  in  the  road  about  one  hundred  and  fifty 
yards  on  my  left. 

A  half  hour,  or  perhaps  an  hour  later,  the  cavalry  on  my 
right  all  gave  way,  and  passed  to  the  rear  in  squads,  alleging 
that  their  ammunition  had  given  out.  Seeing  the  enemy 
would  soon  pass  me  on  both  sides,  I  ordered  Colonel  Mc- 
Kethan,  after  a  few  minutes,  to  fall  back  to  the  fence,  a  feW 
hundred  yards  to  the  rear,  and  sent  one  of  my  couriers  to  the 
otlier  two  regiments,  who  were  only  a  hundred  yards  in  ad- 
vance of  the  fence,  to  occupy  the  same  line.  As  I  was  retir- 
ing to  point  out  the  several  positions  each  regiment  was  to 
occupy,  a  ]xjrtion  of  a  shell  took  away  the  front  of  my  hat 
and  slightly  wounded  my  forehead.  Though  somewhat 
stunned  for  an  instant,  I  was  not  disabled  at  all,  but  observ- 
ing that  all  the  cavalry  in  reserve  on  my  right  had  likewise 
retired,  as  my  several  regiments  came  back,  they  were 
placed  in  position  on  the  other  side  of  the  field  to  the  rear 
of  the  place  I  had  intended  them  to  occupy.  A  few  of  my 
command  were  captured  by  that  portion  of  the  enemy  who 
came  between  the  Fifty-first  and  Eighth  Regiments.  Our 
loss  in  all  was  less  than  one  hundred.  My  Adjutant-Gen- 
eral, Captain  Edward  White,  was  severely  wounded  by  a 
shell  while  in  line  with  the  Eighth  Regiment  where  I  had 
left  him  when   I  moved  forward.     We    held    this    position 

Second  Cold  Harbor.  199 

during  the  night,  having  been  reinforced  by  the  arrival, 
about  dark,  of  the  Sixty-first  Regiment  of  my  brigade,  un- 
der Colonel  J.  D.  Radcliffe,  and  also  by  General  Colquitt's 
Brigade,  which  took  position  on  my  right. 

At  daylight  in  the  morning  of  1  June,  1864,  to  obtain  a 
better  line,  my  left  was  drawn  back  about  two  hundred  yards, 
and  took  a  position  selected  by  General  Hoke,  while  the  right 
of  my  brigade  united  with  General  Colquitt's.  My  left 
rested  at  the  bank  of  a  branch.  Soon  after  sunrise.  General 
Kershaw's  Brigade  took  position  on  the  hill  on  my  left, 
but  with  an  interval  of  about  seventy-five  yards  between  their 
right  and  my  left.  I  rode  over  and  expressed  to  the  officer 
in  command  of  the  nearest  regiment,  a  wish  that  he  would 
extend  his  right  to  the  branch,  so  as  to  unite  with  my  com- 
mand, but  he  declined  to  do  so.  I  was  about  to  extend  my 
line  across  the  branch,  though  contrary  to  the  orders  I  had 
received,  but  soon  after  was  informed  by  Major-General  Hoke 
that  this  was  unnecessary,  as  General  Hagood's  Brigade 
would  be  stationed  in  front  of  my  left  and  cover  this  inter- 
val. About  9  o'clock  General  Hagood's  Brigade  did  take 
position  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  yards  in  front  of  my 
line,  so  that  his  right  regiment  was  in  front  of  the  left  regi- 
ment of  my  brigade,  while  the  rest  of  his  command  was  in 
front  of  General  Kershaw's  position. 

The  Sixty-first  Regiment  occupied  the  right  of  my  line, 
next  it  was  the  Thirty-first,  then  the  Fifty-first,  and  my  left 
was  held  by  the  Eighth  Regiment.  The  men  all  went  vigor- 
ously to  work  and  with  their  hands  and  bayonets  had  made 
with  rails  each  a  pretty  good  entrenchment  as  against  mus- 
ketry by  midday.  After  1  o'clock  I  passed  along  the  line  of 
General  Hagood's  Brigade  in  my  front  to  be  assured  that 
they  were  still  in  the  position  in  which  they  had  been  placed 
in  the  morning.  About  3  o'clock,  however,  this  brigade,  in 
obedience  to  Major-General  Hoke's  orders,  was  moved  away 
to  the  right  without  my  knowledge.  General  Hagood  subse- 
quently told  me  that  he  notified  General  Kershaw  of  his 
movement,  but  he  gave  me  no  notice.  Had  I  not  felt  sure  of 
his  still  being  there,  I  should  have  sent  companies  of  my  com- 
mand across  the  branch  on  my  left,  and  might  thus  have  pre- 

200  North  CarolixNa  Troops,  1861-65. 

vented  most  of  the  loss  subsequently  sustained.  Shortly 
after  3  o'clock  the  enemv  opened  heavily  with  their  artillery 
on  us,  and  after  an  interval  of  perhaps  three-quarters  of  an 
hour,  their  infantry  advanced.  Just  as  they  were  getting 
within  good  range,  there  was  a  heavy  discharge  of  musketry 
from  Kershaw's  Brigade  on  my  left,  and  then  a  cessation 
of  firing  in  that  quarter.  I  then  supposed  that  the  enemy 
had  only  made  a  feint  in  that  direction,  whereas,  in  fact. 
as  I  have  subsequently  learned,  this  brigade  fled  precipitately 
from  the  field  after  discharging  their  muskets.*  Believing 
that  tlie  point  of  greatest  danger  was  on  my  left  owing  to  the 
cover  which  the  thick  woods  there  afi'orded  the  enemy  in  their 
advance,  I  took  my  position  in  the  line  near  the  left  of  the 
Fifty-first  Regiment.  A^^ien  the  enemy  were  first  seen  ad- 
vancing through  the  trees  at  a  distance  of  nearly  one  hundred 
and  fifty  yards,  supjiosing  they  were  a  portion  of  General  Ha- 
good's  Brigade,  which  was  falling  back,  I  ordered  my  men  not 
to  fire.  As  soon  as  their  true  character  was  ascertained,  we 
opened  on  them.  They  were  then  in  line  of  battle  and  about 
one  hundred  yards  distant.  Though  the  places  of  those  in 
front  were  for  a  time  supplied  by  fresh  troops,  they  ulti- 
mately gave  way  and  Avere  driven  back  out  of  sight.  I  or- 
dered my  men  t(T  stop  firing  to  allow  the  smoke  to  be  dissi- 
pated. Tmmediarely  in  my  front  for  seventy  or  eighty  yards 
the  groimd  slightly  descended,  then  rose  up  into  the  slope  of 
the  liill.  But  a  lirtle  to  the  left  where  the  branch  came  down 
the  raA^ne  was  continuous.  Along  this  de])ression  a  large 
column  of  the  enemy  following  their  lines  of  battle  advanced 
Avithout  being  observed  by  us.  As  soon  as  they  Avere  draAvn 
in  the  bottom  they  changed  their  route  somcAvhat,  inclining 
toAvards  our  right.  They  Avere  in  this  manner  brought  up 
directly  in  front  of  the  left  of  the  Fifty-first  AA'here  I  Avas 
standing.  After  I  had  ordered  the  firing  to  cease  and  the 
smoke  had  partially  been  dissipated,  I  directed  there  should 
be  no  firing  until  the  enemy  should  be  seen  again. 

As  the  hill  Avhere  the  enemv's  line  of  battle  had  been,  in 

*  Keitt's  "big  regiment"  broke   first  and  Colonel  Keitt  was   killed 
while  trying  to  rally  them. — Ed. 

Second  Cold  Harbor.  201 

o^l^  front,  was  much  elevated  above  us,  we  did  not  from  our 
position  behind  our  hastily  made  earthworks,  observe  the  low 
ground  in  front  and  to  the  left.  On  my  repeating  the  order 
tc-  look  out  for  the  approach  of  the  enemy,  Captain  Fred.  R. 
Blake,  of  my  staff,  who  was  just  by  my  side  on  the  right, 
elevated  himself  so  as  to  overlook  the  heads  of  our  men,  who 
after  loading  their  guns,  were  in  a  stooping  position,  sud- 
denly exclaimed:  "'Here  they  are,  as  thick  as  they  can  be!" 
Kising  immediately  as  he  had  done,  I  saw  there  was  within 
eight  or  ten  paces  of  us,  a  heavy  column  of  the  enemy.  They 
showed  probably  about  thirty  men  in  front  and  were  closed  in 
mass  very  compactly.  They  had  an  apparently  new  blue 
uniform,  and  were  marching  at  a  quick-step.  Prisoners  sub- 
se(piently  taken  stated  that  they  were  fresh  troops  that  had 
been  in  garrison  and  had  not  previously  been  engaged,  and 
had  expressed  great  confidence  that  they  would  march  into 
Richmond.  It  was  also  stated  that  they  had  orders  not  to 
fire  a  gun  or  to  cheer  until  they  had  carried  our  works. 
From  the  fact  that  the  column  displayed  four  flags,  I  took  it 
to  consist  of  four  regiments.  The  instant  I  saw  them,  as  my 
men  had  been  firing  at  objects  elevated  on  the  hill,  I  was  ap- 
prehensive that  they  might  fire  too  high,  I  therefore  in  a 
loud  voice,  said:  "Aim  low  and  aim  well!"  As  I  did  this 
a  tall  and  uncommonly  fine  looking  oflficer  in  the  front  rank 
of  the  enemy's  column,  hearing  the  order  and  looking  me 
directly  in  tlie  face,  though  he  changed  countenance  for  a 
moment,  took  off  his  cap  and  waving  it  al:)0ut  his  head, 
cheered  his  men  in  words  which  I  could  not  catch.  Just  as 
he  had  jdaced  his  hat  back  on  his  head,  and  before  he  had 
time  to  lower  his  hand  again  to  his  side,  a  soldier  immedi- 
ately on  my  right  discharged  his  musket  and  the  liall  entered 
the  u])per  part  of  his  forehead,  and  he  fell  backAvard  stagger- 
ing the  two  men  behind  him. 

The  discharge  from  my  line  at  once  knocked  down  the 
front  ranks  of  the  column,  while  the  oblique  fire  along  the 
right  and  left  cut  down  the  men  rapidly  all  along  the  column 
towards  the  rear.  In  a  few  moments  the  whole  column  either 
acting  under  orders,  or  from  panic,  lay  down.  Xothing 
could  have  been  more  unfortunate  for  them.     While  they 

202  North  Carolina  Troops,   i861-'65. 

thus  lay  there,  the  men  of  niv  command  continued  to  reload 
and  discharge  their  pieces  into  the  thick,  dark  mass.  The 
officers  fired  their  repeaters,  while  such  as  had  none  occa- 
sionally borrowed  muskets  from  privates  and  discharged  them 
at  particular  individuals.  As  the  survivors  lay  still  to  avoid 
attracting  particular  attention,  it  was  soon  impossible  to  dis- 
ting-uish  the  living  from  the  dead.  After  some  fifteen  or 
twenty  rounds  had  been  fired  into  the  prostrate  mass,  I 
directed  the  firing  to  cease.  Upon  this  occurring,  a  portion 
of  the  column,  not  I  think,  more  than  one-tenth,  arose  and 
fled  to  the  rear ;  many  of  these,  however,  were  shot  down  as 
they  attempted  to  escape. 

On  the  right  of  my  line,  ^^'here  the  Sixty-first  Regiment 
was  stationed,  the  enemy  made  a  vigorous  attack  in  line  of 
battle,  but  as  the  ground  was  more  open,  they  were  not  able 
to  ai^i^roach  nearer  than  either  eighty  or  one  hundred  yards, 
but  left  large  numbers  of  dead  on  that  part  of  the  field.  Un- 
der cover  of  thick  undergrowth  they  approached  somewhat 
nearer  the  Thirty-first  but  were  repulsed  with  much  slaughter. 
After  the  enemy  had  thus  been  driven  entirely  away,  the  men 
cheered  all  along  our  lines.  Before  the  smoke  had  been  en- 
tirely dissi]:)ated,  however,  there  was  a  sudden  attack  on  my 
left,    under    the    following    circumstances :     When    General 

's  Brigade  on  my  left  abandoned  the  field,  in  the 

beginning  of  the  engagement,  a  large  force  of  the  enemy 
passed  quietly  to  llie  rear  of  my  left.  This  they  did  without 
observation  on  account  of  the  thickness  of  the  woods  there. 
We  had  been  too  constantly  engaged  to  have  time  to  ascer- 
tain that  the  troops  on  our  left  had,  more  than  an  hour  pre- 
vious, left  the  field.  The  enemy  had  full  time,  therefore,  to 
make  their  arrangements  to  attack  us  both  on  the  left  flank 
and  in  our  rear.  Favored  by  the  thick  bushes  and  smoke, 
they  had  gotten  within  fifty  yards  of  the  rear  and  left  of 
the  Eighth  Regiment,  and  suddenly,  just  as  our  men  had 
ceased  to  cheer,  they  opened  on  them  a  heavy  fire  at  short 
range  against  their  backs  and  from  the  left  simultaneously. 
Though  under  these  circumstances  surprised,  the  men  of  the 
Eighth  faced  about,  and.  with  the  left  of  the  Fifty-first,  en- 
deavored to  keep  up  the  contest.      The  odds  in  such  a  strug- 

Second  Cold  Harbor.  203 

gle  were  too  great,  and  our  men  fell  so  fast  that,  seeing  it 
impossible  for  them  longer  to  maintain  the  contest  there,  I 
directed  Lieutenant-Colonel  Murchison,  who,  though  flushed 
and  excited  by  such  a  disaster,  showed  the  greatest  self-pos- 
session and  courage,  to  withdraw  the  survivors  so  as  to  form 
a  new  line  of  battle  perpendicular  to  the  first  one,  extending 
from  the  right  of  the  Fifty-first  to  our  rear.  In  this  posi- 
tion the  survivors  of  the  Eighth  and  Fifty-first  held  their 
ground  for  some  time  against  the  greatly  superior  forces  of 
the  enemy.  I  then  ordered  the  Thirty-first  to  file  out  of  the 
intrenchment  and  form  with  theiu.  With  this  force  we 
charged  the  enemy,  and  drove  them  back  so  as  to  enable  us  to 
reoccuj)y  our  original  line  for  a  few  moments  only;  because 
the  enemy  being  posted  along  the  branch,  and  also  on  the 
hill,  rendered  it  impossible  for  my  small  force  to  resist  them, 
and  it  Avas  again  driven  back.  While  I  was  endeavoring  to 
reform  the  line,  Captain  Henderson,  of  the  Eighth,  said  to 
me,  "Colonel  Murchison  is  dead."  I  replied,  "I  hope  not, 
for  I  spoke  to  him  but  a  few  minutes  since."  In  fact,  as  I 
soon  learned,  just  as  he  had  gotten  back  into  the  trench,  which 
he  had  with  his  regiment  occupied  during  the  day,  he  re- 
ceived a  ball  in  the  head  which  terminated  his  life.  Finding 
that  no  enemy  was  immediately  in  our  front  then,  but  only  a 
heavy  artillery  fire  kept  up,  I  ordered  Colonel  Radcliffe  to 
file  his  regiment  out  of  the  trenches  so  as  to  aid  us  in  the  next 
attack.  As  I  afterwards  learned,  he  himself,  with  the  larger 
part  of  his  command,  did  not  obey  this  order  and  stayed  in 
the  trench.  Being  busied  with  forming  the  line  under  the 
heavy  fire  of  the  enemy,  I  observed  soon,  however,  the  delay 
of  this  regiment  in  getting  into  position,  and  going  up  to  its 
left,  I  ordered  them  to  file  out  to  the  rear,  so  as  to  form  the 
right  of  our  new  line  of  battle.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Devane 
took  out  a  portion  of  the  regiment,  and  I  thus  su])posed  they 
were  all  following.  While  the  line  was  being  formed,  Colo- 
nel Zachary,  of  General  Colquitt's  Brigade,  with  five  com- 
panies of  the  Twenty-seventh  Georgia  Regiment,  came  up 
and  charged  with  us.  The  struggle  had  continued  for  sev- 
eral hours,  and  it  was  now  after  sunset.  We  drove  the  en- 
emy back  again  and  reoccupied  the  left  of  our  original  line. 

204  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861 -'65. 

Captain  Henderson,  who  had  succeeded  to  the  command  of 
the  Eighth,  was,  however,  slain  in  this  last  charge. 

Before  night  closed,  we  thus  held  again  our  original  line 
intact,  but  the  thick  woods  and  dusk  of  the  closing  evening, 
allowed  the  enemy  to  rest  within  fifty  yards  of  our  left.  I 
then  received  an  order  from  ]\Iajor-General  Hoke,  through 
one  of  his  staif,  to  vacate  so  much  of  my  line  on  the  left,  as 
was  within  the  woods,  as  it  was  said  that  Hunton's  Brigade 

was  moving  up  to  occupy  the  ground  that  had 

lost.  I  told  this  staff  officer  that  it  was  better  for  me  to  hold 
my  whole  line  until  this  brigade  arrived,  for  that  if  .any  part 
was  vacated  the  enemy  would  occupy  it.  The  officer  insisted, 
hoAvever,  that  I  must  withdraw  at  once,  as  the  other  brigade 
was  approaching,  and  confusion  might  be  produced.  I  was 
thus  compelled  to  give  up,  reluctantly,  about  one  hundred 
or  one  liundred  and  fifty  yards  of  my  line  on  the  left.  Hun- 
ton's brigade  did  not,  in  fact,  come  up  until  the  next  morn- 
ing, but  as  I  had  foreseen,  the  enemy  immediately  extended 
tiieir  lines  until  within  twenty  or  thirty  yards  of  my  left, 
being  protected  by  a  little  elevation  of  the  ground  between  us. 
One  Virginia  regiment  came  up  and  took  position  in  rear  of 
ijiy  left,  at  right  angles  to  it,  extending  to  the  rear.  While 
1  was  standing  at  the  angle  thus  formed  at  my  left  a  body  of 
troops  was  seen  moving  by  the  flank  from  the  left,  but  just 
in  front  of  our  old  lines.  Not  knowing  but  that  this  was  a 
part  of  Hunton's  command,  I  hailed  them.  Some  of  my 
officers  said,  "These  are  our  pickets  coming  in."  I  replied, 
''We  have  no  pickets  out."  As  this  body  of  troops  was  by 
ijiis  time  just  opposite  my  left,  about  eight  or  ten  feet  in  its 
front,  but  just  as  near  as  they  could  get  by  reason  of  the 
slight  work  thrown  u]5  high  enough  to  cover  a  man  to  the 
hijis,  T  said  very  loud:  "Speak  or  you  will  be  fired  into." 
Getting  no  answer,  I  ordered  my  men  to  fire,  and  myself 
barely  escaped  our  own  fire  by  falling  to  the  ground  as  the 
miiskets  were  discharged  over  me.  After  a  few  volleys,  the 
enemy  had  disappeared.  It  was  evident  that  they  expected 
under  cover  of  the  darkness,  by  moving  up  silently  to  occupy 
a  still  larger  share  of  our  original  line.  The  two  lines  were 
during  the  night  separated  by  less  than  fifty  yards,  and  by 

Second  Cold  Harbor.  205 

morning  work  enough  had  been  done  to  perfect  each.  During 
the  following  day  there  was  only  skirmishing,  but  on  the  next 
(Friday,  the  3d),  the  enemy  made  an  attack  on  several  parts 
of  the  Confederate  lines,  though  not  heavily  in  my  front, 
only  engagiiig  the  right  of  my  line,  with  General  Colquitt's 
Brigade.  They  lost  again  so  heavily  on  this  day  that  there 
.was  no  further  attempt  by  them,  except  by  slow  approaches. 
At  daybreak  on  the  morning  of  the  13th,  it  was  seen  that  they 
had  abandoned  our  front  and  moved  on  towards  Petersburg. 

In  the  engagement  of  1  June,  Captains  Blake  and 
Burgwyn,  of  my  staff,  both  fell,  severely  wounded ;  and  as 
Captain  White  had  on  the  previous  evening  been  disabled,  I 
was  without  a  single  staff  officer  present.  In  this  engage- 
ment though  my  brigade,  deprived  suddenly  of  its  support, 
was  at  the  same  time  assailed  in  front,  on  its  left  flank  and 
from  its  rear,  at  close  quarters  and  by  vastly  superior  num- 
bers, it  was  neither  panic-stricken  or  beaten.  After  a  strug- 
gle which  continued  for  three  hours,  and  after  losing  more 
than  one-third  of  its  strength,  it  recovered  all  its  ground  and 
repulsed  its  assailants. 

The  important  position  at  Cold  Harbor  Avas  thus  preserved 
to  General  Lee.  Its  conduct  in  similar  circumstances  in 
front  of  Petersburg,  a  little  later  on  the  evening  of  17  June, 
1864,  was  detailed  in  my  official  report  of  that  engagement. 

T.  L.  Clingman. 


3  June,  1874. 


25   AUCiUST.     156^. 

By   major  CHAS.  M.  STEDMAX,  Forty-Fourth  Regiment,  N.  C.  T. 

Upon  the  investment  of  Petersburg,  the  possession  of  the 
Weldon  road  became  of  manifest  importance,  as  it  was  Lee's 
main  line  of  communication  with  the  South,  whence  he  drew 
his  men  and  supplies.  On  18  August,  1864,  General  G.  K. 
Wari-en,  Avith  the  Fifth  Corps  of  Grant's  Army  and  Kaut'z's 
Division  of  Cavalry,  occupied  the  line  of  the  Weldon  road 
at  a  poijit  six  miles  from  Petersburg.  An  attempt  was  made 
to  dislodge  them  from  this  position  on  the  21st,  but  the  effort 
failed.  Emboldened  by  Warren's  success,  Hancock  was  or- 
dered from  Deep  Bottom  to  Reams  Station,  ten  miles  from 
Petersburg.  He  arrived  there  on  the  22d,  and  promptly 
commenced  the  destruction  of  the  railroad  track.  His  in- 
fantry force  consisted  of  Gibbon's  and  Miks'  Divisions,  and 
in  the  afternoon  of  the  25tli,  he  was  reinforced  by  the  divis- 
ion of  Orlando  B.  Wilcox,  which  however,  arrived  too  late 
to  be  of  any  substantial  service  to  him.  Gregg's  Division  of 
cavalry,  with  an  additional  brigade,  commanded  by  Spear, 
was  with  him  and  abundant  artillerj-. 

On  the  22d  Gregg  was  assailed  by  Wade  Hampton  with  one 
of  his  cavalry  divisions,  and  a  sharp  contest  ensued.  Gen- 
eral Hampton  from  the  battle  field  of  the  22d,  sent  a  note  to 
General  K.  E.  Lee,  suggesting  an  immediate  attack  with  in- 
fantry; that  great  connnander  realizing  that  a  favorable  op- 
portunity was  offered  to  strike  Hancock  a  heavy  blow, 
directed  Lieutenant-General  A.  P.  Hill  to  advance  against 
him  as  promptly  as  possible.  General  Hill  left  his  camp 
near  Petersburg  on  the  night  of  the  24th,  and  marching  south, 
halted  near  Armstrong's  Mill,  about  eight  miles  from  Peters- 

On  the  morning  of  the  25th  he  advanced  to  Monk's  JSTeck 
bridge,  three  miles  from  Beams  Station,  and  awaited  advices 

208  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

from  Hampton.  The  Confederate  force  actually  present  at 
Reams  Station  consisted  of  Cooke's  and  MacRae's  Brigades, 
of  lleth's  Division ;  Lane's,  Scales'  and  McGowan's  Brigades, 
of  Wilcox's  Division ;  Anderson's  Brigade  of  Longstreet's 
Corps;  two  brigades  of  Mahone's  Division;  Butler's  a; 'd 
W.  H.  F.  Lee's  Divisions  of  Cavalry  and  a  portion  of 
Pegram's  Battalion  of  artillery.  General  Hampton,  com- 
manding cavalry,  marched  at  daylight  on  the  morning  of 
the  25th,  and  drove  the  Federal  cavalry  before  him  at  all 
points.  Both  of  his  divisions  united  at  Malone's  Crossing, 
about  two  and  a  half  miles  from  Reams  Station,  having 
moved  against  the  enemy  by  different  routes.  Here  Hamp- 
ton A\'as  attacked  by  a  portion  of  Hancock's  infantry,  when  he 
dismounted  his  entire  force  and  a  spirited  light  was  in  pro- 
gress when  the  columns  of  A.  P.  Hill  appeared  in  sight,  with 
the  purpose  of  attacking  Plancock's  force  from  the  front, 
Hancock's  infantry,  who  were  expecting  an  attack  from  Hill, 
had  entrenched  themselves  strongly  on  the  west  side  of  the 
railroad  and  a  short  distance  from  it.  Hill  ordered  the  first 
assault  about  2  o'clock  in  the  afternoon.  The  assaulting 
column  consisted  of  Anderson's  Georgia  Brigade  and  Scales' 
JSTorth  Carolina  Brigade.  These  two  brigades,  after  a  severe 
conflict  in  which  both  fought  well,  were  repulsed.  The  sec- 
ond assault  was  made  about  5  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  by  the 
three  Xorth  Carolina  Brigades  of  Lane,  Cooke,  and  MacRae, 
from  left  to  right,  in  the  order  named.  These  troops  had 
become  famous  throughout  the  entire  army  for  their  fighting 
qualities.  How  could  it  be  otherwise  with  such  brigade  com- 
manders ?  On  this  day  General  Conner,  of  South  Carolina, 
was  commanding  Lane's  Brigade,  as  General  Lane  had  been 
severely  wounded  at  Cold  Harbor. 

In  front  of  Lane  and  Cooke  the  enemy  had  felled  trees, 
sharpening  the  limbs  and  making  it  very  difficult  to  get 
through  them.  MacRae  had  an  open  field  between  him  and 
the  enemy's  breastworks,  and  for  this  reason,  as  the  other  two 
brigades  would  be  necessarily  retarded  by  the  abatis,  which 
was  exceedingly  formidable  wdiere  Lane's  men  had  to  pass, 
they  were  ordered  to  advance  somewhat  sooner  that  MacRae's 
men.     MacRae's  line  of  battle  was  in  the  edge  of  a  pine  thick- 

Reams  Station.  209 

et  about  three  hundred  yards  from  the  breastworks  to  be  as- 
saulted. Walking  along  the  line  MacRae  told  the  men  that  he 
knew  they  would  go  over  the  works,  and  that  he  wished  them 
to  do  so  without  firing  a  gam.  "xVll  right,  General,  we  will  go 
there,"  was  the  answer  which  came  from  all.  The  men  were 
in  high  spirits,  jesting  and  laughing,  and  ready  to  move  on 
an  instant's  notice.  In  the  meanwhile  Lane's  and  Cooke's 
Brigades  advancing  were  received  by  a  heavy  fire  of 
both  musketry  and  artillery.  As  the  fire  became  more  vio- 
lent, especially  in  front  of  Lane,  MacRae,  prompted  by  that 
great  and  magnanimous  spirit  -which  ever  characterized  him, 
and  realizing  that  the  crisis  of  the  conflict  was  at  hand,  said 
to  Captain  Louis  G.  Young,  his  Adjutant-General,  ''I  shall 
wait  no  longer  for  orders.  Lane  is  drawing  the  entire  fire  of 
the  enemy ;  give  the  order  to  advance  at  once."  Hitherto  his 
brigade  had  received  but  slight  attention  from  the  enemy,  the 
greater  portion  of  tlieir  fire  having  been  directed  against 
Lane's  and  Cooke's  Eidgades.  But  warned  of  the  danger 
which  threatened  them,  by  the  loud  cheers  from  MacRae's  Bri- 
gade, as  it  emerged  from  its  covering  of  pines  and  advanced 
to  the  assault,  they  o])ened  a  tremendous  fire  of  small  arms, 
with  a  converging  fire  of  artillery  along  MacRae's  whole  front. 
It  was  all  in  vain.  MacRae's  men  in  a  line  almost  as  straight 
and  unbroken  as  they  ])resented  when  on  parade,  without 
firing  a  gun,  threw  themselves  forward  at  a  double-quick, 
and  mounting  the  entrenchments,  precipitated  themselves 
among  the  enemy's  infantry  on  the  other  side,  who  seemed  to 
be  dazed  by  the  vehemence  of  the  attack,  and  made  a  very  fee- 
ble resistance  after  their  works  were  reached.  Lane's  and 
Cooke's  men,  stimulated  by  the  shouts  of  jMacRae's  Brigade 
on  their  right,  redoubled  their  exertions  and  advancing  with 
great  rapidity  through  the  fallen  timl^er,  were  close  under 
the  works  when  MacRae  struck  them.  In  fact,  portions  of 
the  three  brigades  crossed  the  embankment  together,  and  the 
glory  of  the  victory  belongs  equally  to  them  all.  Xor  were 
our  cavalry  idle  spectators  of  the  ficht.  As  soon  as  it  was 
evident  to  General  Hampton  that  Hill's  infantry  had  com- 
menced the  second  assault  with  the  three  jSTorth  Carolina 

510  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

Brigades,  lie  ordered  his  entire  force,  which  had  been  dis- 
mounted, to  attack  the  enemy  in  tlank  and  rear.  This  was 
done  most  gallantly  and  snccessfnlly.  General  Rufus  Bar- 
ringer,  of  North  Carolina,  commamled  W.  II.  F.  Lee's  Divis- 
ion wit.h  marked  skill  and  gallantry,  whilst  Colonel  W.  H. 
Cheek,  of  Warren  county,  led  Barringer's  Brigade  with  his 
accustomed  dash.  The  cavalry  vied  with  the  infantry  in 
their  headlong  assault  upon  the  enemy's  lines.  The  ISTine- 
teenth  North  Carolina  {'2  Cav.)  under  General  W.  P.  Roberts, 
of  Gates  County,  carried  the  lirst  line  of  riflr>pits  on  the  right, 
and  the  cavalry  all  swept  over  the  main  line.  Their  works 
stormed  in  front,  their  lines  carried  in  tlank  and  rear,  the  en- 
emy's infantry  gave  way  at  all  points  and  abandoned  the  field 
in  confusion  and  without  any  appearance  of  order.  In 
truth,  the  Federal  infantry  did  not  show  the  determination 
which  had  generally  marked  the  conduct  of  Hancock's  Corps. 
Xot  so  witli  the  Federal  artillery.  It  was  fought  to  the  last 
with  unHinchiug  courage.  Some  minutes  before  the  second 
assault  was  made.  General  ]\IacBae  had  ordered  Lieutenant 
W.  E.  Kyle,  with  the  sharpshooters,  to  concentrate  his  fire 
Ti]:»on  the  Federal  batteries.  Many  men  and  horses  rapidly 
fell  under  the  deadly  fire  of  these  iutrepid  marksmen.  Yet 
still  the  artillerists  who  were  left,  stood  by  their  guns.  When 
MacRae's  Brigade  crossed  the  embankment,  a  battery  which 
w^as  on  his  right  front  as  he  advanced,  wdieeled  to  a  right  angle 
wuth  its  origiual  position,  and  opened  a  fire  of  grape  and  can- 
ister at  close  quarters,  enfilading  the  Confederate  lines ;  Gen- 
eral MacRae  immediately  ordered  this  battery  to  be  taken. 
Although  entirely  abandoned  by  its  infantry  support,  it  con- 
tinned  a  rapid  fire  upon  the  attacking  column  until  the  guns 
were  reached.  Some  of  the  gunners  even  then  refused  to  sur- 
render and  were  taken  by  sheer  physical  force.  They  were 
animated  in  their  gallant  conduct  by  the  example  of  their  com- 
manding officer.  On  horse  back,  he  was  a  conspicuous  target, 
and  his  voice  could  be  distinctly  heard  encouraging  his  men. 
Struck  ^^•ith  admiration  by  his  bravery,  every  effort  was  made 
"by  General  MacRae,  Captain  W.  P.  Oldham,  Captain  Robert 
Biugham,  and  one  or  two  others  who  were  among  the  first  to 
reach  the  guns,  to  save  the  life  of  this  manly  opponent.      Un- 

Reams  Station.  211 

fortunately  he  Avas  struck  l)_v  a  ball  which  came  from  the  ex- 
treme flank,  as  all  firing  had  ceased  in  front  of  him  and  he 
fell  from  his  horse  mortally  wounded,  not  more  lamented  by 
his  own  men  than  by  those  who  combatted  him.  This  bat- 
tery, when  captured,  was  at  once  turned  upon  the  retreating 
columns  of  the  enemy.  It  was  manned  by  a  few  of  MacKae's 
sharpshooters,  all  of  whom  were  trained  in  artillery  practice. 
They  were  aided  ly  Captain  Oldham,  Lieutenant  Kyle  and 
others,  not  now  remembered.  Captain  Oldham  sighted  one 
of  the  guns  repeatcMlly.  and  when  he  saw  the  effect  of  his  ac- 
curate aim  upon  the  disordered  masses  in  front,  was  so  jubi- 
lant that  General  MacRae,  with  his  usual  quiet  humor,  re- 
marked, '^Oldham  thinks  he  is  at  a  ball  in  Petersburg." 

After  the  capture  of  the  breastworks.  General  McGowan's 
Brigade  Avas  sent  in  on  the  right.  That  generous  hearted 
old  hero  declined  to  make  any  official  report  of  the  conduct 
of  his  brigade,  giving  as  a  reason  therefor,  that  he  ''supposed 
he  Avas  only  sent  in  to  help  the  Xortli  Carolinians  in  the  pur- 
suit, and  gather  u]i  the  spoils  of  war  which  had  been  captured 
hy  them.''  His  unselfish  example  was  well  worthy  of  imita- 
tion. Mahone's  old  brigade  subsequently  advanced  over  the 
same  field,  but  the  hard  fighting  was  over. 

The  Federal  loss  in  this  battle  was  between  six  hundred  and 
seven  Inmdved  killed  and  wonnded,  two  thousaml  one  hun- 
dred and  fifty  prisoners,  three  thousand  one  hundred  stand 
of  small  arms,  twelve  stand  of  colors,  nine  guns  and  caissons. 
Among  the  prisoners  ca]Unred  was  General  Walker,  of  Han- 
cock's staff,  who  surrendered  to  Lieutenant  Kyle.  Kyle  here, 
as  elsewhere,  was  in  the  very  front  of  the  assaulting  column. 

The  Confederate  loss  was  small,  and  fell  prineijially  upon 
Lane's  Brigade.  In  the  second  and  final  assault  it  was  about 
five  hundred  in  killed  and  wounded.  The  result  of  this  bril- 
liant engagement  was  hailed  with  great  rejoicing  throughout 
the  South,  and  shed  a  declining  lustre  upon  the  Confederate 
l»attle  flag,  upon  which  the  sun  of  victory  was  about  to  go 
down  forever.  General  R.  E.  Lee  publicly  and  repeatedly 
stated  that  not  only  Xorth  Carolina,  but  the  whole  Confed- 
eracy, owed  a  debt  of  gratitude  to  Lane's,  Cooke's  and  Mac- 
Kae's Brigades  which  could  never  be  repaid.    He  also  wrote  to 

212  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Governor  Vance  expressing  his  high  appreciation  of  their 
services.     From  his  letter  I  make  this  extract : 

"Headquarteks  Army  NoRTiiERiS^  Virginia^ 

''August  29,  1864. 
"His  Excellency  Z.  B.  Vance. 

Governor  of  North  Carolina,  Raleigh : 
"I  have  frequently  been  called  upon  to  mention  the  services 
of  North  Carolina  soldiers  in  this  army,  but  their  gallantry 
and  conduct  were  never  more  deserving  of  admiration  than  in 
the  engagement  at  Reams  Station  on  the  2.5th  ultimo. 

"The  brigades  of  Generals  Cooke,  MacRae  and  Lane,  the 
last  under  the  temporary  command  of  General  Conner,  ad- 
vanced through  a  thick  abatis  of  felled  trees,  under  a  heavy 
fire  of  musketry  and  artillery,  and  carried  the  enemy's  works 
Avith  a  steady  courage  that  elicited  the  warm  commendation 
of  their  corps  and  division  commanders,  and  the  admiration 
of  the  army. 

"On  the  same  occasion  the  brigade  of  General  Barringer 
bore  a  conspicuous  part  in  the  operations  of  the  cavalry, 
which  were  no  less  distinguished  for  boldness  and  efiiciency 
than  those  of  the  infantry. 

"If  the  men  w^ho  remain  in  North  Carolina  share  the  spirit 
of  those  they  have  sent  to  the  field,  as  I  doubt  not  they  do,  her 
defence  may  securely  be  trusted  to  their  hands. 
'T  am,  with  great  respect, 

"Your  obedient  servant, 

R.  E.  Lee, 

The  regiments  from  North  Carolina  engaged  in  this  battle 
again  illustrated  those  high  qualities  which  will  perpetuate 
the  name  and  fame  of  the  Confederate  soldier  in  the  years 
to  come.  Unshaken  by  the  fall  of  Vicksburg  and  the  disaster 
at  Gettysburg,  undismayed  amidst  the  general  gloom  which 
was  settling  upon  the  fortunes  of  the  South,  they  exhibited 
the  same  enthusiasm  and  valor  which  had  marked  their  con- 
duct upon  every  field  where  they  stood  for  the  honor,  glory 
and  renown  of  their  State. 

Charles  M.  Stedman". 

Greensboro,  N.  C, 

25  August,  1901. 


WINCHESTER,    19   SEFTEHBER,    1S6*. 

By  brigadier-general  BRADLEY  T.  JOHNSON. 

In  September,  1864,  Early's  army  was  lying  about  Win- 
chester. We  had  been  through  Maryland,  and  terrified 
Washington  into  fits,  and  had  gotten  safely  back  into  Vir- 
ginia, with  thousands  of  horses,  cattle,  medical  stores  and 
hundreds  of  wag'on  loads  of  edibles  of  every  kind.  I  had  a 
cavah'y  brigade  of  wild,  southwestern  Virginia  horsemen,  as 
brave  and  as  undisciplined  as  the  Virginia  Rangers  Colonel 
Washington  surrendered  at  Fort  Xecessity,  or  Andrews 
fought  Cornstalk  with  at  Point  Pleasant.  I  was  bivouacked ; 
we  had  no  tents.  About  three  miles  north  of  Winchester,  on 
the  Valley  pike,  and  picketed  from  the  Valley  pike  to  the 
Berryville  pike,  running  east  from  Winchester,  General  Rob- 
ert D.  Johnston,  of  Xorth  Carolina,  had  a  brigade  of  from 
800  to  1,000  muskets  on  the  Berryville  pike,  on  the  top  of  the 
ridge  running  across  the  road.  My  pickets  were  a  mile  in 
advance  of  his  in  Ash  Hollow.  vSheridan,  with  45,000  in- 
fantry and  10,000  cavalry,  lay  eight  to  fifteen  miles  beyond 
our  picket  lines,  from  Berr^wille  and  Ripon  to  Charlestown 
and  Ilalltown,  in  Clarke  and  Jefferson  Counties,  Va.  ITow, 
every  morning  the  Yankee  cavalry  would  rush  my  pickets  in 
on  Johnston's  posts.  He  would  stop  them  until  I  got  up, 
and  tlien  I'd  drive  the  Yankees  back  and  re-establish  my  orig- 
inal picket  posts.  This  done,  I  would  send  my  command 
back  to  camp. 

1  had  about  eight  hundred  mounted  men,  and  I  would  ride 
up  to  Bob  Johnston's  headquarters,  which  was  a  wagon  under 
a  tree,  one  camp  stool  and  a  frying  pan  sizzing  with  bacon, 
and  a  pot  of  rye  coffee  and  sorghum.  I'd  get  my  breakfast. 
But  after  a  week  of  this  proceeding  it  either  became  monoto- 
nous or  my  appetite  showed  no  sigTis  of  weakening.      I  don't 

214  North  Carolina  Troops,   1S61-'65. 

know  Avliieli.  One  morning  1  dismounted  after  my  usual 
morning  call  to  boots  and  saddle,  and  swung  myself  very  com- 
fortably into  Johnston's  single  and  only  camp  stool.  I 
smelled  the  bacon  and  sniffed  the  coffee,  and  waited.  In  a 
few  moments  the  cook  handed  me  a  chip  for  a  plate  and  a 
tin  cup  of  reddiot  coffee^ — so  hot  I  had  to  set  the  cup  on  the 
grass,  when  Bob  spoke,  saying:  "Bradley,  you  let  those 
Yankees  do  you  too  bad.  You  have  got  so  scared  of  them 
that  you  all  run  the  very  lirst  dash  they  make  at  you." 

"Is  that  so,  Robert  V  1  said.  "That's  a  pity,  but  I  don't 
know  how  to  help  it.  I  do  the  best  I  can.  How  many  Yan- 
kee cavalry  <;l<)  you  think  you  are  good  for  ^" 

"Well,"  said  he,  "I've  got  eight  hundred  muskets  present 
for  duty.  By  a  week's  time,  as  the  boys  get  back  from  the 
hospital,  I'll  have  one  thousand.  Well,  with  one  thousand 
muskets,  I  think  I  can  take  care  of  live  thousand  Yanks  on 

"All  right,"  said  I,  "wait  and  see.      I  hope  you  can." 

So  I  got  my  breakfast  and  went  off  mightily  tickled  at  the 
conceit  of  the  Tar  Heel ;  for  Sheridan's  cavalry,  with  Custer, 
Torbett  and  Devens,  were  about  as  good  soldiers  as  ever  took 
horse  or  drew  saber.  We  had  drilled  them  so  that  in  three 
years  we  had  taught  them  to  ride.  They  were  always  drilled 
enough  to  light,  and  they  learned  the  use  of  the  saber  from 

Well,  things  went  on  as  usual.  Every  morning  Sheridan 
would  send  a  regiment  out  to  feel  Early — to  drive  in  his 
pickets — so  as  to  nu^ke  sure  wliere  he  was,  and  to  know  where 
to  find  him  ;  and  every  morning  I  would  ride  over  to  the  Ber- 
ryville  road,  re-establish  my  lines,  and  get  my  breakfast  off 
of  Johnston. 

By  daylight  19  September,  a  scared  cavalryman  of  my 
own  command  nearly  rode  over  me,  as  I  lay  asleep  on  the 
grass,  and  reported  that  the  Yankees  were  advancing  with  a 
heavy  force  of  infantry,  artillery  and  cavalry  up  the  Berry- 
ville  road.  Early  was  up  toward  Stephenson's  depot,  and 
Jc)hnston  and  I  were  res]ionsible  for  keeping  Sheridan  out  of 
Winchester  and  protecting  the  Confederate  line  of  retreat 
and  of  conununication  up  the  valley.      In  two  minutes  my 

The  Thin  Gray  Line  of  Tar  Heels.  215 

comniand  was  moiinted  (we  always  saddled  up  and  fed  au 
hour  before  dawn)  and  moving  at  a  trot  across  the  open  fields 
to  the  Berryville  road  and  to  Johnston's  assistance.  There 
was  not  a  fence  nor  a  house  nor  a  bush  nor  a  tree  to  obscure 
the  view.  Away  off,  more  than  two  miles,  we  could  see  the 
crest  of  the  hill  covered  with  a  cloud  of  Yankee  cavalry,  and 
in  front  of  them  (five  hundred  yards  in  front)  was  a  thin, 
gray  line  moving  oft"  in  retreat  stolidly,  and  with  perfect  cool- 
ness and  self-possession.  As  soon  as  I  got  to  realize  what  was 
going  on  I  quickened  our  gait,  and  Avhen  within  a  mile  broke 
into  a  gallop.  The  scene  was  as  plain  as  day.  A  regiment 
of  cavalry  would  deploy  into  line,  and  then  their  buglers 
w^ould  sound  the  charge  and  they  would  swoop  down  on  the 
thin  gray  line  of  iSTorth  Carolinians.  The  instant  the  Yankee 
bugle  sounded,  ]^ortli  Carolina  would  halt,  face  to  the  rear, 
wait  until  the  horses  got  within  one  hundred  yards,  and  then 
fire  as  deliberately  and  coolly  as  if  firing  volleys  on  parade 
drill.  The  cavalry  would  break  and  scamper  back  and  North 
Carolina  would  "about  face"  and  continue  her  march  in  re- 
treat as  solemnly,  stubbornly  and  with  as  much  discipline  and 
dignity  as  if  marching  in  review.  But  we  got  there  just  in 
time  as  cavalry  aid  to  the  Tar  Heels.  Certainly  half  a  dozen 
charges  had  been  made  at  the  retreating  thin  gray  line,  and 
each  and  every  time  the  charging  squadrons  had  been  driven 
back,  when  the  enemy  sent  their  line  with  a  rush  at  the  bri- 
gade of  Tar  Heels,  and  one  squadron  overlapped  the  infantry 
line,  and  w^as  just  passing  it  when  we  got  up.  In  another 
minute  they  Avould  have  been  behind  the  line,  sabering  the 
men  from  the  rear  while  they  were  held  by  the  fight  in  front. 
But  we  struck  a  head-long  strain  and  went  through  the  Yan- 
kees by  the  flank  of  the  North  Carolinians,  and  carried  their 
adversaries  back  to  the  crest  of  the  hill,  back  through  the 
guns  of  their  battery,  clear  back  to  their  infantry  lines.  In 
a  moment  they  rallied,  and  were  charging  us  in  front  and  on 
both  flanks ;  and  back  we  went  in  a  hurry,  but  the  thin  gray 
line  of  Old  North  Carolina  was  safe.  They  had  gotten  back 
to  the  rest  of  the  infantry  and  formed  lines  at  right  angles  to 
the  pike  west  of  Winchester. 

I  rode  up  to  Bob  Johnston,  very  "pert,"  as  we  say  in  North 

216  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

Carolina,  and  said :  ''Pretty  close  call  that,  Mr.  Johnston. 
What  do  you  think  now  of  the  Yankee  cavalry's  fighting  qual- 
ities V  And  the  rest  of  the  day  we  enjoyed  ourselves.  We 
could  see  everything  for  miles  around.  The  country  was  en- 
tirely open.  The  day  was  beautiful,  clear  and  bright — 19 
September.  They  would  form  for  a  forward  movement — 
three  lines,  one  after  another — march  sedately  along  until 
they  got  within  touch  of  our  lines,  then  raise  a  hurrah  and 
rush  in  a  charge,  and  in  two  minutes  the  field  would  be  cov- 
ered with  running,  flying  Yankees.  There  were  45,000  in- 
fantry, 10,000  cavalry  and  3,000  mounted  gunmen.  The 
thing  began  at  daylight  and  kept  up  till  dark,  when,  flanked 
and  worn  out.  Early  retreated  to  escape  being  surrounded. 

This  is  the  story  of  the  "Thin  Gray  Line  of  North  Caro- 
lina," and  the  cavalry  charge,  a  feat  of  arjns  before  which  Sir 
Colin  Campbell's  "Thin  Red  Line"  at  Balaklava  fades  into 
insignificance.  y 

Bradley  T.  Johnson. 

Baltimore,  Md., 

19  Sept.,  1864. 

Note. — The  above  is  an  extract  from  a  very  interesting  address  by 
General  Johnson. — Ed. 

«    9 

S  o 



o  ■•:: 



By  its  Commander,  WILLIAM  LAMB,  Colonel  Thirty  Sixth  Regiment 
North  Carolina  Troops. 

The  capture  of  Fort  Fisher,  X.  C,  on  15  January,  1865, 
Wcis  followed  so  quickly  by  the  final  dissolution  of  the  South- 
ern Confederacy  that  the  great  victory  was  not  fully  realized 
by  the  American  people.  The  position  commanded  the  last 
gateway  between  the  Confederate  States  and  the  outside 
world.  Its  capture,  with  the  resulting  loss  of  all  the  Cape 
Fear  river  defenses,  and  of  Wilmington,  the  great  importing 
depot  of  the  South,  effectually  ended  all  blockade-running. 
General  liCe  sent  me  word  that  Fort  Fisher  must  be  held, 
or  he  could  not  subsist  his  army. 

The  indentation  of  the  Atlantic  Ocean  in  the  Carolina  coast 
known  as  Onslow  Bay  and  the  Cape  Fear  river  running  south 
from  Wilmington  form  the  peninsula  known  as  Federal  Point 
which,  during  the  Civil  War,  was  called  Confederate  Point. 
Xot  quite  seven  miles  north  of  the  end  of  this  peninsula  stood 
a  high  sand  hill  called  the  '"Sugar  Loaf."  Here  there  was 
an  intrenched  camp  for  the  Army  of  Wilmington,  under  Gen- 
eral Braxton  Bragg,  the  department  commander,  that  was 
hid  from  the  sea  by  forest  and  sand  hills.  From  this  in- 
trenched camp  the  river  bank,  with  a  neighboring  ridge  of 
sand-dunes,  formed  a  covered  way  for  troops  to  within  a 
hundred  yards  of  the  left  salient  of  Fort  Fisher.  Between 
this  road  and  the  ocean  beach  was  an  arm  of  Masonboro 
Sound,  and  where  it  ended,  three  miles  north  of  the  fort, 
were  occasional  fresh-water  sAvamps,  generally  wooded  with 
scrub  growth,  and  in  many  places  quite  impassable.  Along 
the  ocean  shore  was  an  occasional  battery  formed  from  a  nat- 
ural sand  hill,  beliind  which  Whitworth  guns  were  carried 
from  the  fort  to  cover  belated  blockade-runners,  or  to  protect 

This   is    reprinted   from  Battles  and  Leaders  of  the  Civil    War,   by 
courtesy  of  the  Century  Company,  New  York. 

218  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861 -'Go. 

more  unfortunate  ones  that  liad  been  chased  ashore.  About 
half  a  mile  north  of  the  fort  there  was  a  rise  in  the  plain  form- 
ing' a  hill  some  twenty  feet  above  the  tide  on  the  river  side, 
and  on  this  was  a  redoid)t  commanding  the  approach  to  the' 
fort  by  the  river  road.  Thus  Xatnre,  assisted  by  some  slight 
engineering  vork.  had  given  a  defense  to  Confederate  Point 
which  would  have  enabled  an  efficient  commander  at  the  in- 
trenched camp,  co-operating  with  the  garrison  of  Fort  Fisher, 
to  have  rendered  the  Point  nntenal)le  for  a  largely  superior 
force  at  night  when  the  covering  tire  of  the  Federal  navy 
could  not  distinguish  between  friend  and  foe. 

At  the  land  face  of  Fort  Fisher,  five  miles  from  the  in- 
trenched camp,  the  peninsula  was  al)0uthalf  a  mile  wide. 
This  face  connnenced  about  a  hundred  feet  from  the  river 
with  a  half  bastion,  and  extended  Avitli  a  heavy  curtain  to  a 
full  bastion  on  the  ocean  side,  where  it  joined  the  sea  face.* 

The  wf)rk  was  built  to  withstand  the  heaviest  artillery  fire. 
There  was  no  moat  with  scarii  and  counterscarp,  so  essential 
for  defense  against  storming  ])arties,  the  shifting  sands  ren- 
dering its  construction  im]iossib]e  with  the  material  availa- 
ble. The  outer  slope  was  20  feet  high  from  the  berme  to  the 
to|)  of  the  ])arapet,  at  an  angle  of  45  degrees,  and  was  sodded 
with  marsh  grass,  which  grew  luxuriantly.  The  parapet  was 
not  less  than  twenty-five  feet  thick,  with  an  inclination  of  only 
one  foot.  The  revetment  was  five  feet  nine  inches  high  from 
the  floor  (:>f  the  gun  chambers,  and  these  were  some  twelve 
feet  or  more  from  the  interior  ])lane.  The  guns  were  all 
mounted  en  barbette,  on  Columbiad  carriages ;  there  was  not 
a  single  casemated  gun  in  the  fort.  Experience  had  taught 
that  casemates  of  timber  and  sand  bao-s  were  a  delusion  and  a 

*When  I  assumed  command  of  Fort  Fisher,  4  July,  1863,  it  was 
composed  of  several  detached  earth-works,  with  a  casemated  battery  of 
sand  and  palmetto  lop;s,  mounting  four  guns  and  with  only  one  heavy 
gun  in  the  works.  The  frigate  Mumci^ota  could  have  destroyed  the 
works  and  driven  us  out  in  a  few  hours.  I  immediately  went  to  work, 
and  with  500  colored  laborers,  assisted  by  the  garrison,  constructed  the 
largest  earth-work  in  the  Southern  Confederacy,  of  heavy  timbers  cov- 
ered by  sand  from  15  to  20  feet  deep  and  sodded  with  turf.  The  fort 
was  far  from  complete  when  it  was  attacked,  especially  as  against  an  as- 
sault by  land  :  the  sides  exposed  to  the  sea  being  first  constructed,  on 
the  theory  that  the  Array  of  Wilmington  would  prevent  an  investment. 
— W.  L.   ^ 

The  Defence  of  Fort  Fisher.  219 

suare  against  heavy  projectiles;  and  there  was  no  iron  to 
construct  them  with.  Between  the  gun-chambers,  containing 
one  or  two  guns  each  (there  w^ere  twenty  heavy  guns  on  the 
land  face),  there  were  heavy  traverses,  exceeding  in  size  any 
known  to  engineers,  to  protect  from  an  enfilading  fire.  They 
extended  out  some  twelve  feet  on  the  parapet,  and  were  twelve 
feet  or  more  in  height  above  the  parapet,  running  back  thirty 
feet  or  more.  The  gun-chambers  were  reached  from  the  rear 
by  steps,  hi  each  traverse  was  an  alternate  magazine  or 
bomb-proof,  the  latter  ventilated  by  an  air  chamber.  Pas- 
sageways ]jenetrated  the  traverses  in  the  interior  of  the  w^ork, 
forming  additional  l)ond>pr()ofs  for  the  reliefs  for  the  guns. 

The  sea  face  for  a  hundred  yards  from  the  northern  bastion 
was  of  the  same  massi^'e  character  as  the  land  face.  A  cres- 
cent battery  inteuded  f(.»r  four  guns,  joined  this.  It  had 
been  originally  built  of  palmetto  logs  and  tarred  sand-bags  and 
sand  revetted  with  sod ;  but  the  logs  had  decayed,  and  it  was 
converted  iut<:)  a  hospital  bond>])roof.  In  its  rear  a  heavy 
curtain  was  thro^vn  u})  to  protect  the  chambers  from  frag- 
ments of  shells.  From  this  bomb-proof  a  series  of  batteries 
extended  for  three-quarters  of  a  mile  along  the  sea,  connected 
by  an  infantry  curtain.  These  batteries  had  heavy  traverses, 
but  were  not  more  than  ten  or  twelve  feet  high  to  the  top  of 
the  parapets,  and  were  built  for  riv-<)chet  firing.  On  this 
line  was  a  boud>proof  electric  battery  connected  with  a  sys- 
tem of  submarine  torjjedoes.  Farther  along,  where  the  chan- 
nel ran  close  to  the  beach,  inside  the  bar,  a  mound  battery  60 
feet  high  was  erected,  with  two  heavy  guns,  which  had  a 
pluuiiing  fire  on  the  channel;  this  was  connected  with  the  bat- 
tery north  of  it  by  a  light  curtain.  Following  the  line  of  the 
works,  it  v/as  over  one  mile  from  the  mound  to  the  northeast 
bastion  at  the  angle  of  the  sea  and  land  faces,  and  upon  this 
line  twenty-four  heavy  guns  were  mounted.  From  the  mound 
for  nearly  a  mile  to  the  end  of  the  point  was  a  level  sand  plain 
scarcely  three  feet  above  high  tide,  and  much  of  it  was  sub- 
merged during  gales.  At  the  point  was  Battery  Buchanan, 
four  guns,  in  the  shape  of  an  ellipse,  commanding  the  inlet, 
its  two  1 1-inch  gTins  covering  the  approach  by  land.  It  w^as 
garrisoned  by  a  detachment  from  the  Confederate  States  navy. 

220  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

An  advanced  redoubt  with  a  24-ponnder  was  added  after  the 
attack  by  the  forces  under  General  Butler  and  Admiral  Por- 
ter on  Christinas,  1864.  A  wharf  for  large  steamers  was  in 
close  proximity  to  these  works.  Battery  Buchanan  was  a  cit- 
adel to  which  an  overpowered  garrison  might  retreat  and  with 
proper  transportation  be  safely  carried  off  at  night,  and  to 
which  re-enforcements  could  be  sent  under  cover  of  darkness. 

Thus  Fort  Fisher,  being  designed  to  withstand  the  heaviest 
bombardment,  was  extremely  difficult  to  defend  against  as- 
sault after  its  guns  were  destroyed.  The  soldiers  in  the  gun- 
chambers  could  not  see  the  approach  in  front  for  a  hundred 
feet,  and  to  repel  assailants  they  had  to  leave  all  cover  and 
stand  upon  the  open  parapet. 

As  a  defense  against  infantry  there  was  a  system  of  sub- 
terra  torj^edoes  extending  across  the  peninsula,  five  to  six 
hundred  feet  from  the  land  face,  and  so  disconnected  that  the 
explosion  of  one  would  not  affect  the  others ;  inside  the  torpe- 
does, about  fifty  feet  from  the  berme  of  the  work,  extending 
from  river  bank  to  sea-shore,  was  a  heavy  palisade  of  shar- 
pened logs  nine  feet  high  pierced  for  musketry,  and  so  laid 
out  as  to  have  an  enfilading  fire  on  the  center,  where  there 
was  a  redoubt,  guard  iiig  a  sally-port,  from  which  two  ISTapo- 
leons  were  run  out,  as  occasion  required.  At  the  river  end 
of  the  palisade  was  a  deep  and  muddy  slough,  across  which 
was  a  bridge,  the  entrance  of  the  river  road  into  the  fort; 
commanding  this  l)ridge  was  a  Xapoleon  gun.  There  were 
three  mortars  in  rear  of  the  land  face. 

It  was  after  a  careful  reconnoissance  on  25  December, 
1864,  having  drawn  our  fire  by  an  advance  of  his  skirmish 
line  to  within  75  yards  of  the  fort,  that  General  Godfrey 
Weitzel,  finding  the  works  substantially  uninjured  by  the  ex- 
plosion of  the  ]>owder  ship  and  the  two  days'  terrific  bom- 
bardment of  Porter's  great  armada,  reported  to  Butler  that 
the  fort  could  not  be  carried  by  assault.*  In  the  works  on  that 

*General  B.  F  Butler  in  his  report  of  the  operations  of  his  troops,  saj'S 
in  part :  "Brevet  Brigadier-General  [N.  M.]  Curtis,  who  deserves  well 
for  his  gallantry  and  conduct,  immediately  pushed  up  his  brigade  within 
a  few  hundred  yards  of  Fort  Fisher,  capturing  the  Half-moon  battery 
and  its  men,  who  were  taken  off  by  the  boats  of  the  navy.  In  the  mean- 
time the  remainder  of  Araes'.'^'  division  had  captured  218  "men  and  10  com- 

The  Defence  of  Fort  Fisher.  221 

afternoon  were  over  DOO  veteran  troops  and  450  Junior  Ee- 
serves,  reinforced  after  dark  by  60  sailors  and  marines.  As 
soon  as  the  fire  of  the  fleet  ceased,  the  parapets  were  not  only 
manned,  hut  half  tlie  garrison  was  stationed  outside  the 
work  behind  the  palisades.  There  was  no  fear  of  an  assault 
in  front ;  what  most  disturbed  the  defenders  was  a  possible 
landing  from  boats  between  the  Mound  Battery  and  Battery 
Buchanan.  Admiral  Porter  was  as  much  to  blame  as  Gen- 
eral Butler  for  the  repulse.* 

missioned  officers  of  the  North  Carolina  reserves  and  other  prisoners. 
From  them  I  learned  that  Kirkland's  and  Hagood's  brigades  of  Hoke's 
division  had  left  the  front  of  the  Army  of  the  .Tames,  near  Richmond, 
and  were  then  within  two  miles  of  the  rear  of  my  forces,  and  their  skir- 
mishers were  then  actually  engaged,  and  the  remainder  of  Hoke's  divis- 
ion had  come  the  night  before  to  Wilmingtion,  and  were  theji  on  the 
march,  if  they  had  not  already  arrived.  General  Weitzel  reported  to 
me  that  to  a.ssault  the  work,  in  liis  judgement,  and  in  that  of  the  expe- 
rienced officers  of  his  command  who  had  been  on  the  skirniish-line, 
with  any  prospect  of  success,  was  impossible.  This  opinion  coincided 
with  my  own,  and  much  as  I  regretted  the  necessity  of  abandoning  the 
attempt,  yet  the  path  of  duty  was  plain.  Not  so  strong  a  work  as  Fort 
Fisher  had  been  taken  by  assault  during  the  war,  and  I  had  to  guide  me 
the  experience  of  Port  Hudson,  with  its  slaughtered  thousands  in  the  re- 
pulsed assault,  and  the  double  assault  of  Fort  Wagner,  where  thousands 
were  sacrificed  in  an  attempt  to  take  a  work  less  strong  than  Fisher, 
after  it  had  been  subjected  to  a  more  continued  and  fully  as  severe  fire, 
And  in  neither  of  the  instances  I  have  mentioned  had  the  assaulting 
force  in  its  rear,  as  I  had,  an  army  of  the  enemy  larger  than  itself.  I 
therefore  ordered  that  no  assault  should  be  made,  and  that  the  troops 
should  re-embark." — Editors. 

*  General  Butler  was  blamed  by  contemporaneous  writers  for  not  cap- 
turing the  works.  For  this  criticism  he  had  himself  to  blame.  On  the 
evening  of  the  '2.5th,  before  waiting  for  official  reports,  he  listened  to 
camp  gossip  and  wrote  to  Admiral  Porter: 

"General  Weitzel  advanced  his  skirmish-line  within  fifty  yards  of  the 
fort,  while  the  garrison  was  kept  in  their  bombproofs  by  the  fire  of  the 
navy,  and  so  closely  that  three  or  four  men  of  the  picket-line  ventured 
upon  the  parapet  and  through  the  sally  port  of  the  work,  ca]ituring  a 
horse,  which  they  brought  off.  killing  the  orderly,  who  was  the  bearer 
of  a  dispatch  from  the  chief  of  artillery  of  General  Whiting,  to  bring  a 
light  battery  witliin  the  fort,  and  also  brought  away  from  the  parapet  the 
flag  of  the  fort." 

This  piece  of  romance  was  sent  North,  and  has  gotten  a  lodgment  in 
current  history,  and  is  actually  repeated  by  General  Grant  in  his  "Me- 
moirs," though  General  Butler  corrected  the  error  in  his  official  report 
of  3  January,  I860.  No  Federal  soldier  entered  Fort  Fisher  Christmas 
day.  except  as  a  prisoner.  The  courier  was  sent  out  of  the  fort  without 
my  knowledge,  and  was  killed  and  his  horse  captured  within  the  ene- 
my's lines.  The  flag  captured  was  a  small  company  flag,  placed  on  the 
extreme  left  of  the  work,  and  which  was  carried  away  and  thrown  off  the 
parapet  by  an  enfilading  shot  from  the  navy.     It  was   during  a  terrible 

222  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

The  garrison  of  Fort  Fisher  was  composed  altogether  of 
Xorth  Carolinians.  For  two  years  and  a  half  the  force  had 
been  nuder  my  command,  and  in  that  time  only  two  compa- 
nies, temporarily  there,  were  from  ontside  the  State.  After 
the  repnlse  of  Bntler  and  Porter,  although  some  important 
guns  As-ere  destroyed  l)y  the  bombardment  and  by  explosion, 
little  or  nothing  Avas  done  to  repair  damages  or  strengthen  the 
armament  of  the  work.  Tieqnisitions  were  made  for  addi- 
tional ammunition,  especially  for  hand  grenades,  to  repel  as- 
sault, but  it  was  impossible  to  obtain  what  Avas  needed. 
Application  was  made  for  the  placing  of  marine  torpe- 
does where  the  iron-clads  had  anchored,  and  whither  they 
returned,  but  no  action  was  taken  on  it.  Although  we 
heard  on  8  January  that  the  fleet  had  returned  to  Beau- 
fort, and  we  knew  that  Fort  Fisher  was  still  its  objec- 
tive point,  General  Braxton  Bragg  withdrew  the  support- 
ing army  from  Sugar  Loaf  and  marched  it  to  a  camp  sixteen 
miles  distant,  north  of  Wilmington,  and  there  had  a  grand 
review.  Tlie  f'jrt  A\as  not  even  advised  of  the  coming  of  the 
fleet,  whicli  should  have  been  seen  off  Masonboro  during  the 
day ;  and  its  arrival  was  reported  from  Fort  Fisher  to  head- 
quarters in  Wilmington. 

The  night  of  12  January,  from  the  ramparts  of  Fort  Fisher 
I  saw  the  great  armada  returning.  ]\Iy  mounted  pickets  had 
informed  me  of  its  coming.  I  began  at  once  to  put  my  works 
in  order  for  action.  I  had  but  800  men — the  Thirty-sixth 
Nm-ih  Cai'<;)lina — at  least  100  of  whom  were  not  fit  for  duty. 

bombardment  of  the  land-face,  when  I  had  ordered  my  men  to  cover 
themselves  behind  parapet  and  traverses  as  well  as  in  the  bomb  proofs. 
Amid  the  smoke  of  bursting  shells,  Captain  W.  H.  Walling,  of  the  143d 
New  York,  gallantly  crawled  through  the  broken  palisade  and  carried  off 
the  flag,  doing  what  two  or  more  men  could  not  have  done  without  ob- 
servation. The  angle  of  the  work  hid  him  from  the  sharp-shooters  on 
the  front,  who,  from  behind  traverses,  were  watching  for  an  advance. 

When  Butler's  skirmish-line  approached  I  purposely  withheld  the  fire 
of  the  infantry  and  artillery  until  an  attack  should  be  made  in  force. 
Only  one  gun  on  the  land-face  had  been  seriously  disabled,  and  I  could 
have  opened  a  fire  of  grape  and  canister  on  the  narrow  beach,  which  no 
troops  could  have  survived.  In  the  second  attack  by  the  army,  as  the 
reader  will  see,  all  my  heavy  guns  on  the  land-face  but  one  "were  dis- 
abled ;  my  torpedoes  were  useless,  and  my  palisades  were  so  torn  up  and 
cut  down  that  they  furnished  a  protection  to  the  assailants  instead  of  a 
formidable  impediment.— W    L. 

The  Defence  of  Fort  Fisher.  223 

Sunrise  the  next  niorjiing  revealed  to  lis  the  most  formidable 
armada  the  world  had  ever  knoAvn,  supplemented  by  trans- 
ports carrvinii'  aljont  S,.';*)!)  troops.  Snddenly  that  long  line 
of  floating  fortresses  rained  shot  and  shell,  npon  fort  and 
beach  and  Avooded  hills,  causing  the  very  earth  and  sea  to 
tremble.  I  had  telegraphed  for  reinforcements,  and  during 
the  day  and  night  foll()\\-ing  about  TOO  arrived — companies 
of  light  and  heavy  artillery,  Xorth  Carolina  troops,  and  some 
50  sailors  and  marines  of  the  Confederate  States  navy — 
giving  me  1,500,  all  told,  up  to  the  morning  of  15  January, 
including  the  sick  and  slightly  Avunnded.  On  Friday,  the 
13tli,  in  the  midst  of  the  Unnbardment,  General  W.  H.  C. 
Whiting,  the  district  commander,  and  his  stall",  arrived  in 
the  fort.  They  had  walked  up  from  Battery  Buchanan.  I 
did  not  knov;  of  their  ap]U'oach  until  the  general  came  to  me 
on  the  works  and  remarked,  "Lamb,  my  boy,  1  have  come  to 
share  your  fate.  You  and  your  garrison  are  to  be  sacri- 
ficed." I  replied,  "Don't  say  so.  General;  we  shall  certainly 
whip  the  enemy  again.''  He  then  told  me  that  when  he  left 
Wilmington  General  Bragg  was  hastily  removing  his  stores 
and  ammunition,  and  was  looking  for  a  place  to  fall  back 
upon.*  I  offered  him  the  command,  although  he  came  un- 
armed and  without  orders ;  but  he  refused,  saying  he  would 
counsel  with  me,  Init  would  leave  me  to  conduct  the  defense. 
In  the  former  bomljardment  the  fire  of  the  fleet  had  been 
difi'use,  not  calculated  to  eftect  any  particular  damage,  and 
so  wild  that  at  least  one-third  of  the  missiles  fell  in  the  river 
'beyond  the  fort  or  in  the  bordering  marshes ;  but  now  the  fire 
was  concentrated,  and  the  definite  object  of  the  fleet  was  the 
destruction  of  the  land  defenses  by  enfilade  and  direct  fire. 

*In  a  report  to  General  Lee,  dictated  at  Fort  Fisher  18  January,  1865, 
and  another  (inclosing  the  tirst  one)  dated  Fort  Columbus,  New  York 
Harbor,  19  February,  I860,  General  Whiting  blamed  General  Bragg 
for  the  loss  of  Fort  Fisher,  and  asks  that  the  latter's  conduct  be  investi- 
gated. He  says  :  "I  went  into  the  fort  with  the  conviction  that  it  was 
to  be  sacrificed,  for  the  last  I  heard  General  Bragg  say,  was  to  point  out 
a  line  to  fall  back  on  if  Fort  Fisher  fell  "  General  Hragg  was  "charged 
with  the  command  and  defense  of  Wilmington,"  by  the  Secretary  of 
War,  on  24  October  1864  ;  and  General  Whiting  concludes  with  a  feeling 
reference  to  the  fact  that  he  was  not  allowed  to  conduct  the  defense  of 
''a  harbor  on  which  I  had  expended  for  two  years  all  the  labor  and  skill 
I  had." — Editors. 

224  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

and  the  ships  took  position  accordingly.  When  attacked  in 
December,  I  had  had  for  my  44  heavy  guns  and  three  mortars 
not  over  3,600  shot  and  shell;  and  for  the  most  effective  gun 
in  the  work,  the  150-pounder  Armstrong,  there  were  but  13 
shells,  and  we  had  no  other  annnunition  that  could  be  used  in 
it.  The  frigates  Minnesota  and  Wabash  each  had  an  arma- 
ment superior  to  ours,  and  these  two  vessels  alone  fired  more 
shot  and  shell  at  the  works  in  the  last  attack  than  we  had,  all 
told  or  on  hand,  in  both  engagements.  During  the  time  be- 
tween the  two  expeditious  we  had  begged  for  more  ammuni- 
tion, but  none  came  except  a  few  useless  bolts  designed  for  the 
Armstrong  gun.  In  the  former  fight  we  had  fired  1,272  shot 
and  shell;  leaving  about  2,328,  exclusive  of  grape  and  shrap- 
nel, to  resist  a  passage  of  the  ships  and  an  assault  by  land.  I 
was  obliged  to  husband  my  ammunition  even  more  than  in 
the  previous  battle,  and  therefore  gave  the  same  orders  that 
each  gun  should  be  fired  only  once  every  half  hour  until  disa- 
bled or  destroyed,  exee]~)t  when  special  orders  were  given  to 
concentrate  on  a  particular  vessel,  or  in  case  an  attempt  were 
made  to  cross  the  bar  and  run  in,  when  every  available  gun 
should  be  used  Avith  all  possible  effectiveness.  It  was  this 
slow  firing  from  the  fort,  at  times  not  over  forty-four  guns 
in  thirty  minutes,  compared  to  the  naval  fire  of  from  one  to 
two  guns  a  second,  that  gave  the  navy  the  erroneous  idea  that 
they  had  silenced  the  fort.  But  no  attempt  was  made  to  run 
by  the  fort,  which  was  a  great  surprise  to  us.  Occasionally 
a  wooden  vessel,  more  daring  than  her  consorts,  would  come 
close  in,  when  the  guns  of  several  batteries  would  be  concen- 
trated upon  her  and  she  would  be  quickly  withdrawn  more  or 
less  injured. 

All  day  and  night  on  13  and  14  January  the  navy  con- 
tinued its  ceaseless  torment ;  it  was  impossible  to  repair  dam- 
ages at  night  on  the  land  face.  The  Ironsides  and  monitors 
bowled  their  eleven  and  fifteen  inch  shells  along  the  parapet, 
scattering  shrapnel  in  the  darkness.  We  could  scarcely 
gatlier  up  and  bury  our  dead  without  fresh  casualties.  At 
least  two  hundred  had  been  killed  and  wounded  in  the  two 
days  since  the  fight  began.  Only  three  or  four  of  my  land 
guns  were  of  any  service.      The  Federal  army  had  been  ap- 

The  Defence  of  Fort  Fisher.  225 

preaching  on  the  river  side  during  the  day ;  but  they  were 
more  or  less  covered  by  the  formation  of  the  land,  and  we 
con  Id  only  surmise  their  number.  I  had  seen  them  pass 
Craig's  Landing  near  mj  cottage  and  occupy  the  redoubt  about 
half  a  mile  from  the  fort.  We  had  tired  some  shot  and  shell 
at  their  approaching  columns,  but  it  was  at  a  fearful  cost  of 
limb  and  life  that  a  land  gun  was  discharged;  for  to  fire  from 
that  face  was  to  draw  upon  the  gunners  the  fury  of  the  fleet. 
Early  in  the  afternoon,  to  my  astonishment,  I  saw  a  Confed- 
erate flat-bottomed  steam  transport,  loaded  \vith  stores,  ap- 
proaching Craig's  Landing,  which  was  now  in  the  enemy's 
lines.  1  had  a  gun  fired  toward  her  to  warn  her  off,  but  on 
she  came,  unconscious  of  her  danger,  and  she  fell  an  easy  ca])- 
tive  in  the  enemy's  hands.  Shortly  after,  the  Confederate 
steamer  Cliicl'atiunifja.  which  had  been  annoying  the  enemy 
from  the  river,  fired  into  and  sank  the  stu})id  craft.  This  in- 
cident gave  me  the  lirst  intimation  that  we  were  deserted. 
From  the  conformation  of  the  Cape  Fear  river.  General 
Bragg  could  have  ])asscd  safely  froivi  Sugar  Loaf  toward 
Smithville,  and  with  a  glass  could  have  seen  everything  on 
the  beach  and  in  the  fort,  and  in  person  or  through  an  aide, 
with  the  steamers  at  his  conunand,  could  have  detected  every 
movement  of  the  enemy;  but  now,  thirty-six  hours  after  the 
fight  had  commenced,  several  hours  after  Craig's  Landing 
had  been  in  the  possession  of  the  enemy,  he  sent  into  the  en- 
emy's lines  a  steamer  full  of  sorely  needed  stores,  which  at 
night  could  have  gone  to  Battery  Buchanan  in  safety.  We  liad 
both  telegraphic  and  signal  communication  between  Fort 
Fisher  and  Sugar  Loaf,  Bragg's  headquarters,  and  I  got  Gen- 
eral Whiting  to  telegraph  him  to  attack  the  enemy  under  cover 
of  night  when  the  fleet  could  not  co-operate,  and  we  would  do 
the  same  from  the  fort,  and  that  thus  we  could  capture  a  por- 
tion or  the  whole  of  the  force,  or  at  least  demoralize  it.  jSTo 
reply  was  received.  Still  I  thought  General  Bragg  could 
not  fail  to  respond  ;  so,  after  the  dead  were  buried,  ten  com- 
panies were  put  in  readiness  for  a  sortie,  and  I  carried  Cap- 
tain Patterson's  company  out  in  front  of  the  work  beyond  the 
]ialisade  line  and  the  range  of  the  enemy's  fire,  and  threw 
them  out  as  skirmishers  with  orders  to  disco^^er  the  position 

226  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

■t)f  the  enemy.  We  found  none  on  the  sea  shore  within  half 
a  mile,  luit  on  the  river  shore  they  were  occupying  the  re- 
doul)t,  wliero  tlieir  skirmishers  extended  toward  the  left  of 
the  fort.  Some  of  them  fired  on  us,  but  we  remained  there 
awaiting'  a  message  from  Bragg,  or  the  sound  of  his  guns  from 
the  north,  hut  in  vain,  and  before  daylight  we  retired  to  the 

With  llie  rising  sun,  on  the  15tli,  the  fleet,  which  had  been 
annoying  us  all  through  the  night,  redoulded  its  fire  on  the 
land  face.  The  sea  was  calm,  the  naval  gunners  had  become 
accurate  by  practice,  and  before  noon  but  one  heavy  gun,  pro- 
tected by  the  angle  of  the  northeast  bastion,  remained  ser- 
viceable on  that  face.  The  harvest  of  wounded  and  dead  was 
increased,  and  at  noon  I  had  not  1,200  men  to  defend  the  long- 
line  of  works.  The  enemy  were  now  preparing  to  assault ; 
Ave  saw  their  skirmish  line  on  the  left  digging  rifle  pits  close 
to  our  torpedo  lines  and  their  columns  along  the  river  shore 
massing  for  the  attack,  while  their  sharpshooters  were  firing 
upon  every  head  that  showed  itself  upon  our  front.  Despite 
the  imminent  danger  to  the  gttnners  I  ordered  the  two  Napo- 
leons at  the  central  sally-port  and  the  Napoleon  on  the  left  to 
fire  grape  and  canister  tt]ion  the  advancing  skirmish  line. 
They  fearlessly  obeyed  the  order,  and  with  effectiveness,  but 
at  a  sad  sacrifice  in  killed  and  wounded.  At  the  same  time 
on  ihe  ocean  side  a  cohtmn  composed  of  sailors  and  marines 
was  seen  to  apj^roach,  the  ach^ance  throwing  up  slight  trenches. 
On  these  we  brought  to  bear  otir  single  heavy  gttn,  while  the 
two  guns  on  the  mound  battery  turned  their  attention  from 
the  sailors  afloat  to  the  sailors  on  shore,  but  at  too  long  range 
to  be  very  eftective.  Ilagood's  Brigade,  sent  by  Bragg,  was 
now  arriving  at  Battery  Bticluman,  but  the  steamer  bearing 
tbem  was  driven  olf  by  the  fire  of  the  fleet  after  it  had  suc- 
-ceeded  in  landing  tAvo  South  Carolina  regiments,  Avhich  came 
at  a  doable-quick  to  the  mound  under  a  heavy  fire.  The  mtm- 
ber  of  these  reinforcements  Avas  reported  to  me  by  the  officer 
in  command  as  350.  They  reached  the  fort  less  than  thirty 
minutes  before  tbe  attacking  columns  came  like  avalanches 
itjjon  our  rigbt  and  left.  The  South  Carolinians  Avere  ottt 
of  breath  and  more  or  less  disorganized  and  demoralized  by 



The  Defence  of  Fort  Fisher.  227 

the  oi'deal  throiigli  wliicli,  by  Bragg's  neglect,  they  had  been 
forced  to  jmss.  I  sent  them  to  an  old  commissary  bomb- 
proof to  recover  .breath. 

^ly  lieadqnarters  during  the  tight  were  the  pulpit  battery 
on  the  sea  face,  one  hundred  yards  from  the  northeast  salient 
find  adjoining  the  hospital  bomb-proof,  commanding  the  best 
view  of  the  aj^]  roaches  to  the  land  face.  At  2:30,  as  I  was 
returning  froin  anotlier  battery,  Private  Arthur  Muldoon,  one 
of  my  lookouts,  called  to  me,  "Colonel,  the  enemy  are  about 
to  charge.''  I  informed  General  Whiting,  who  was  near, 
find  at  my  request  he  immediately  telegraphed  General  Bragg, 
fit  "Sugar  Loaf" : 

"The  enemy  are  about  to  assault ;  they  outnumber  us  heav- 
ily. We  are  just  manning  our  parapets.  Fleet  have  ex- 
tended down  the  sea  front  outside  and  are  firing  very  heavily. 
Fnemy  on  the  l)each  in  front  of  us  in  very  heavy  force,  not 
more  than  seven  hundred  yards  from  us.  Xearly  all  land 
guns  disabled.  Attack !  Attack  I  It  is  all  I  can  say  and 
all  you  can  do."'^ 

I  then  ])assed  hurriedly  down  in  rear  of  the  land  face  and 
through  the  galleries,  and  although  the  fire  of  the  fleet  was 
terrific,  I  knew  it  must  soon  cease,  and  I  ordered  additional 
sharpshooters  to  the  gun-chambers  with  instructions  to  pick 
oif  the  officers  in  the  assaulting  columns,  and  directed  the 
battery  commanders  to  form  their  detachments  and  rush  to 
the  top  of  the  parapets  when  the  firing  stopped  and  drive  the 
assailants  back.  As  I  returned,  I  instructed  the  squads  that 
were  fornang  under  cover  to  rally  to  the  parapets  as  soon  as 
the  order  should  be  given,  to  which  they  responded  with  en- 
thusiasm. I  had  determined  to  allow  the  assailants  to  reach 
the  berme  of  the  work  before  exploding  a  line  of  torpedoes,  be- 
lieving it  would  enable  us  to  kill  or  capture  the  first  line, 
while  destroying  or  demoralizing  their  supporting  lines  of  as- 
sault. I  had  not  fjuite  reached  my  headquarters  when  the 
roar  of  artillery  suddenly  ceased,  and  instantly  the  steam- 
whistles  of  the  vast  fleet  sounded  a  charge.  It  was  a  soul- 
stirring  signal  botli  to  besiegers  and  besieged. 

*The  original,  in  Wliiting's  handwriting,  is  in  possession   of   Dr.    Geo. 
X/.  Porter,  Bridgeport,  Conn.  — W.  L. 

228  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

I  ordered  my  aide.  Lieutenant  Charles  H.  Blocker,  to 
double-qnick  the  Twenty-first  and  Twenty-fifth  Soutli  Caro- 
lina to  reinforce  Major  James  Reilly,  whom  I  had  put  in  com- 
mand on  the  left,  while  I  went  to  the  northeast  salient,  which 
I  believed  to  be  the  vital  point  of  the  work  and  the  one  which 
needed  most  protection.  I  rallied  there  the  larger  portion  of 
the  garrison  of  the  main  work,  putting  300  men  on  top  of 
the  bastion  and  adjoining  parapets  and  holding  some  200 
more  in  the  adjoining  batteries.  About  250  remained  for  de- 
fense on  the  left,  to  which  I  supposed  the  350  South  Caro- 
linians wonld  immediately  be  added,  and  these  with  the  Na- 
poleon and  the  torpedoes  F  felt  sure  would  successfully  defend 
that  portion  of  the  work.  The  assaulting  line  on  the  right 
was  directed  at  the  angle  or  point  of  the  L,  and  consisted  of 
two  thousand  sailors  and  marines,*  the  greater  portion  of 
whom  had  Hanked  my  tor]^edo  lines  by  keeijing  close  to  the 
sea.  Ordering  the  mound  battery,  and  any  other  on  the  sea 
face  that  could  do  so,  to  fire  upon  them,  and  the  two  Napo- 
leons at  the  sally-port  to  join  our  Columbiad  in  pouring  grape 
and  canister  into  their  ranks,  I  held  in  reserve  the  infantry 
fire.  Whiting  stood  upon  the  brink  of  the  parapet  inspiring 
those  about  him.  The  sailors  and  marines  reached  the  berme 
and  some  sprang  up  the  slope,  but  a  murderous  fire  greeted 
them  and  swept  them  down.  Volley  after  volley  was  poured 
into  their  faltering  i-anks  by  c<:)ol,  determined  men,  and  in 
half  an  hour  several  hundred  dead  and  wounded  lay  at  the 
foot  of  the  bastion.  The  bravery  of  the  officers  could  not  re- 
strain their  men  from  ]ianic  and  retreat,  and  with  small  loss 
to  ourselves  we  witnessed  what  had  never  been  seen  before,  a 
disorderly  rout  of  American  sailors  and  marines.  Had  the 
fleet  lielped  their  own  column  as  they  did  afterward  that  of 
the  army,  theirs  would  have  been  the  glory  of  victory. 

x\s  our  shouts  of  trium]ih  went  up  I  turned  to  look  at  the 
western  salient,  and  saw,  to  my  astonishment,  three  Federal 

*Secretary  Welles,  in  his  report  of  the  Navy  Department,  4  Decem- 
ber, 180o,  says:  "Fourteen  hundred  sailors  and  marines  were  landed 
and  participated  in  the  direct  assault";  but  Admiral  Porter  in  his  report, 
dated  off  Fort  Fisher,  17  January,  l>s6o,  says:  '  I  detailed  1,600  sailors 
and  400  marines  to  accompany  the  troops  in  the  assault — the  sailors  to- 
board  the  sea- face,  while  the  troops  assaulted  the  land  side." — Editor. 

The  Defence  of  Fort  Fisher.  229 

battle  flags  upon  our  ramparts.  General  Whiting  saw  them 
at  the  same  moment,  and,  calling  on  the  men  to  pull  down 
those  flags  and  drive  the  enemy  from  the  work,  rushed  toward 
them  on  the  paraj^et.  Among  those  who  followed  Whiting, 
and  who  gave  his  young  life  upon  those  ramparts,  I  must 
mention  the  brave  Lieutenant  Williford,  who  commanded 
the  Blakely  Battery. 

In  order  to  make  a  careful  reconnoissance  of  the  position 
of  the  enemy,  I  passed  thi-ough  the  sally-port,  and  outside 
of  the  work  witnessed  a  savage  hand-to-hand  conflict  for  the 
possession  of  the  fourth  gun-chamber  from  the  left  bastion. 
My  men,  led  by  Whiting,  had  driven  the  standard-bearer 
from  the  to])  of  the  traverse  and  the  enemy  from  the  parapet 
in. front.  They  had  recovered  the  gun-chamber  with  great 
slaughter,  and  on  the  parapet  and  on  the  long  traverse  of  the 
next  gun-chamber  the  contestants  were  savagely  firing  into 
each  other's  faces,  and  in  some  cases  clubbing  their  guns, 
being  too  close  to  load  and  fire.  Whiting  had  quickly  been 
wounded  by  two  shots  and  had  been  carried  to  the  hospital 
bomb-proof.  I  saw  that  the  Confederates  were  exposed  not 
only  to  the  fire  in  front,  but  to  a  galling  infantry  fire  from 
the  captured  salient.  I  saw  also  a  fresh  force  pouring  into 
the  left  of  the  work,  noAv  offering  no  resistance.  T  doubt  if 
ever  before  the  commander  of  a  work  went  outside  of  it  and 
looked  back  upon  the  conflict  for  its  possession;  but  from  the 
peculiar  construction  of  the  works  it  was  necessary  to  do  so 
in  order  to  see  the  exact  position  of  affairs.  I  was  in  front 
of  the  sally-])0]  t  and  concealed  from  the  army  by  a  fragment 
of  the  ])ah"sade." 

Ordering  Captain  Z.  T.  Adams  to  turn  his  j^apoleons  on 
the  column  moving  into  the  fort  (the  gallant  Mayo  had 
already  t\irned  his  Columbiad  upon  them),  I  returned  into 
the  work,  and,  ])lacing  men  behind  every  cover  that  could  be 
found,  poured  at  close  range  a  deadlier  fire  into  the  flank  of 

*I  was  told,  several  years  after  the  war,  by  a  United  States  marine 
named  Clark,  that  I  was  distinctly  seen  and  recognized  by  a  comrade 
and  himself  who  had  feigned  death  in  front  of  the  north-east  salient, 
and  that  his  comrade  rose  from  his  place  of  concealment  to  shoot 
me.  but  before  he  could  fire  was  shot  in  the  head  by  a  soldier  in  the 
fort.     I  never  thought  of  danger  from  that  direction. — W.  L. 

230  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

the  enemy  occupying  the  gun-chambers  and  traverses  than 
they  were  able  to  deliver  upon  my  men  from  the  left  salient. 
While  thus  engaged  I  met  my  aide,  who  informed  me  that  the 
South  Carolinians  had  failed  to  respond  to  my  order,  al- 
though their  officers  had  pleaded  with  them,  and  with  a  few 
of  them  had  gone  into  the  fight;  that  the  assaulting  column 
had  made  two  distinct  charges  upon  the  extreme  left  and  had 
been  repulsed  by  the  fire  of  the  JSTapoleon  and  by  the  in- 
fantry ;  that  the  torjiedo  wires  had  been  cut  by  the  fire  of  the 
fleet  and  the  electrician  had  tried  in  vain  to  execute  my  or- 
ders ;  that,  driven  from  the  extreme  left,  the  enemy  had  found 
a  weak  defense  betAveen  the  left  salient  and  the  sally-port  in 
their  third  charge,  and  had  gained  the  parapet  and,  capturing 
two  gun-chandjers,  had  attacked  the  force  in  the  left  bastion 
on  the  flank,  simultaneously  -with  a  direct  charge  of  a  fresh 
column,  and  that  our  men  after  great  slaughter,  especially 
those  at  the  ]^apoleon,  had  been  forced  to  surrender  just  as 
we  had  repulsed  the  naval  column ;  that  to  add  to  the  discom- 
fiture of  the  Confederates,  as  soon  as  the  Federal  battle  flags 
appeared  on  the  ramparts.  Battery  Buchanan  had  opened 
with  its  two  heavy  guns  on  the  left  of  the  work,  killing  and 
vrounding  friend  and  foe  alike.  Major  Reilly  had  failed  to 
lead  the  men  to  the  top  of  the  parapet  on  the  right  of  the  west- 
ern salient,  firing  instead  from  the  two  gun-chambers  on  the 
assailants,  who  were  not  within  range  until  they  reached  the 
parapet.  Had  the  parapet  been  manned  by  fifty  determined 
men  at  this  point,  I  do  not  believe  the  enemy  could  have  got 
into  the  fort  before  reinforcements  had  arrived.  Keilly  was 
a  veteran  soldier,  and  showed  his  indomitable  courage  later 
in  the  day,  but  his  mistake  was  fatal.  This  was  dishearten- 
ing, but  I  told  Captain  Blocker  if  we  could  hold  the  enemy  in 
check  until  dark  I  would  then  drive  them  out.  and  I  sent  a 
telegram  by  him  to  Bragg,  imploring  him  to  attack,  and  say- 
ing that  I  could  still  save  the  fort. 

JN'otwithstanding  the  loss  of  a  portion  of  the  work  and  a 
part  of  the  garrison,  the  men  were  in  good  spirits  and  seemed 
determined  to  recover  the  fort.  We  had  retaken  one  gun- 
chamber  in  the  charge  on  the  parapet,  and  since  we  had 
opened  on  their  flank  we  had  shot  down  all  their  standard- 

The  Defence  of  Fort  Fisher.  231 

bearers,  and  the  Federal  battle  flags  had  disappeared  from 
our  ramparts.  I  was  encouraged  to  believe  that  before  sun- 
down we  could  recover  all  the  gun-chambers  to  the  east  of 
the  western  salient.  Just  as  the  tide  of  battle  seemed  to  have 
turned  in  our  favor  the  remorseless  fleet  came  to  the  rescue 
of  the  faltering  Federals.  Suddenly  the  bombardment,  which 
had  been  confined  to  the  sea  face,  turned  again  on  our  land 
front,  and  with  deadly  precision ;  the  iron-clads  and  heavy 
frigates  drove  in  our  Xapoleons  and  exploded  shells  in  the  in- 
terior of  the  sally-port,  which  had  heretofore  escaped.  They 
also  swept  the  gun-chamber  occupied  by  Confederates  in  front 
of  those  occupied  by  the  enemy,  and  their  shells  rolled  down 
within  the  works  and  exploded  in  most  unexpected  quarters, 
preventing  even  company  formation.  They  drove  from  the 
front  of  the  enemy  all  assailants  except  those  so  near  that  to 
have  fired  on  them  would  have  been  to  slaughter  the  Fed- 

We  had  now  to  contend  with  a  column  advancing  around 
the  rear  of  the  left  bastion  into  the  interior  plane  of  the  fort. 
It  moved  slowly  and  cautiously,  ap]3arently  in  column  of  com- 
panies and  in  close  order.  I  met  it  Avith  an  effective  infantry 
fire,  my  men  using  the  remains  of  an  old  work  as  a  breast- 
work and  taking  advantage  of  every  object  that  would  afford 
cover,  for  we  were  now  greatly  outnumbered.  The  fire  was 
so  unexpected  and  destructive  on  the  massed  columns  of  the 
Federals,  that  they  halted  when  an  advance  would  have  been 
fatal  to  us.  With  orders  to  the  officers  to  dis])ute  stul)bornly 
any  advance  until  my  return,  I  went  rapidly  to  the  extreme 
southern  limit  of  my  work  and  turned  the  two  mound  guns 
on  the  column  in  the  fort.  As  I  passed  the  different  batteries 
I  ordered  the  guns  turned  on  the  assailants,  but  on  returning 
foiuid  that  only  two  besides  those  on  the  mound  would  bear 
upon  them,  and  these  had  to  be  fired  over  my  men.  I  or- 
dered them,  notwithstanding,  to  be  fired  carefully  with  prop- 
erly cut  fuses,  which  was  done,  but  it  made  some  of  my  men 
very  nervous.  1  brought  back  with  me  to  the  front  every 
man  except  a  single  detachment  for  each  gnu.  I  was  gone 
from  the  fort  at  least  thirty  minutes,  and  on  my  return  found 
the  fio-htins:  still  continuina'  over  the  same  traverse  for  the 

232  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

possession  of  the  anm-cliamber,  despite  the  fire  of  the  fleet. 
As  my  men  would  fall  others  wonld  take  their  places.  It 
was  a  soldier's  fight  at  that  point,  for  there  conld  be  no  or- 
ganization :  the  officers  of  both  forces  were  loading  and  firing 
with  their  men.  If  there  has  ever  been  a  longer  or  more 
stubborn  hand-to-hand  encounter,  I  have  failed  to  meet  with 
it  in  history.  The  Federal  column  inside  had  advanced  no 
farther,  and  seemed  demoralized  by  the  fire  of  the  artillery 
and  the  determined  resistance  of  the  garrison.  I  had  brought 
back  with  me  moi"e  than  a  hundred  of  my  old  garrison,  and  I 
threw  them  in  front  with  those  already  engaged.  Those  who 
had  been  driven  from  the  parapet  had  taken  position  behind 
the  old  work.  I  went  to  the  bomb-proof  where  the  South 
Carolinians  were  and  appealed  to  them  to  help  save  the  fort; 
they  were  in  a  position  to  flank  a  part  of  the  column,  and  they 
promised  to  do  so.  I  proceeded  to  the  sally-port  and  ordered 
the  gallant  Adams  to  bring  his  guns  out  and  open  fire  on  the 
head  of  the  column,  and  if  he  had  not  men  left  to  serve  the 
guns  to  get  volunteers  from  other  companies.  I  went  along 
the  galleries  and  begged  the  sick  and  wounded  who  had  re- 
treated from  the  caiitured  bomb-proofs  to  come  and  make  one 
supreme  effort  to  dislodge  the  enemy.  As  I  passed  through 
my  work  the  last  time,  the  scene  was  indescribably  horrible. 
Great  cannon  were  broken  in  two,  and  over  their  ruins  were 
lying  the  dead  ;  others  were  partly  buried  in  graves  dug  by 
the  shells  which  liad  slain  them. 

Still  no  tidings  from  Bragg.  The  enemy's  advance  had 
ceased  entirely ;  protected  by  the  fleet,  they  held  the  parapet 
and  gun-chambers,  but  their  massed  columns  refused  to  move 
and  appeared  to  be  intrenching  in  the  work.  I  believed  a  de- 
termined assault  with  the  bayonet  upon  their  front  would 
drive  them  out.  I  had  cautioned  the  gunners  not  to  fire  on 
our  men,  and  had  sent  liieutenant  Jones,  of  the  navy,  to 
Battery  Buchanan,  asking  for  all  the  force  they  could  spare, 
aud  to  1)0  careful  not  to  fire  on  us  if  we  became  closely  en- 
gaged witli  the  enemy.  The  head  of  the  column  was  not  over 
one  hundred  feet  from  the  portion  of  our  breastwork  which  I 
occupied ;  I  passed  quickly  in  rear  of  the  line  and  asked  the 
officers  and  men  if  they  would  follow  me ;  they  all  responded 

The  Defence  of  Fort  Fisher.  233 

fearlessly  that  tliey  would.  T  returned  to  my  ])ost,  and,  giv- 
ing the  order  ''Charge  bayonets,"  sprang  upon  the  breast- 
work, waved  my  sword,  and,  as  I  gave  the  command  ''For- 
ward!  doul)le-quiek,  march!"  fell  on  my  knees,  a  rifle  ball 
having  entered  my  left  hip.  We  were  met  by  a  heavy  vol- 
ley, aimed  too  high  to  be  effective ;  but  our  column  wavered 
and  fell  back  behind  the  breastworks.  A  soldier  raised  me 
up ;  1  turned  the  command  over  to  Captain  Daniel  Munn  and 
told  him  to  keep  the  enemy  in  check,  and  that  I  would  band- 
age my  wound  and  soon  return.  Before  I  could  reach  the 
hospital  I  was  made  to  realize  that  I  was  incapacitated  from 
joining  my  men  again.  In  the  hospital  I  found  General 
Wliiting  suffering  uncomplainingly  from  his  two  wounds. 
He  told  me  that  Bragg  liad  ignored  his  presence  in  the  fort 
and  had  not  noticed  his  messages.  I  perceived  that  the  fire 
of  my  men  had  slackened,  and  sent  my  Acting  Adjutant, 
John  K^.  Kelly,  for  Major  Reilly,  next  in  command  (Major 
James  M.  Stevenson  being  too  ill  for  service. )  Reilly  came 
and  promised  me  that  he  would  continue  the  fight  as  long  as 
a  man  or  a  shot  was  left,  and  nobly  did  he  keep  his  promise. 
I  again  sent  a  message  to  Bragg  begging  him  to  come  to  the 
rescue.  Shortly  after  my  fall  the  Federals  made  an  advance, 
and,  capturing  several  more  of  the  gun-chainbers,  reached  the 
sally-port.  The  column  in  the  work  advanced,  but  Major 
Eeilly,  rallying  the  men,  among  them  the  South  Carolinians, 
who  had  all  l^ecome  engaged,  drove  them  liack.  About  8 
o'clock  at  night  my  aide  came  to  me  and  said  the  ammunition 
was  giving  out ;  tliat  he  and  Chaplain  McKinnon  had  gath- 
ered all  on  tlie  dead  and  wounded  in  a  blanket  and  had  dis- 
tributed it ;  that  the  enemy  had  ]:)ossession  of  nearly  all  of  the 
land  face ;  that  it  was  impossible  to  hold  out  much  longer,  and 
suggested  that  it  would  be  wise  to  surrender,  as  a  further 
struggle  midit  l)e  a  useless  sacrifice  of  life.  I  replied  that 
so  long  as  1  lived  I  would  not  surrender  the  fort ;  that  Bragg 
must  soon  come  to  the  rescue,  and  it  would  save  us.  General 
Whiting  remarked,  "Lamb,  when  you  die  I  will  assume  com- 
mand, and  I  will  not  surrender  the  fort."  In  less  than  an 
hour  a  fourth  brigade  (three  were  already  in  the  fort  under 
General  Ames)  entered  the  sally-port  and  swept  the  defenders 

234  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

from  the  remainder  of  the  land  face.  Major  Reilly  had 
General  Whiting  and  myself  hurriedly  removed  on  stretchers 
to  Battery  Buchanan,  where  he  purposed  to  make  a  stand. 
When  we  left  the  hospital  the  men  were  fighting  over  the  ad- 
joining traverse  and  the  spent  balls  fell  like  hail-stones 
around  us.  The  garrison  then  fell  back  in  an  orderly  retreat 
along  the  sea  face,  the  rear-guard  keeping  the  enemy  engaged 
as  they  advanced  sloAvly  and  cautiously  in  the  darkness  as 
far  as  the  Mound  Battery,  where  they  halted.  Some  of  the 
men,  cut  off  from  the  main  body,  had  to  retreat  as  best  they 
could  over  the  river  marsh,  while  some  few  unarmed  artil- 
lerists barely  eluded  the  enemy  by  following  the  seashore. 
When  we  reached  Battery  Buchanan  there  was  a  mile  of  level 
beach  between  us  and  our  pursuers,  swept  by  two  11-inch 
guns  and  a  24-pounder,  and  in  close  proximity  to  the  battery, 
a  commodious  wharf  where  transports  could  have  come  to 
carry  the  men  off.  AVe  ex])ected  to  cover  with  this  battery 
the  retreat  of  the  remnant  of-  the  garrison,  but  we  found  the 
guns  spiked,  and  every  means  of ,  transportation,  even  the 
barge  and  crew  of  the  colonel  Commanding,  taken  by  Cap- 
tain K.  F.  Chapman,  of  our  navy,  who  following  the  example 
of  General  Bragg,  had  abandoned  us  to  our  fate.  None  of 
the  guns  of  Tort  Fisher  were  spiked,  the  men  fi.ghting  them 
until  they  were  destroyed  or  their  defenders  were  killed, 
wounded,  or  driven  out  of  the  batteries  by  overwhelming 
numljers.  The  enemy  threw  out  a  heavy  skirmish  line  and 
sent  their  fourth  brigade  to  Battery  Buchanan,  where  it  ar- 
rived about  10  p.  m.,  and  received  the  surrender  of  the  gar- 
rison from  Major  James  H.  Hill  and  Tieutenant  George  D. 
Parker.  Some  fifteen  minutes  or  more  l)efore  the  surrender, 
while  lying  on  a  stretcher  near  General  Whiting  in  front  of 
the  battery,  and  witnessing  the  grand  pyrotechnic  display  of 
the  fleet  over  the  ca]Uure  of  Fort  Fisher,  I  Avas  accosted  by 
General  A.  H.  Colquitt,  who  had  been  ordered  to  the  fort  to 
take  command.  I  had  a  few  moments'  hurried  conversation 
with  him.  informed  him  of  the  assault,  of  the  early  loss  of 
a  portion  of  the  work  and  garrison,  and  that  when  I  fell  it 
had  for  a  time  demoralized  the  men,  Imt  that  the  enemy  was 
equally  demoralized  by  our  unexpected  resistance ;  and  I  as- 

,roR,  uOWK  ••• 


The  Defence  of  Fort  Fisher.  235 

siired  him  that  if  Bragg  would  even  tlieu  attack,  a  fresh  bri- 
gade landed  at  Battery  Buchanan  could  retake  the  work. 
Some  officer  suggested  that  the  general  should  take  me  with 
him,  as  I  was  probably  fatally  wounded,  but  I  refused  to 
leave,  wishing  to  share  the  fate  of  my  garrison ;  and  desir- 
ing that  my  family,  anxiously  awaiting  tidings  across  the 
river,  where  they  had  watched  the  battle,  should  not  be 
alarmed,  I  spoke  lightly  of  my  wound.  I  asked  him  to  carry 
General  Whiting  to  a  place  of  safety,  as  he  had  come  to  the 
fort  a  volunteer.  Just  then  the  approach  of  the  enemy  was 
reported,  and  Colquitt  made  a  precipitate  retreat,  leaving 
Whiting  behind.'^ 

One  more  distressing  scene  remains  to  be  chronicled.  The 
next  morning  after  sunrise  a  frightful  explosion  occurred  in 
my  reserve  magazine,  killing  and  wounding  several  hun- 
dred of  the  enemy  and  some  of  my  own  wounded  officers  and 
men.  The  magazine  was  a  frame  structure  20  x  60  feet  and 
6  feet  high,  covered  with  IS  feet  or  more  of  sand,  luxuriantly 
turfed,  and  contained  probably  13,000  pounds  of  powder. 
It  made  an  artificial  mound  most  inviting  to  a  wearied  sol- 
dier, and  after  the  fight  was  occupied  for  the  night  by  Colonel 
Alden's  One  Hundred  and  Sixty-ninth  j^ew  York  and  by 
souie  of  my  suffering  soldiers.  Two  sailors  from  the  fleet, 
stupefied  by  liquor  which  they  had  found  in  the  hospital,  and 
looking  for  booty,  were  seen  to  enter  the  structure  with  lights, 
and  a  moment  after  the  green  mound  blew  up.  The  tele- 
graph -wires,  running  from  a  bomb-proof  near  this  magazine 
across  the  river  to  Battery  Laml),  gave  rise  to  the  impression 
that  it  had  been  ])urposely  exploded  from  the  opposite  shore, 
but  an  official  investigation  traced  it  to  the  drunken  sailors. 

So  stoutly  did  those  works  resist  the  50,000  shot  and  shell 
thrown  against  them  in  the  two  bombardments  that  not  a 
magazine  or  bomb-proof  was  injured,  and  after  the  land  ar- 
mament, with  palisades  and  torpedoes,  had  been  destroyed, 
no  assault  would  have  been  practicable  in  the  presence  of 
Bragg's  force,  had  it  been  under  a  competent  officer.      One 

*General  Whiting  died  a  prisoner  at  Fort  Columbus,  New  York  Har- 
bor, March  10th,  1865. 

236  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861 -'65. 

thousand  tons  of  iron  were  gathered  by  the  United  States 
from  the  works. 

Had  there  been  no  fleet  to  assist  the  army  at  Fort  Fisher 
the  i  ederal  infantry  could  not  have  dared  assault  it  until  its 
land  defenses  liad  been  destroyed  by  gradual  approaches. 
For  the  first  time  in  the  history  of  sieges  the  land  defenses 
of  the  works  were  destroyed,  not  by  any  act  of  the  besieging 
"army,  but  by  the  concentrated  fire,  direct  and  enfilading,  of 
an  immense  fleet  poured  upon  them  without  intermission,^ 
until  torpedo  wires  were  cut,  palisades  breached  so  that  they 
actually  afforded  cover  for  assailants,  and  the  slopes  of  the 
work  were  rendered  practicable  for  assault. 


In  a  note  to  the  editor  Colonel  Lamb  in  writing  of  the 
repulse  of  Butler  and  Porter  in  December,  says : 

''The  guns  of  Fort  Fisher  were  not  silenced.  On  account 
of  a  limited  sup})ly  of  ammunition,  T  gave  orders  to  fire  each 
gun  not  more  than  once  in  thirty  minutes,  except  by  special 
order,  unless  an  attem]>t  should  l)e  made  to  run  by  the  fort, 
when  discretion  was  given  each  gun  commander  to  use  liis 
piece  efteetiA'ely.  There  were  forty -four  guns.  On  2-t  De- 
cember 672  shots  were  expended ;  a  detailed  report  was  re- 
ceived from  each  battery.  Only  three  guns  were  rendered 
unserviceable,  and  these  by  the  fire  of  the  fleet  disabling  the 
carriages.  On  25  December  six  hundred  shots  were  ex- 
pended, exclusive  of  grape  and  canister.  Detailed  reports 
were  made.  Five  guns  were  disabled  by  the  fire  of  the  fleet, 
making  eight  in  all.  Besides,  two  T-inch  Brooke  rifled  guns 
exploded,  leaving  thirty-four  heavy  guns  on  Christmas  night. 
The  last  guns  on  the  24th  and  25th  were  fired  by  Fort  Fisher 
on  the  retiring  fleet.  In  the  first-  fight  the  total  casualties 
were  61,  as  follows:  December  24th,  mortally  wounded,  1; 
seriously  wounded,  3;  slightly,  lU — 23.  December  25th, 
killed,  3;  mortally  wounded,  2;  severely,  7;  slightly,  26, 
These  included  those  wounded  by  the  exjilosion  of  the  Brooke 
rifled  guns— 38." 

Colonel  Lamb,  writing,  December,  ISS*^,  says: 

"There  were  never  in  Fort  Fisher,  including  sick,  killed, 

The  Defence  of  Fort  Fisher.  237 

and  wounded,  over  1,!)00  men.  The  sailors  and  marines, 
etc.,  cajJtured  from  Battery  Buchanan,  and  those  captured  in 
front  of  the  work,  while  swelling  the  list  of  prisoners,  cannot 
rightly  be  counted  among  the  defenders  of  the  work.  ISTo 
new  defense  was  added  to  the  face  of  the  fort  between  the  bat- 
tles. The  redr)ubt  in  front  of  the  sally-port  was  there  in 
Decendier  and  had  been  used  against  Butler's  skirmish  line." 

Colonel  Lamb,  writing  to  the  editor  on  the  subject  of  the 
numbers  defending  the  northeast  salient,  says : 

"Five  hundred  effective  men  will  cover  all  engaged  in  re- 
pulsing the  naval  column,  and  the  destructive  fire  was  from 
tlie  three  hundred,  who,  from  the  top  of  the  ramparts  and 
traverses,  fired  upon  the  assailants.  The  gallant  navy  need 
not  exaggerate  the  number  ojjposing  them,  assisted  by  the 
artillery.  Xo  apology  or  defense  is  necessary  to  excuse  the 
repulse.  The  unorganized  and  im])ro}»erly  armed  force 
failed  to  enter  the  fort,  but  their  gallant  attempt  enabled  the 
army  to  enter  and  olitain  a  foothold,  which  they  otherwise 
could  not  have  done." 


13-15,  1865. 


Majoe-General  Ai^fred  H.  Terry — Commanding. 
Second  Division,  Twenty-fourtji  Army  Corps — Brig- 
adier-General Adelhert  Ames. 

First  Bri<iad(' — Colonel  X.  ]\lartin  Curtis:  Third  Xew 
York,  Captain  James  H.  Reeve,  Lieutenant  Edwin  A.  Be- 
han ;  One  Hundred  and  Twelfth  Xew  York,  Colonel  John  F. 
Smith ;  One  Hundred  and  Seventeenth  Xew  York,  Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Franxis  X.  Meyer ;  One  Hundred  and  Forty-sec- 
ond Xew  York,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Albert  M.  Barney. 

Second  Brigade — Colonel  Galusha  Pennypacker,  Major 
Oliver  P.  Harding:  Forty-seventh  Xew  York,  Captain 
Josej)h  M.  McDonald ;  Forty-eighth  Xew  Y'ork,  Lieutenant- 

238  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

Colonel  William  B.  Coaii,  Major  jSTere  A.  Elfwing;  Seventy- 
sixth  Pennsylvania,  Colonel  John  S.  Littell,  Major  Charles 
Knerr;  jSTinety-seventh  Pennsylvania,  Lieutenant  John 
Wainwright;  Two  Hundred  and  Third  Pennsylvania,  Colo- 
nel John  \V.  ]\roore,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Jonas  W.  Lyman, 
Major  Oliver  P.  Harding,  Captain  Ileber  B.  Essington. 

Third  Brigade — Colonel  Louis  Bell,  Colonel  Alonzo  Al- 
den :  Thirteenth  Indiana,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Samuel  M. 
Zent ;  Fourth  Xew  Hampshire,  John  H.  Roberts ;  One  Hun- 
dred and  Fifteenth  ^ew  York,  Lieutenant-Colonel  ISTathan 
J.  Johnson ;  One  Hundred  and  Sixty-ninth  j^ew  York,  Col- 
onel Alonzo  Alden,  Lieutenant-Colonel  James  A.  Colvin. 

Second  Brigade,  First  Division — (temporarily  attached  to 
Second  Division),  Colonel  Joseph  C.  Abbott:  Sixth  Con- 
necticut, Colonel  Alfred  P.  Rockwell ;  Seventh  Connecticut, 
Captain  John  Thompson,  Captain  William  S.  Marable ; 
Third  ISTew  Hampshire,  Captain  William  H.  Trickey ;  Sev- 
enth New  Hampshire,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Augustus  W.  Rol- 
lins; Sixteenth  Xew  York  Heavy  Artillery  (detachment), 
Lieutenant  F.  F.  Huntington. 

Third  Division^  Twenty-fifth  Army  Corps  (colored 
troops) — Brigadier-General  Charles  J.  Paine. 

Second  Brigade — Colonel  John  W.  Ames:  Fourth 
United  States,  Jjieutenant-Colonel  George  Rogers ;  Sixth 
United  States,  Major  A.  S.  Boernstein ;  Thirtieth  United 
States,  Lieutenant-Colonel  H.  A.  Oakman;  Thirty-ninth 
United  States,  Colonel  O.  P.  Stearns. 

Third  Brigade — Colonel  Elias  Wright :  First  United 
States,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Giles  H.  Rich ;  Fifth  United 
States,  Major  William  R.  Brazie;  Tenth  United  States, 
I^ieutenant-Colonel  Edward  LI.  Powell;  Twenty-seventh 
United  States,  Colonel  A.  M.  Blackmail ;  Thirty-seventh 
United  States,  Colonel  Nathan  Goff,  Jr. 

Artillery — B,  G,  and  L,  First  Connecticut  Heavy,  Cap- 
tain William  G.  Pride ;  Sixteenth  New  York  Battery,  Cap- 
tain Richard  H.  Lee ;  E,  Third  United  States,  Lieutenant 
John  R.  Myrick. 

Engineers — A,  and  I,  Fifteenth  New  York,  Lieutenant  K. 
S.  O'Keefe. 

The  Defence  of  Fort  Fisher.  239 

The  effective  strength  of  the  force  above  enumerated  was 
nearly  8,000.  The  loss  aggregated  184  killed,  749  wounded, 
and  22  missing — 955.  By  the  explosion  of  a  magazine  the 
day  after  the  eaptnre  there  were  25  killed,  06  wounded,  and 
13  missing. 


GenePvAT.  Braxtok  Bragg — D<i,artiiient  Commander. 

Major-Gexeral  W.  H.  C.  Wh.tixg — District  Com- 

Defences^  Mouth  of  Cape  Fear  Rtver — Brigadier- 
General  Louis  Hebert. 


There  were  in  Fort  Fisher  on  13,  14  and  15  January, 
1805,  these  include  all  present  during  that  time,  sick,  killed 
and  wounded. 

WiLEiAM  Lam:b,  of  Virginia,  Colonel  Commanding. 

Major  James  M.  Stevenson,  of  Thirty-sixth  Xorth  Car- 
olina Regiment  (too  ill  for  duty). 

Ma.jor  James  Beiely,  of  Tenth  ISTorth  Carolina  Regi- 

Captain  George  D.  Parker,,  Adjutant,  on  special  duty. 

Lieutenant  John  N.  Kelly,  Company  B,  Thirty-sixth 
K'orth  Carolina  Regiment,  Acting  Adjutant. 

Lieutenant  Ciiari-es  H.  Blocker,  Aide  to  Colonel  Com- 

Thirty-sixth  North  Carolina  Regiment,  Captain  R. 
J.  Murphy,  Company  A,  75 ;  Captain  Dan  Munn, 
Company  B,  90 ;  Captain  K.  J.  Braddy,  Company  C, 
71 ;  Captain  E.  B.  Dudley,  Company  D,  70 ;  Captain 
O.  H.  Pow-ell,  Company  E,  75 ;  Lieutenant  E.  L. 
Hunter,  Acting  Captain  Company  F,  100 ;  Captain 
Wm.  Swaine,  Company  G,  75  ;  Captain  Daniel  Pat- 
terson, Company  H,  75  ;  Captain  J.  F.  Melvin,  Com- 
pany I,  90 ;  Captain  Wm.  F.  Brooks,  Company  K, 
75;  total... \...    796 

240  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861 -'65. 

Fortieth  Xortli  Carolina  Regiment  (fonr  companies), 
Cai^tain  Jas.  L.  Lane,  Company  D,  01 ;  Captain  M.  H. 
]\IcBrvde,  Company  E,  00  ;  Captain  Geo.  C.  Buchan, 
Company  G,  00 ;  Captain  D.  -T.  Clarke,  Company 
K,  65  ;  total \    336 

Tenth  Xorth  Carolina  Regiment  (two  companies),  Cap- 
tain E.  D.  Walsh,  Company  E,  5.") :  Captain  Wm. 
SliaAv,  Company  K,  65  ;  total 1:^0 

First  Xorth  Carolina  Battalion,  Captain  Jas.  L.  McCor- 
mick.  Company  D  ;  total SO 

Third  Xorth  Carolina  Battalion,  Captain  Jno.  M.  Sut- 
t( m.  Company  C -15 

Thirteenth  Xorth  Carolina  Battalion,  Captain  Z.  T. 
Adams,  Company  D 60 

Xaval  Detachment,  sailors  and  marines.  Captain  A.  C. 
Vanbenthnsen 60 

Twenty-first  South  Carolina  Regiment,  Captain  Diibose, 
and  Twenty-fifth  South  Carolina  Regiment,  Captain 
Carson,  of  Hagood's  Bridge;  total 350 

Surgeons,  Spiers  W.  Singleton  ;  Assistant  Surgeon,  Pow- 
hatan Bledsoe,  with  band  as  ambulance  corps,  includ- 
ing all  field  and  staff  officers  and  volunteers,  officers, 
cooks  and  other  detailed  men,  not  over 53 

Grand  total 1,000 

Major-General  Whiting,  ]\Iajor  James  H.  Hill,  Assistant 
Adjutant-General,  Avith  others  on  Whiting's  staff,  were  in 
the  fort  as  volunteers. 

General  Braxton  Bragg  in  his  otticial  report,  made  from 
Headquarters,  Department  of  Xorth  (Carolina,  Wilmington, 
X.  C,  20  January,  1865,  gives  the  garrison  1,800  men;  to 
which  he  says  he  added  500,  making  2,300. 

In  same  report  he  says:  ''Eort  Fisher  had  110  commis- 
sioned officers  and  2,400  or  2,500  men." 

There  had  1,550  officers  and  men  re])orted  in  Fort  Fisher 
up  to  15  January,  1865.  Hagood's  Brigade,  1,000  strong, 
was  sent  Ijy  Bragg  on  that  day,  but  only  350  landed  and  re- 
ported ;  this  made  1,000.  Had  all  landed,  Bragg  would  have 
been  about  correct. 

The  Defence  of  Fort  Fisher.  241 

General  Bragg's  reports  of  Fort  Fisher,  its  garrison  and 
their  defence  are  grossly  inaccurate. 

Battery  Baclianan — Captain  R.  F.  Chapman,  C.  S.  N. 

Hoke's  Division,  Major-General  Robert  F.  Hoke. 

Clingvians  Brigade — Eighth  Xorth  Carolina,  Thirty-first 
IvTorth  Carolina,  Fifty-first  North  Carolina,  Sixty-first  N'orth 

Colquitt's  Brigade — Brigadier-General  A.  H.  Colquitt: 
Sixth  Georgia,  Colonel  T.  J.  Lofton ;  Nineteenth  Georgia, 
Twenty-third  Georgia,  Twenty-seventh  Georgia,  Twenty- 
eighth  Georgia. 

Hagood's  Brigade — Eleventh  South  Carolina,  Twenty- 
first  South  Carolina,  Twenty-fifth  South  Carolina,  Twenty- 
seventh  South  Carolina,  Seventh  South  Carolina  Battalion. 

Kirhland' s  Brigade — Seventeenth  North  Carolina,  Forty- 
second  North  Carolina,  Sixty-sixth  North  Carolina.* 

Cavalry — Second  South  Carolina,  Colonel  T.  J.  Lipscomb. 

According  to  General  Bragg's  ofiicial  report  the  garrison 
of  Fort  Fisher  finchiding  reinforcements  from  the  adjacent 
forts)  numbered  1,800,  and  the  movable  force  under  Gen- 
eral Hoke,  including  reserves  and  cavalry,  was  about  6,000. 
In  regard  to  the  losses,  the  same  authoritity  says:  ''After 
the  enemy  entered  the  fort  our  loss  is  represented  to  have 
been  about  500  killed  and  wounded." 

General  Terry  reported  the  capture  of  112  officers  and 
1,071  men,  but  this  was  incorrect  or  possibly  included  pris- 
oners from  other  commands.  After  the  war  Colonel  Lamb 
tried  to  ascertain  the  number  of  prisoners  sent  north  from 
Fort  Fisher,  but  found  no  data  and  the  numbers  of  prisoners 
were  generally  estimated  except  in  an  exchange.  All  present 
in  Fort  Fisher  13-15  January,  including  sick,  killed  and 
wounded,  numbered  1,900. 


Rear  Admiral  David  D.  Porter^  Commanding. 
Lieutenant-Commander  K.  R.  Breese^  Fleet  Captain. 
Lieutenant  M.  W.  Sanders^,  Signal  Officer. 

Note  —The  Fiftieth  North  Carolina  of  this  brigade  was  absent  in 
South  Carolina.— Ed. 


242  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Lieutenant  S.  W,  Terry  and  Lieutenant  S.  W.  Pbes- 
TON;,  (killed),  Aides. 

First  Division,  Commodore  Henry  K.  Thatcher. 

Second  Division^  Commodore  Joseph  Lanman. 

Third  Division^  Commodore,  Jas.  Findlay  Schenck. 

Fourth  Division,  Commodore  S.  W.  Godon. 

Iron-clad  Division^  Commodore  Wm.  Radford. 

Flag-ship — Malvern,  Lieutenant  William  B.  Cushing 
(first  attack)  ;  Lieutenant  B.  H.  Porter  (killed),  (second  at- 

Iron-cladr — Canonicus,  Lieutenant-Commander  George 
F].  Belknap.  Mahopac,  Lieutenant-Commander  E.  E.  Pot- 
ter ( first  attack)  ;  Lieutenant-Commander  A.  W.  Weaver 
(second  attack).  Monadnoch,  Commander  E.  G.  Parrott. 
New  Ironsides ,  Commodore  William  Radford.  Saugus, 
Commander  E.  R.  Colhoun. 

Screw  Frigates — Colorado,  Commodore  H.  K.  Thatcher. 
Minnesota,  Commodore  Joseph  Lanman.  ^yahasll,  Captain 
M.  Smith. 

Side-wheel  Steamers  (first  class) — Powhatan,  Commo- 
dore J.  F.  Schenck.    Susquehanna,  Commodore  S.  W.  Godon. 

Screw  Sloops — BrooMyn,  Captain  James  Alden.  Juni- 
ata, Captain  W.  R.  Taylor  (first  attack)  ;  Lieutenant-Com- 
mander T.  S.  Phelps  (second  attack).  Mohican,  Com- 
mander D.  Ammen.  Shenandoah,  Captain  D.  B.  Ridgely. 
Ticonderoga,  Captain  C.  Steedman.  Tuscarora,  Commander 
J.  M.  Frailey. 

Screw  Gun-vessels — Kansas,  Lieutenant-Commander  P. 
O.  Watmough.  Maumee,  Lieutenant-Commander  R.  Chan- 
dler. Nyach,  Lieutenant-Commander  L.  H.  Newman.  Pe- 
quot.  Lieutenant-Commander  D.  L.  Braine.  Y antic,  Lieu- 
tenant-Commander T.  C.  Harris. 

Screw  Gun-boats — Chippei  a,  Lieutenant-Commander 
A.  W.  Weaver  (first  attack)  ;  Lieutenant-Commander  E.  E. 
Potter  (second  attack. )  Huron,  Lieutenant-Commander  T. 
O.  Self  ridge.  Seneca,  Lieutenant-Commander  M.  Sicard. 
Unadilla,  Lieutenant-Commander  F.  M.  Ramsay. 

Double-enders — Iosco,  Commander  John  Guest.  Mack- 
inaw, Commander  J.  C.  Beaumont.     Maratanza,  Lieutenant- 

The  Defence  of  Fort  Fisher.  243 

Commander  G.  W.  Young.  Osceola,  Commander  J.  M.  B. 
Clitz.  Pawtuxet,  Commander  J.  H.  Spotts.  Pontoosuc, 
Lieutenant-Commander  AVm.  G.  Temple.  SassacuSj  Lieu- 
tenant-Commander J.  L.  Davis.  Tacony,  Lieutenant-Com- 
mander W.  T.  Truxtun. 

Miscellaneous  Vessels — Fort  Jadcson,  Captain  B.  F. 
Sands.  Monticello,  Acting  Vice-Lieutenant  D.  A.  Camp- 
bell (first  attack)  ;  Lieutenant  W.  B.  Cushing  (second  at- 
tack), N evens,  Commander  J.  C.  Howell.  Quaker  City, 
Commander  W.  F.   Spicer.     Rhode  Island,  Commander  S. 

D.  Trenchard.  Santiago  de  Cuba,  Captain  O.  S.  Glisson. 
Yanderhilt,  Captain,  C.  W.  Pickering. 

Powder  Vessel^ — Louisiana,  Commander  A.  C.  Rhind 
(first  attack;  blown  up). 

Reserve — ^4.  D.  Vance,  Lieutenant-Commander  J.  H. 
U])shur.  Alabama,  Acting  Vice-Lieutenant  Frank  Smith 
(first  attack)  ;  Acting  Vice-Lieutenant  A.  P.  Langthorne 
(second  attack).  Britannia,  Acting  Vice-Lieutenant  Sam- 
uel Huse  (first  attack)  ;  Acting  Vice-Lieutenant  W.  A.  Shel- 
don (second  attack).      Cherokee,  Acting  Vice-Lieutenant  W. 

E.  Denison.  Emma,  Acting  Vice-Lieutenant  T.  C.  Dunn 
(first  attack)  ;  Acting  Vice-Lieutenant  J.  M.  Williams  (sec- 
ond attack).  Gettysburg,  Lieutenant-Commander  P.  H. 
Lamson  (wounded).  Governor  Buchingham,  Acting  Vice- 
Lieutenant  J.  IMcDiarmid.  Howquah,  Acting  Vice-Lieuten- 
ant J.  W.  Balch.  Keystone  State,  Commander  H.  Polando. 
Lilian,  Acting  Vice-Lieutenant  T.  A.  Harris.  I^ittle  Ada, 
Acting  Master  S.  P.  Crafts.  Moccasin,  Acting  Ensign  Jas. 
Brown.  Nansemond,  Acting  Master  J.  H.  Porter.  Tris- 
tram Shandy,  Acting  Ensign  Ben.  Wood  (first  attack)  ;  Act- 
ing Vice-Lieutenant  F.  M.  Green  (second  attack).  Wilder- 
ness, Acting  Master  PL  Arey. 

At  the  second  attack  the  fleet  was  composed  of  the  same  ves- 
sels, with  the  exception  of  the  Nyach,  Keystone  State,  and 
Quaker  City.  The  following  additions  were  also  made  to  the 
fleet:  Montgomery,  Acting  Vice-Lieutenant  T.  C.  Dunn; 
U.  R.  Cuyler,  Commander  C.  H.  B.  Caldwell;  Aries,  Acting 
V^ice-Lieutenant  F.   S.  Wells;  Eolus,  Acting  Master  E.   S. 

244  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Kevser :  Fort  Donelson,  Acting  Master  G.  W.  Frost;  and  Re' 
public,  Acting  Ensign  J.  W.  Bennett. 


In  the  first  attack  the  armament  of  the  fleet  was  10  15-inch 
S.  B.,  27  11-inch  S.  B.,  1  10-inch  S.  B.,  255  9-inch  S.  B.,  30 
8-inch  S.  B.,  31  32-pounders  S.  B.,  10  150-pounders  R.,  37 
100-pounders  R.,  5  60-pounders  R.,  1  50-ponnder  R.,  43  30- 
poimders  R.,  28  20-pounders  R. ;  total  guns,  478.  Howitz- 
ers: 68  24-pounders,  73  12-pounders;  total  howitzers,  141; 
grand  total,  619. 

In  the  second  attack  there  were  1  more  10-inch  S.  B.,  2 
fewer  9-ineh  S.  B.,  2  more  8-inch  S.  B.,  8  more  32-pounders 
S.  B.,  8  fewer  100-pounders  R.,  1  fewer  50-pounder  R.,  5 
more  30-pounders  R.,  1  fewer  20-pounder  R.,  4  more  12- 
pounder  howitzers ;  making  4  more  guns  and  4  more  howitz- 
ers ;  grand  total,  627. 

Lanbing  Party  at  Fort  Fisher^  15  January,  1865 : 
2,261  Officers,  Seamen^  and  Marines — Lieutenant-Com- 
mander K.  R.  Breese,  Fleet  Captain,  commanding. 

First  Division,  Captain  L.  L.  Dawson,  U.  S.  M.  C. 

Second  Division,  Lieutenant-Commander  C.  H.  Cushman 

Third  Division,  Lieutenant-Commander  James  Parker. 

Fourth  Division,  Lieutenant-Commander  T.  O.  Sel- 

Pioneers^  Lieutenant  S.  W.  Preston  (killed). — Malvern, 
60  men.  Lieutenant  B.  H.  Porter  (killed).  Colorado,  218 
men,  Lieutenant  II.  B.  Robeson.  Mmnesofa,  241  men,  Lieu- 
tenant-Commander James  Parker.  Wahash,  188  men,  Lieu- 
tenant-Commander C.  H.  Cushman  (wounded).  Powhatan,, 
100  men.  Lieutenant  George  M.  Bache  (wounded).  Sus- 
quchanna,  75  men,  Lieutenant-Commander  F.  B.  Blake. 
Brooklyn,  70  men  (estimated),  Acting  Ensign  D.  Cassell; 
Juniata,  69  men,  Acting  Master  C.  H.  Hamilton  (wounded). 
Mohican,  52  men.  Acting  Master  W.  Burdett.  Shenandoah, 
71  men,  Lieutenant  S.  W.  J^ichols.  Ticonderorja,  60  men. 
Ensign  G.  W.  Coffin  (w^ounded).  Tuscarora,  60  men,  Lieu- 
tenant-Commander W.    ]Sr.   Allen    (wounded).      Kansas,   20 

The  Defence  of  Fort  Fisher.  245 

men,  Acting  Ensign  Williams.  Pequot,  44  men,  Acting  En- 
sign G.  Lamb.  Yantic,  45  men.  Acting  Ensign  J.  C.  Lord. 
Chippewa,  24  men,  Acting  Ensign  G.  H.  Wood.  Huron,  34 
men,  Lieutenant-Commander  T.  O.  Self  ridge.  Seneca,  29 
men,  Lieutenant-Commander  M.  Sicard.  Iosco,  44  men, 
Acting  Ensign  W.  Jameson.  Mackinaw,  45  men.  Acting 
Master  A.  J.  Louch  (wounded).  Maratanza,  51  men.  Act- 
ing Master  J.  B.  Wood  (wounded).  Osceola,  39  men.  Act- 
ing Ensign  J.  F.  Merry  (wounded).  Pairtuxet,  40  men, 
(estimated).  Acting  Ensign  J.  A.  Slamm.  Pontoosuc,  42 
men,  Acting  Ensign  L.  E,.  Chester  (wounded.)  Sassacus, 
37  men,  Acting  Ensign  W.  H.  Mayer.  Tacony,  32  men, 
Acting  Ensign  J.  B.  Taney.  Fort  Jackson,  69  men.  Lieu- 
tenant S.  H.  Hunt.  Monticello,  41  men.  Lieutenant  W.  B. 
Gushing.  Nerens,  61  men,  Acting  Ensign  E.  G.  Dayton. 
Rhode  Island,  47  men.  Lieutenant  F.  R.  Smith.  Santiago 
de  Cuba,  53  men.  Lieutenant  N.  H.  Farquhar.  Vanderhilt, 
70  men  (estimated),  Acting  Vice-Lieutenant  L.  D.  Danels. 
Gettysburg,  71  men.  Lieutenant  R.  H.  Lamson  (wounded). 
Tristram  Shandy,  22  men.  Acting  Ensign  B.  Wood 
wounded.  Montgomery,  37  men.  Acting  Master  W.  N. 
Wells.       Total  2,261  men. 

Casualties — The  reports  of  casualties  in  the  first  attack, 
as  collated  by  the  Surgeon-General,  give  the  following  result : 
19  killed,  1  mortally  scalded,  31  severely  wounded.  1  severely 
scalded,  31  slightly  wounded  or  scalded.     Total,  83. 

Casi^at.ties  IX  THE  Second  Attack — Malvern,  3  killed, 

1  wounded;  Canonicus.  3  wounded;  Saugiis,  1  u'ounded; 
Colorado,  4  killed,  17  wounded,  8  missing:  Minnesota,  15 
killed,  26  wounded,  2  missing;  W abash,  4  killed,  22  wounded, 
5  missing;  Potrhatan,  4  killed,  17  wounded,  8  missing;  Siis- 
quehanna,  3  killed,  15  wounded;  Brooklyn,  3  wounded,  2 
missing;  Juniata,  5  killed,  10  wounded;  Mohican,!  killed,  11 
wounded;  Shenandoah,  6  wounded,  5  missing;  Ticonderoga, 

2  killed,  2  wounded ;  Tuscarora,  4  killed,  12  wounded ; 
Karisas,  1  wounded ;  Pequot,  3  killed,  5  wounded ;  Yantic,  2 
killed,  1  wounded;  Chippewa,  4  killed  4  wounded;  Huron,  5 
wounded;  Seneca,  5  wounded ; /osco^  2  killed,  12  wounded; 
Mackinaw,  2  wounded,  2  missing;  Maratanza,  3  wounded; 

246  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Osceola,  3  wounded;  Pawtuxet,  2  wounded;  Pontoosuc,  7 
wounded;  Tacomy,  4  killed,  11  wounded;  Sassacus,  3  killed, 

3  wounded ;  Fort  Jackson,  1  killed,  10  wounded ;  Monticello, 

4  killed,  4  wounded;  Nereus,  3  killed,  3  wounded;  Rhode 
Island,  8  wounded,  2  missing;  Santiago  de  Cuba,  1  killed, 
9  wounded;  Vanderbilt,  2  killed,  13  wounded;  Gettysburg, 
6  killed,  6  wounded;  Tristram  Shandy,  2  wounded,  1  miss- 
ing; Montgomery,  2  killed,  4  wounded.  Total,  killed  82; 
wounded,  269;  missing,  35;  grand  total,  386. 

William  Lamb. 
Norfolk,  Va., 

15  January,  1901. 



On  the  night  of  Saturday,  1  April,  1865,  my  division  oc- 
cupied a  portion  of  the  defences  around  the  city  of  Peters- 
burg, my  left  resting  on  Otey's  Battery,  near  the  memorable 
Crater,  my  right  extending  to  the  dam  on  a  creek  beyond 
Battery  45.  Ramseur's  old  Brigade  of  North  Carolinians, 
commanded  by  Colonel  W.  R.  Cox  (holding  appointment  as 
temporar}^  Brigadier),  was  on  the  right;  Archer's  Brigade 
of  Virginia  Junior  Reserves,  and  Grimes'  old  brigade  of 
I^orth  Carolinians,  commanded  by  Colonel  D.  G.  Cowand, 
of  the  Thirty-second  North  Carolina;  Battle's  Brigade  of 
Alabamians,  commanded  by  Colonel  Hobson,  of  the  Fifth 
Alabama ;  Cook's  Brigade  of  Georgians,  commanded  by  Colo- 
nel Nash,  extended  to  the  loft  in  the  order  above  named,  num- 
bering for  duty  about  two  thousand  two  hundred  muskets, 
covering  at  least  three  and  a  half  miles  of  the  trenches  around 
Petersburg.  One-third  of  my  men  were  constantly  on  picket 
duty  in  our  front,  one-third  kept  awake  at  the  breastworks 
during  the  night,  with  one-third  only  off  duty  at  a  time,  and 
they  were  required  always  to  sleep  with  their  accoutrements 
on  and  upon  their  anns,  ready  to  repel  an  attack  at  a  mo- 
ment's warning. 

About  10  o'clock  on  the  night  of  1  April,  1865,  the  can- 
nonading from  the  artillery  and  mortars  in  my  front  became 
unusually  severe,  and  about  11  o'clock  the  Federals  charged, 
capturing  my  picket  line,  which  coiisisted  of  pits  dug  in  the 

Note. — General  Grimes  entered  the  army  in  1861  as  Major  of  the 
Fourth  Regiment  N  C.  T  He  filled  every  grade  np  to  ^lajor-General 
and  literally  fought  his  way  up.  He  was  the  highest  officer  from  this 
State  at  Appomattox,  being  the  only  INIajor-General  we  had  in  that  army 
at  that  time.  There  was  no  braver  man  in  the  whole  army.  Having- 
gone  through  countless  battles,  this  gallant  soldier  lived  to  be  slain  by 
an  assassin  while  riding  along  the  road  near  his  own  home,  14  Aug.  1880. 
The  culprit  was  arrested  and  though  his  guilt  was  clear  he  was  acquitted 
by  a  miscarriage  of  justice  wliich  shocked  the  whole  State.  But  return- 
ing to  the  scene  of  the  murder  the  assassin  having  rashly  boasted  of  his 
crime,  was  promptly  hung  by  outraged  neighbors.— Ed. 

248  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

earth  for  protection  from  sharpshooters,  and  occupied  by  my 
soldiers,  varying  in  distance  from  one  hundred  and  fifty  to 
three  hundred  yards  in  front  of  our  main  breastworks.  I 
toolc  measures  immediately  to  re-establish  this  line,  which 
was  successfully  accomplished,  and  our  pits  re-occupied. 
About  daylight  of  the  2d  the  enemy  again  drove  in  our  pick- 
eta  and  charged  Kune's  salient  at  the  point  where  Battle's 
Brigade  was  posted,  carrying  the  works  for  a  few  hundred 
yards  on  each  side  of  that  point,  doubling  and  throwing 
Cook's  Brigade  back  a  short  distance.  I  hurried  the  com- 
mands of  Colonels  Cowand  and  Archer  to  the  point  of  attack 
as  rapidly  as  possible,  charging  the  enemy,  who  were  in  pos- 
session of  and  protected  by  our  traverses  and  bomb-proofs 
(which  were  erected  to  prevent  our  line  being  enfiladed,  and 
also  as  a  place  of  refuge  from  their  perpendicular  mortar 
fire),  and  continued  gradually  to  gain  traverse  after  traverse 
of  our  captured  works. 

I  then  secured  four  pieces  of  artillery,  which  were  placed 
in  our  second  line  of  works,  and  were  invaluable  in  checking 
the  advance  of  the  enemy,  thus  confining  them  by  grape  and 
canister  to  this  particular  point  at  the  salient,  preventing 
their  advancing  to  attack  our  lines  in  flank  or  rear;  Cook  and 
Battle  holding  them  in  check  on  the  left,  and  Cowand  and 
Archer  on  the  right  of  the  captured  works,  their  only  point 
of  egress  being  exposed  to  the  fire  of  the  artillery. 

T  regret  my  inability  to  recall  the  names  and  thus  give  hon- 
orable mention  to  those  gallant  artillerists  who  rendered  me 
such  effective  service. 

During  the  forenoon  a  brigade,  under  command  of  Colo- 
nel   ,  reported  to  me  for  duty,  and  was  placed 

near  the  artillery  in  this  second  line  of  earth  works  (which 
had  been  constructed  to  fall  back  upon  in  case  of  disaster  to 
onr  first  line).  My  dispositions  were  soon  made  to  attack 
the  enemy  simultaneously  at  all  points — Cowand  and  Archer 
on  the  right.  Cook  and  Battle  on  the  left,  who  were  to  drive 

them  from  the  protection  of  their  traverses.      Colonel 

commanded  in  front  Avith  a  heavy  line  of  skirmishers,  con- 
necting his  left  with  (^ook  and  his  right  with  Cowand.  My 
four  pieces  of  artillery  poured  grape  and  canister  into  the 

Surrender  at  Appomattox.  249 

enemy,  and  I  gave  the  signal  for  the  infantry  to  advance, 
when  a  general  charge  was  made,  but  through  a  direct  viola- 
tion of  orders  on  the  part  of  Colonel  ,  this  attack 

only  i^artially  succeeded,  capturing  that  portion  of  the  line 

alone  upon  which  the  skirmishers  advanced,  Colonel 

having  changed  tlie  direction  of  attack,  and  charged  the  point 
assigned  to  the  skirmishers  on  the  right,  thereby  leaving  a 
space  of  three  hundred  yards  unassailed.      There  is  no  doubt 

in  my  mind  that  if  Colonel had  attacked  with  vigor 

at  that  time,  we  could  have  driven  the  enemy  entirely  from 
our  works.  After  the  lapse  of  an  hour,  during  which  time 
the  enemy  v/ere  heavil_y  reinforced,  1  ordered  another  attack 
from  tlie  second  line  in  which  Colonel  participa- 
ted, but  by  again  diverting  the  brigade  in  the  direction  of 
Cowand's  Brigade,  instead  of  towards  the  salient,  the  enemy 
were  dislodged  from  only  a  small  portion  of  the  lines. 

Subsequently  sixty  men  of  Johnston's  Korth  Carolina  Bri- 
gade, under  command  of  Captain  Plato  Durham,  recaptured 
Fort  Mahone,  which  for  an  hour  had  been  so  covered  by  our 
fire  as  to  forbid  its  occupants  showing  themselves.  In  taking 
this  fort  a  large  number  of  prisoners  were  captured ;  so  man^, 
in  fact,  that  when  I  first  saw  them  skulking  behind  the  earth- 
works for  protection  against  the  fire  of  their  own  men,  I 
feared  it  was  a  ruse  on  the  part  of  the  enemy  to  surprise  us. 
They  had  secreted  themselves  for  safety  in  this  work,  and 
we,  in  our  charge,  had  taken  the  only  outlet. 

After  this  no  general  attack  was  made,  though  we  contin- 
ued slowly  l)ut  gradually  to  drive  them  from  traverse  to 

About  nightfall  the  enemy  occupied  some  two  hundred 
yards  of  our  lireastworks.  Through  no  inefficiency  or  neg- 
ligence on  the  ])art  of  the  officers  and  men  were  the  works 
carried,  but  owing  to  the  weakness  of  the  line,  its  extreme 
length,  and  the  want  of  sufficient  force  to  defend  it,  for  they 
acted  most  heroically  on  this  trying  occasion.  Only  one  un- 
wounded  man  (an  ofiicer)  did  I  see  seeking  the  rear,  and  he 
one  whom  I  had  the  ]irevious  day  ordered  under  arrest  for 
trafficking  with  the  enemy  (exchanging  tobacco  for  coffee). 
Him  I  hailed  and  inquired  where  he  was  going,  when  he  re- 

250  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

called  his  arrest  of  the  previous  day,  from  which  I  immedi- 
ately released  him,  and  sent  him  back  to  his  command. 

I  had  a  verbal  conference  with  General  Lee  and  after- 
wards officially  rejDorted  my  inability  to  hold  this  point 
against  any  vigorous  attack.  In  consequence  of  this  report, 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Peyton,  the  Army  Inspector,  was  sent  to 
examine  this  line,  and  he  coincided  with  my  views  and  so  re- 
ported to  General  Lee.  On  an  average  throughout,  the  space 
from  man  to  man  was  at  least  eight  feet  in  the  line  of 
trenches.  I  doubted  not  that  with  a  reserve  of  five  hundred 
men  I  could  have  driven  the  enemy  from  any  point  which 
they  might  capture,  and  repeatedly  urged  that  such  an  ar- 
rangement be  made,  knowing  well  that  the  enemy,  by  con- 
centrating a  large  force  on  any  given  point,  could  press  their 
way  through  the  line,  and  my  only  salvation  was  in  having 
the  means  at  hand  to  drive  them  back  before  large  numbers 
could  enter.  Our  left  was  the  post  of  greatest  danger.  There 
should  the  reserve  have  been  placed ;  but  General  Lee  in- 
formed me  that  every  available  man  was  on  duty,  and  I  must 
do  the  best  I  could. 

On  Sunday  night  of  the  2d  we  had  orders  to  abandon 
the  works,  and  without  the  knowledge  of  the  Federals,  we 
withdrew  to  the  north  side  of  the  Appomattox  river,  follow- 
ing the  Hickory  Road  to  Goode's  bridge,  when  we  recrossed 
the  iVppomattox,  proceeding  towards  Amelia  Court  House, 
which  we  reached  on  the  morning  of  the  5th.  Wednesday 
we  remained  stationary  in  line  of  battle,  confronting  the  en- 
emy until  about  dark,  when  we  followed  the  army,  taking  up 
the  rear,  being  very  much  impeded  on  the  march  by  the 
wagon  train  and  its  most  miserable  management,  which,  as  I 
apprehended,  would  cause  us  some  disaster.  The  enemy 
showed  themselves  on  Thursday,  about  S  o'clock,  a.  m.,  in 
our  rear  and  on  our  left  flank,  when  near  Amelia  Springs, 
and  in  a  short  time  began  to  press  us  vigorously. 

I  then  formed  Cox's  and  Cowand's  Brigades  in  line  of  bat- 
tle, with  a  heavy  skirmish  line  in  front  to  impede  their  pro- 
gress, and  to  cover  our  rear,  sending  Battle's,  Cook's  and 
Archer's  Brigades  forward  for  one-half  mile  to  form  there, 
across  the  road,  in  line  of  battle  in  order  to  allow  Cowand 

Surrender  at  Appomattox.  251 

and  Cox  to  retreat  safely  when  the  enemy  had  deployed  and 
prepared  to  attack ;  onr  right  flank  being  protected  by  a  jSTorth 
Carolina  brigade  of  cavalry  under  General  Koberts.  In  this 
manner  alternating  the  brigades  throughout  the  day,  we  con- 
tinued to  oppose  the  enemy  and  retreat,  endeavoring  to  pro- 
tect the  lagging  wagon  train,  which  was  successfully  done  up 
to  about  i  p.  m.,  when  we  approached  Sailor's  Creek,  and 
upon  the  ridge  running  parallel  with  that  stream  we  made 
the  final  stand  of  the  day,  the  wagons  becoming  blocked  up 
at  the  bridge  crossing  the  stream.  At  this  point  General 
Lee  ordered  me  if  possible  to  hold  this  line  until  he  could 
have  artillery  put  in  position  on  the  opposite  hills  over  the 
creek  parallel  with  those  I  occupied. 

The  enemy  pushed  on  rapidly,  attacking  us  with  very 
great  pertinacity,  We  here  repeatedly  repulsed  their  as- 
saults, but  l»y  turning  both  of  our  flanks  they  succeeded  in 
not  only  dislodging,  but  driving  us  across  the  creek  in  confu- 
sion. About  now  the  artillery  from  the  heights  occupied  by 
General  Lee  opened  upon  the  enemy,  and  the  sun  being  down 
they  did  not  cross  the  creek.  After  we  broke,  personally  I 
was  so  pressed,  the  space  between  the  two  wings  of  the  enemy 
beinc;  not  o^'ev  two  hundred  yards,  that  I  sought  safety  in  re- 
treat. I  galloped  to  the  creek  (the  bridge  being  in  their 
possession)  where  the  banks  were  very  precipitous,  and  for 
protection  from  their  murderous  fire,  concluded  to  jump  my 
horse  in,  riding  him  through  the  water,  and  effect  my  escape 
by  abandoning  him  on  the  other  side,  the  bullets  of  the  enemy 
whistled  around  me  like  hail  all  the  while.  By  great  good 
fortune,  the  opposite  banks  proved  not  so  precipitous,  and 
my  horse,  seeming  to  appreciate  the  situation,  clambered  up 
the  height,  and  started  off  in  a  run,  thus  securing  my  safety. 
This  same  animal.  Warren,  I  still  own  and  treasure  for  his 
past  services.  That  night  we  took  the  road  for  Farmville, 
crossing  the  Appomattox  at  High  Bridge,  posting  guards  on 
the  south  side,  thus  collecting  all  stragglers  and  returning 
them  to  their  commands. 

The  next  morning  (Friday)  we  continued  our  march  down 
tlie  railroad  and  formed  line  of  battle  on  the  Lynchburg  road, 
still  endeavoring  to  preserve  that  iinpedimenta  of  Caesar's — 

252  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

the  ^vagon  train — marching  by  the  left  flank  through  the 
woods  parallel  to  the  road  traveled  by  the  wagon  train,  and 
about  one  hundred  or  so  yards  distant  from  the  road.  Upon 
reaching  the  road  and  point  that  turns  towards  Lynchburg 
from  the  Cumberland  road,  three  of  my  brigades,  Cook's, 
Cox's  and  Cowand's,  had  crossed  the  Cumberland  road  and 
were  in  line  of  battle,  and  at  right  angles  with  Battle's  and 
Archer's  Brigades,  wlio  were  still  parallel  with  the  Cumber- 
land road.  Heavy  firing  was  going  on  at  this  point,  when 
General  Mahone  came  rushing  up  and  reported  that  the  en- 
emy had  charged,  turning  his  flank,  and  driving  his  men 
from  their  guns  and  the  works  which  he  had  erected  early 
in  the  day  for  the  protection  of  these  cross  roads.  I  then 
ordered  my  three  brigades.  Cook's,  Cox's  and  Cowand's  (to 
move)  at  a  double-quick  on  the  line  with  Battle  and  Archer, 
and  charging  the  enemy,  we  drove  them  well  off  from  Ma- 
hone's  works,  recapturing  the  artillery  taken  by  them  and 
capturing  a  large  number  of  prisoners.  I  held  this  position 
until  sent  for  by  General  Lee,  who  complimented  the  troops 
of  the  division  upon  the  charge  made  and  the  service  ren- 
dered, ordering  me  to  leave  a  skirmish  line  in  my  front,  and 
stating  that  Field's  Division  would  occupy  my  position ;  I 
was  to  hurry  with  all  possible  dispatch  to  the  road  which 
intersected  the  Lynchburg  road,  as  the  enemy's  cavalry  were 
reported  to  be  approaching  by  that  road. 

We  reached  this  road,  halting  and  keeping  the  enemy  in 
check  until  the  wagons  had  passed,  and  then  continued  the 
march  ]iarallel  with  the  road  traveled  hy  the  wagon  train, 
continuing  thus  to  march  until  night,  when  we  took  the  road 
following  to  protect  the  trains. 

On  Saturday,  the  8th,  no  enemy  appeared,  and  we  marched 
undisturbed  all  day.  U]i  to  this  time,  since  the  evacuation  of 
Petersburg,  we  had  marched  day  and  night,  continually  fol- 
lowed and  harassed  by  the  enemy.  The  men  were  very  much 
jaded  and  suffering  for  necessary  sustenance,  our  halts  not 
having  been  sufficiently  long  to  prepare  their  food,  besides  all 
our  cooking  utensils  not  captured  or  abandoned  were  where 
we  could  not  reach  them.  This  day  Bushrod  Johnson's  Di- 
vision was  assigned  to  and  placed  under  my  command,  by 

Surrender  at  Appomattox.  253 

order  of  General  Lee.  Upon  passing  a  clear  stream  of  water 
and  learning  that  the  other  division  of  the  corps  had  gone 
into  camp  some  two  miles  ahead,  I  concluded  to  halt  and  give 
my  broken  down  men  an  opportunity  to  close  up  and  rejoin 
us,  and  sent  a  message  to  Major-General  John  B.  Gordon, 
commanding  the  Corps,  making  known  my  whereabouts,  in- 
forming him  I  won  Id  be  at  any  point  he  might  designate  at 
any  honr  desired. 

By  dark  my  men  were  all  quiet  and  asleep.  About  9 
o'clock  I  heard  the  roar  of  artillery  in  our  front  and  in  con- 
sequence of  information  received,  I  had  my  command  aroused 
in  time  and  passed  through  the  town  of  Appomattox  Court 
House  before  daylight,  where,  upon  the  opposite  side  of  the 
town,  I  found  the  enemy  in  my  front.  Throwing  out  my 
skirmishers  and  forming  line  of  battle,  I  reconnoitred  and 
satisfied  myself  as  to  their  position,  and  awaited  the  arrival 
of  General  Gordon  for  instructions  who,  a  while  before  day, 
accompanied  b}^  General  Fitz  Lee,  came  to  my  position,  when 
we  held  a  council  of  war.  General  Gordon  was  of  the  opin- 
ion that  the  troops  in  our  front  were  cavalry,  and  that  Gen- 
eral Fitz  Lee  should  attack.  Fitz  Lee  thought  they  were 
infantry  and  that  General  Gordon  should  attack.  They  dis- 
cussed the  matter  so  long  that  I  became  impatient,  and  said  it 
was  somebody's  duty  to  attack,  and  that  immediately,  and 
I  felt  satisfied  that  they  could  be  driven  from  the  cross  roads 
occupied  by  them,  which  was  the  route  it  was  desirable  that 
our  wagon  train  should  pursue,  and  that  I  would  undertake 
it ;  whereupon  Gordon  said,  "Well,  drive  them  off."  I  replied, 
"I  cannot  do  it  with  my  division  alone,  but  require  assist- 
ance." He  then  said,  "You  can  take  the  two  other  divisions 
of  the  Corps."  By  this  time  it  was  becoming  sufficiently 
light  to  make  the  surrounding  localities  visible.  I  then  rode 
down  and  invited  General  Walker,  who  commanded  a  divis- 
ion on  my  left,  composed  principally  of  Virginians,  to  ride 
with  me,  showing  him  the  position  of  the  enemy  and  explain- 
ing to  him  m}'  vicAvs  and  plan  of  attack.  He  agreed  with 
me  as  to  its  advisability.  I  did  this  because  I  felt  that  I 
had  assumed  a  very  great  responsibility  when  I  took  upon 
myself  the  charge  of  making  the  attack.      I  then  made  dispo- 

254  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

sitions  to  dislodge  the  Federals  from  their  position,  placing 
Bushrod  Johnson's  Division  upon  my  right,  with  instruc- 
tions to  attack  and  take  the  enemy  in  the  flank,  while  my 
division  skirmishers  charged  in  front,  where  temporary 
earthworks  had  been  thrown  up  by  the  enemy,  their  cavalry 
holding  the  crossings  of  the  road  with  a  battery.  I  soon  per- 
ceived a  disposition  on  their  j^art  to  attack  this  division  in 
flank.  I  rode  back  and  threw  our  right  so  as  to  take  advant- 
age of  some  ditches  and  fences  to  obstruct  the  cavalry  if  they 
should  attem])t  to  make  a  charge.  In  the  meantime  the  cav- 
alry of  Fitz  Lee  were  proceeding  by  a  circuitous  route  to  get 
in  rear  of  them  at  these  cross  roads.  The  enemy  observing 
me  placing  these  troops  in  position,  fired  upon  me  with  four 
pieces  of  artillery.  T  remember  well  the  appearance  of  the 
shell,  and  how  directly  they  came  towards  me,  exploding  and 
completely  enveloping  me  in  smoke.  I  then  gave  the  sig- 
nal to  advance,  at  the  same  time  Fitz  Lee  charged  those 
posted  at  the  cross  roads,  when  my  skirmishers  attacked  the 
breastworks,  which  were  taken  without  much  loss  on  my  part, 
also  capturing  several  pieces  of  artillery  and  a  large  number 
of  prisoners,  I  at  the  same  time  moving  the  division  up  to 
the  support  of  the  skirmishers  in  echelon  by  brigades,  driving 
the  enemy  in  confusion  for  three-quarters  of  a  mile  beyond 
the  range  of  hills  covered  with  oak  undergrowth.  I  then 
learned  from  the  prisoners  that  my  right  flank  was  threat- 
ened. Halting  my  troops  T  placed  the  skirmishers,  com- 
manded by  Colonel  J.  E.  Winston,  Forty-fifth  North  Caro- 
lina Troops,  in  front,  about  one  hundred  yards  distant,  to 
give  notice  of  indication  of  attack.  I  placed  Cox's  Brigade, 
which  occupied  the  right  of  the  division  at  right  angles  to  the 
other  troops,  to  watch  that  flank.  The  other  divisions  of 
the  Corps  (Walker's  and  Evans')  were  on  the  left.  I  then 
sent  an  officer  to  General  Gordon,  announcing  our  success, 
and  that  the  Lynchburg  road  was  open  for  the  escape  of  the 
wagons,  and  that  I  awaited  orders.  Thereupon  I  received 
an  order  to  withdraw,  which  I  declined  to  do,  supposing  that 
General  Gordon  did  not  understand  the  commanding  posi- 
tion which  my  troops  occupied.  He  continued  to  send  me 
order  after  order  to  the  same  effect,  which  I  still  disregarded, 

Surrender  at  Appomattox.  255 

being  under  the  impression  that  he  did  not  comprehend  our 
favorable  location,  until  finally,  I  received  a  message  from 
him,  with  an  additional  one,  as  coming  from  General  Lee,  to 
fall  back.  I  felt  the  difficulty  of  withdrawing  without  disas- 
ter and  ordered  Colonel  J.  Ti.  Winston,  commanding  the 
skirmish  line  which  had  been  posted  in  my  front  on  first 
reaching  these  hills,  to  conform  his  movements  to  those  of 
the  division,  and  to  move  by  the  left  flank  so  as  to  give  notice 
of  an  attack  from -that  qimrter.  I  then  ordered  Cox  to  main- 
tain his  position  in  line  of  battle,  and  not  to  show  himself 
until  our  rear  was  one  hundred  yards  distant,  and  then  to  fall 
back  in  line  of  battle,  so  as  to  protect  our  rear  and  right  flank 
from  assault.  I  then  instructed  Major  Peyton,  of  my  staff, 
to  start  the  left  in  motion,  and  I  continued  with  the  rear. 

The  enemy  upon  seeing  us  move  off,  rushed  out  from  un- 
der cover  with  a  cheer,  when  Cox's  Brigade,  lying  concealed 
at  the  brow  of  the  hill,  rose  and  fired  a  volley  into  them 
which  drove  them  back  into  the  woods,  the  brigade  then  fol- 
lowing their  retreating  comrades  in  line  of  battle  unmolested. 
After  proceeding  about  half  the  distance  to  the  position  oc- 
cupied by  us  in  the  morning,  a  dense  mass  of  the  enemy  in 
column  (infantry),  appeared  on  our  right,  and  advanced, 
without  firing,  towards  the  earthworks  captured  by  us  in  the 
early  morning,  when  a  battery  of  our  artillery  opened  Avith 
grai:)e  and  canister  and  drove  them  under  the  shelter  of  the 

As  my  troops  approached  their  position  of  the  morning,  I 
rode  up  to  General  Gordon  and  asked  where  I  should  form 
line  of  battle.  He  replied,  ''Anywhere  you  choose."  Struck 
by  the  strangeness  of  the  reply,  I  asked  an  explanation,  where- 
upon he  informed  me  that  we  would  be  surrendered.  I  then 
expressed  very  forcibly  my  dissent  to  being  surrendered,  and 
indignantly  upbraided  him  for  not  giving  me  notice  of  such 
intention,  as  I  could  have  escaped  with  my  division  and 
joined  General  Joe  Johnston,  then  in  North  Carolina.  Fur- 
thermore, that  I  should  then  inform  my  men  of  the  purpose 
to  surrender,  and  that  whoever  desired  to  escape  that  calam- 
ity could  go  with  me,  and  galloped  off  to  carry  this  idea  into 
effect.     Before  reaching  my  troops,  however.  General  Gor- 

256  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'G5. 

don  overtook  nie,  and  placing  his  hand  upon  my  shoulder, 
asked  me  if  I  were  going  to  desert  the  army  and  tarnish  my 
OAvn  honor  as  a  soldier,  and  said  that  it  would  be  a  reflection 
upon  General  Lee  and  an  indelible  disgrace  to  me,  if  I,  an 
officer  of  rank,  should  escape  under  a  flag  of  truce,  which 
was  then  pending.  I  was  in  a  dilemma  and  knew  not  what 
to  do ;  but  finally  concluded  to  say  nothing  on  the  subject  to 
my  troops. 

Upon  reaching  them,  one  of  the  soldiers,  asked  if  General 
Lee  had  surrendered,  and  upon  my  answering  that  I  feared  it 
was  a  fact  that  we  had  been  surrendered,  he  cast  away  his 
musket  and  holding  his  hands  aloft,  cried  in  an  agonized 
voice,  "Blow,  Gabriel,  blow !  Xy  God,  let  him  Blow ;  I  am 
ready  to  die !"  We  then  went  beyond  the  creek  at  Appo- 
mattox Court  House,  stacked  arms  amid  the  bitter  tears  of 
bronzed  veterans,  regretting  the  necessity  of  capitulation. 

Among  the  incidents  ever  fresh  in  my  memory  of  this 
fatal  day  to  the  Confederacy^  is  the  remark  of  a  private  sol- 
dier. When  riding  up  to  my  old  regiment  to  shake  by  the 
hand  each  comrade  who  had  followed  me  through  four  years 
of  suffering,  toil,  and  privation  often  Avorse  than  death,  to 
bid  them  a  final,  affectionate,  and,  in  many  instances,  an 
eternal  fareAvell,  a  cadaverous,  ragged,  barefooted  man 
grasped  me  by  the  hand,  and  choking  with  sobs  said,  "Good- 
bye, General ;  God  bless  you  ;  we  will  go  home,  make  three 
more  crops  and  then  try  them  again."  I  mention  this  in- 
stance simply  to  show  the  spirit,  the  pluck  and  the  faith  of 
our  men  in  the  justice  of  our  cause,  and  that  they  surren- 
dered more  to  grim  famine  than  to  the  prowess  of  our  ene- 

That  day  and  the  next  the  terms  of  surrender  were  ad- 
justed ;  the  following  day  our  paroles  were  signed  and  coun- 
tersigned, and  on  Wednesday,  12  April,  1865,  we  stacked 
our  arms  in  an  old  field,  and  each  man  sought  his  home  as 
best  he  might. 

Bryan  Grimes. 
Grimesland,  N.  C, 

5  November.  1879. 

Note. — This  is  taken  from  a  letter  from  General  Grimes  to  INIajor  John 
W.  Moore. 

Ithe  new  yokKj 



Franklin     J.     Faison,    Lt.-Col.,    20th    Regt. 

Killed  at  Gaines'  Mills,  27  June,  1863. 
Duncan  James  De  Vane,  Major,  20th  Regt. 
John  Franklin  Ireland,  Captain,  Co.  D,  20th 

Regt.,     A.     A.     G.      Iverson's      Brigade. 

Wounded  and  captured  near  Petersburg, 

25  March,  1S65. 

Oliver  E.  Mercer,  2d  Lt.,  Co.  G,   20th  Regt. 

Killed  at  Gettysburg,  1  July,  1863. 
James  D.  Ireland,  Private,  Co.  E,  20th  Regt. 

Wounded  at  Gettysburg,  1  July,  1863. 
John  F.  Cross,  IstLt.,  Co.  B,  ."ith  Regt. 
Thomas  Badger,!2d  Lt.,  Co.  I,  5th  Regt. 



By  WALTER  A.  MONTGOMERY,  Second  Lieutenant  Company  F, 
Twelfth  Regiment,  N.  C.  T. 

Appomattox  to  the  historian  is  an  event,  not  a  place.  The 
little  village  of  that  name  in  Southwestern  Virginia  which, 
on  9  April,  1865,  consisted  of  a  court  house,  jail,  postoffice 
and  a  fe^v  scattered  houses,  was  not  an  interesting  spot  of 
earth ;  and  only  that  which  came  to  pass  there,  on  that  day, 
has  brought  the  hamlet  to  the  notice  of  the  world. 

ISTeither  Avere  the  physical — material — deeds  done  there  on 
that  day  great  of  themselves.  The  event,  if  it  could  be  con- 
sidered as  disconnected  with  its  consequences  and  withoiit 
relation  to  the  past,  would  also  be  of  trivial  moment;  only  a 
few  thousand  of  ragged,  starving  soldiers,  beaten  in  pitched 
battle,  surrounded  and  captured  after  a  week's  retreat  and  an 
ever-aggressive  pursuit  by  a  powerful  and  watchful  foe — that 
was  all.  But  the  captured  were  the  remnant  of  the  iVrmy 
of  Northern  Virginia;  the  captors  the  Armj  of  the  Potomac, 
and  that,  together  with  the  consequences  raised  the  occur- 
rence to  the  plane  of  world-history.  There,  was  the  death- 
scene  of  an  army  once  formidable  in  numbers  and  so  great 
in  prestige  that  it  added  renown  to  its  enemy  who  gave  the 
mortal  wound ;  and  its  great  leader,  by  the  act  of  furling  the 
battle-flags  of  his  regiments,  conferred  on  his  antagonist  his 
highest  title  to  fame.  That  army,  during  its  four  years  of 
existence,  had  never  been  broken  in  battle,  though  out  of 
them  all  it  went  on  its  way  dripping  with  blood.  It  had  al- 
ways been  chivalric  in  its  treatment  of  prisoners  and  espe- 
cially kind  to  such  of  them  as  were  sick  or  wounded.  It  had 
always  been  scrupulous  in  its  respect  for  womankind  and 
most  careful  of  the  rights  of  private  property.  For  three 
years,  the  flash  from  its  musketry  was  a  sheet  of  flame  encir- 

258  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

cling  the  borders  of  the  Confederacy  and  consuming  like  stub- 
ble fresh  armies  and  fresh  generals  of  its  enemy,  and  twice 
bursting  the  bounds  of  its  territory,  leaped  into  the  heart  of 
the  enemy's  country.  It  made  immortal  almost  every  hill  and 
dale  of  the  Old  Dominion,  and  electrified  the  civilized  world 
wdth  its  deeds  of  heroism ;  and  though  wounded  nigh  unto 
death  at  Gettysburg,  it  afterwards,  at  the  Wilderness,  at 
Spottsylvania  and  at  second  Cold  Harbor,  against  odds  in- 
calculable, performed  prodigies  of  valor  far  in  excess  of  any 
of  its  former  achievements.  But  the  time  was  at  hand  when 
it  became  possible  for  these  men,  60,000  in  number,  poorly 
fed,  badly  shod  and  without  suitable  clothing,  and  losing 
their  strength  even  in  tlieir  victories,  to  be  driven  back  by 
140,000  upon  their  capital  for  a  last  stand.  Through  the 
long  siege  of  eight  months,  in  the  trenches  around  Peters- 
burg, the  survivors  in  seasons  of  extreme  heat  and  extreme 
cold,  suffering  from  a  want  of  food  and  clothes,  maintained, 
yet  without  li()]ie,  their  courage  and  their  self-respect ;  and 
they  finally  left  their  post  only  ui)on  an  order  from  their 
great  leader,  and  after  they  had  repulsed  a  series  of  desperate 
assaults.  For  a  week,  on  their  retreat  without  rest,  and  hun- 
gry, they  flung  defiance  at  their  enemies  and  responded  with 
alacrity  to  every  order  to  face  their  pursuers  until  at  last,  at 
the  end,  they  threw  themselves  upon  their  foes  now  blocking 
their  way  with  a  wail  of  despair  drowned  by  the  roar  of  ar- 
tillery and  the  rattle  of  their  rifles ;  and  then, — 

"The  pennon  droops  tlmt  led  the  sacred  band 
Along  the  crimson  field." 

Thenceforward  the  Army  of  jSTorthern  Virginia  lived  only 
in  history. 

To  the  Southerners  of  that  day  Appomattox  was  the  tomb 
of  their  social  aspirations,  the  sepulchre  of  their  political 
hopes ;  for  no  people  ever  made  nobler  sacrifices  for  their 
convictions  than  they  did  for  theirs ;  and  no  people  ever  loved 
more  devotedly,  or  more  fully  believed  in  their  cause,  than 
did  the  Confederates  in  theirs ;  and  their  grief  over  the  resiilt 
was  proportioned  to  their  love  and  their  faith. 
•  With  the  dying  aw^ay  of  the  cannon's  last  echoes,  the 
idea  of  State  sovereignty- — of  American  interest,  and  ISTegro 

Appomattox  and  the  Return  HoxME.  259 

slavery — of  world-wide  concern,  perished  together,  to  be 
succeeded,  in  short,  bv  National  supremacy  and  univer- 
sal freedom.  Then,  and  there,  was  settled,  as  far  as  opin- 
ion can  be  settled  by  force,  that  question  of  transcendant 
consequence  to  our  country,  unfortunately  left  an  open  one 
by  our  Constitution  makers,  to-Avit. :  whether  a  State  can 
withdraw  of  its  own  volition  from  the  Union.  From  that 
day,  the  view  of  a  consolidated  Xational  Government  in  con- 
tradistinction to  one  strictly  Federal  with  supreme  allegiance 
to  the  State  has  grown  in  public  favor  until  the  Great  Re- 
pidjlic  in  very  recent  years  has  acquired  possessions  in  the 
farthest  quarters  of  the  globe  and  seems  determined,  contrary 
to  the  traditions  of  our  people  and  the  conservatism  of  the 
past,  to  take  an  active  share  in  shaping  the  destinies  of  the 

But  that  which  gave  the  occurrence  universal  importance 
was  that  with  the  destruction  of  the  military  power  of  the 
South  an  idea — the  belief  that  one  man  may  have  a  right  of 
projierty  in  another — an  idea  as  old,  in  some  form  or  other, 
as  history  itself  was  exploded.  Emancipation  had  been  pro- 
claimed by  the  President  more  than  two  years  liefore,  but  Ap- 
pomattox made  the  proclamation  enforceable.  Brazil  fol- 
lowed in  1872  and  Russia  a  little  later. 

But,  1  am  to  write  more  particularly  of  my  recollections 
of  the  occurrences  of  that  day  and  of  my  return  to  my  home. 

I  was  then  20  years  old,  the  February  before,  and  a  Lieu- 
tenant of  Company  F,  Twelfth  l^orth  Carolina  Regiment, 
R.  D.  Johnston's  Brigade,  Pegram's  Division,  then  com- 
manded by  General  James  A.  Walker.  A  restless  night, 
passed  a  mile  away  on  the  old  Richmond  and  Lynchburg 
stage  road,  preceded  the  fateful  morrow.  There  was  present 
throughout  its  long  hours  a  dull  sense  of  impending  catas- 
trophe quickened  by  an  occasional  and  ominous  discharge  of 
cannon  and  small  arms  to  our  left  and  front.  Before  the 
dawn  we  were  up  and  under  arms,  and  without  water  or 
food  commenced,  as  we  thought,  the  march  for  Lynchburg. 
As  Ave  entered  the  eastern  limits  of  the  town,  in  column  of 
fours,  and  just  as  the  sun  was  rising,  a  cannon  shot  screamed 
over  our  heads  from  our  immediate  front,  and  we  then  knew 

260  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

that  our  forebodings  were  well  founded.  The  enemy  during 
the  night  had  succeeded  in  his  march  around  our  left  and  was 
upon  our  front.  Hurrying  rapidly  through  the  town  we 
formed  line  of  battle  a  half  or  three-quarters  of  a  mile  beyond 
and  on  the  left  of  the  road.  We  were  a  part  of  the  troops 
General  Grimes  mentioned  in  his  article  on  Appomattox, 
as  a  division  commanded  by  General  Walker  "composed 
principally  of  Virginians."  That  division,  in  fact,  was  com- 
posed mostly  of  North  Carolinians,  Johnston's  and  Lewis' 
Brigades  (North  Carolinians),  and  Pegram's  old  brigade 
(Virginians).  The  troops  on  the  right  of  us  were  Grimes' 
Division.  Along  the  whole  Confederate  line  as  it  advanced, 
the  firing  so  far  as  I  could  discern,  was  opened  simultane- 
ously, and  when  the  men  of  Johnston's  Brigade  were  ordered 
back  I  heard  thereafter  no  continuous  firing  of  small  arms. 
The  advance  was  supported  by  a  battery  of  five  pieces  in  po- 
sition on  the  western  slope  of  the  hill,  and  that  battery  kept 
up  its  fire  some  minutes  after  the  infantry  had  ceased  to  be 
engaged.  In  our  advance  we  raised  the  usual  rehel  yell  and 
the  line  of  Federals,  dismounted  cavalry,  was  quickly  driven 
from  its  hastily  constructed  breastworks  of  rails  and  brush 
to  the  main  line,  on  the  hills,  consisting  of  infantry  and  ar- 
tillery. I  saw  the  wheels  of  the  gun  carriages  and  the  men 
with  knapsacks  and  guns.  They  w^ere  not  plainly  discerni- 
ble because  of  the  thick  and  low  growth  of  the  timber  along 
their  line,  although  the  ground  over  which  we  advanced  was 
half  meadow  land,  through  which  ran  a  ditch  with  running 
water  parallel  to  the  line,  the  whole  sparsely  timbered,  but  of 
large  growth. 

The  battle  was  severer  on  our  right  and  we  understood  at 
the  time  that  General  Cox,  with  his  brigade,  had  the  brunt 
of  it,  and  that  they  claimed  the  honor  of  firing  the  last  rounds. 
Suddenly  and  just  as  it  seemed  to  us  we  were  about  to  engage 
the  Union  infantry,  the  order  was  given  to  march  "right 
about,"  and  we  retired  a  few  hundred  yards  in  the  direction 
of  our  first  position,  where  we  remained',  perhaps  an  hour. 
During  that  time  nobody  seemed  to  know  anything  about 
what  was  going  on.  There  was  a  general  idea  that  a  truce 
was  on,  but  no  particulars.      It  was  common  talk,  then,  that 

Appomattox  and  the  Return  Home.  261 

at  this  very  stage  an  interview  took  place  between  General 
Gordon  and  General  Cnster,  the  latter  having  come  into  onr 
lines,  under  flag,  to  meet  the  Confederate  General  in  com- 
mand for  a  conference  and  to  prevent  further  bloodshed :  that 
Custer  assured  Gordon  that  the  Union  cordon  was  complete 
and  strong  enough  to  destroy  the  Confederates  if  they  should 
attempt  to  break  through ;  and  that  if  General  Gordon  desired 
a  verification  of  the  statement  he  would  take  him  on  a  round 
of  inspection  of  the  Federal  lines ;  tliat  the  proposition  was 
accepted  and  after  the  inspection  had  been  made  our  Second 
Corps  was  ordered  back  to  places  convenient  for  camp.  The 
generous  treatment  we  afterwards  received  at  their  hands  is 
proof  that  they  were  magnanimous  enough  to  have  made  such 
a  proposition.  It  is  certain  that  General  Custer  about  that 
hour,  or  little  later,  sought  and  found  General  Longstreet. 
That  officer,  in  "From  Manassas  to  Appomattox,"  says  that 
Custer  demanded  of  him  the  surrender  of  the  Confederate 
Army  in  the  name  of  General  Sheridan ;  that  he  was  excited 
in  his  manner;  that  he  received  from  him  (Longstreet)  a 
rebuke  for  his  intrusion ;  that  he  then  became  more  moderate 
and  said,  "It  would  be  a  pity  to  have  more  bloodshed  upon 
that  field." 

It  seems  that  up  to  that  time  the  two  commanders  had  not 
yet  met,  and  that  Longstreet  was  preparing  for  battle  after 
Gordon  had  withdrawn  his  corps  from  the  front.  I  remem- 
ber Avhile  we  were  standing  awaiting  orders.  Sergeant  White- 
ner,  of  Company  A,  said  to  me  that  the  Army  of  Northern 
Virginia  was  about  to  be  surrendered.  T  answered :  "But 
we  will  have  no  difficulty  in  clearing  the  way;  we  have 
already  shown  that  we  can  do  that."  He  then  pointed  to  the 
right  and  left  to  columns  of  Union  troops,  infantry,  remark- 
ing: "We  only  struck  their  cavalry  just  now;  we  can  never 
drive  their  infantry  off;  they  are  too  strong."  Our  brigade 
was  ordered  back  ])robably  a  mile  for  camp  into  a  small  piece 
of  poorly  timbered  land,  white  and  post  oak,  on  the  right 
of  the  Lynchburg  road  ;  and  the  guns  were  stacked  as  usual  on 

The  first  few  hours  were  spent  in  uncertainty.  We  could 
not  know  that  the  terms  would  be  of  such  a  nature  as  to  be 

262  North  Carolina  Troops,   1801 -'65. 

accepted.  When  that  suspense  was  quieted  by  the  announce- 
ment that  the  terms  were  satisfactory  and  had  been  accepted 
by  General  Lee,  a  feeling  of  collapse,  mental  and  physical, 
succeeded  for  some  hoiirs.  Very  little  Avas  said  by  men  or 
officers.  They  sat,  or  laid  on  the  ground  in  reflective  mood, 
overcome  by  a  flood  of  sad  recollections.  Few  were  to  be 
seen  away  from  their  camps,  and  no  life  was  there ;  in  fact 
on  that  day  there  were  more  Union  troops  to  be  seen  on  the 
road  and  in  the  fields  within  our  line  than  Confederates. 

During  the  afternoon  rations  of  bread  were  issued  to  us, 
but  no  meat  until  the  next  day,  and  then  in  small  quantities. 
The  animals  were  entirely  without  long  food  and  they  could 
be  seen  about  in  the  fields  in  favorable  spots  trying  to  find  the 
first  grass  and  weeds  of  the  season.  It  was  understood  that 
it  was  a  matter  of  difficulty  for  the  Union  commissariat  to 
get  provisions  for  men  and  horses ;  and  we  had  had  very  little 
for  several  days.  On  the  next  day  (Monday)  the  men  began 
to  recover  themselves.  They  realized,  not  fully,  it  is  trtie, 
but  measurably,  the  tremendous  importance  of  the  event,  and 
began  to  take  thought  for  the  future.  Of  course  their  first 
thought  was  to  reach  their  homes  as  soon  as  possible  for  their 
services  were,  in  most  eases,  sorely  needed  there.  Crops 
could  be  planted  and  cultivated  by  those  whose  lives  had  been 
formerly  on  the  farms  and  the  others,  in  some  indefinite  way, 
ho]:)ed  for  something  to  do.  Then,  they  wished  to  get  through 
with  the  trying  ordeal  of  the  act  of  surrender,  for,  they  did 
not  know  what  the  formalities  might  be,  and  in  spite  of  their 
great  deeds  of  the  past,  and  consciences  at  rest  on  the  score 
of  duty  performed  to  the  last,  they  yet  felt  that  it  wottld  be 
to  them  a  hiuniliating  scene.  There  was  no  personal  bitter- 
ness in  their  hearts,  little  or  no  profane  language,  no  curses 
upon  their  enemies.      Their  conduct  was  equal  to  the  occasion. 

I  heard  no  word  of  ill-will  against  the  National  Govern- 
ment in  the  future,  no  suggestions  of  guerrilla  warfare.  The 
universal  sentiment  was  that  the  questions  in  dispute  had 
been  fought  to  a  finish,  and  that  was  the  end  of  it.  Their 
confidence  in  their  General  Officers  was  unshaken,  and  for 
General  Lee  their  affections  and  their  esteem  amounted  to 
adoration.      They  knew  he  was  heartbroken.     In  discussing 

Appomattox  and  the  Return  Home.  263 

the  incidents  wliieli  produced  the  most  harnifnl  effects  upon 
the  fortunes  of  the  army  they  mentioned  the  death  of  General 
Jackson,  and  the  failure  to  occupy  the  heights  at  Gettysburg 
at  the  conclusion  of  the  first  day's  battle.  They  also  talked 
freely  of  the  injustice  of  the  conscript  law,  with  its  permis- 
sion of  substitutes  and  twenty  negro  exemption,  but  I  heard 
no  breath  of  censure  for  thePresident  who  recommended  those 
laws.  On  Monday  two  matters  of  diversion  occurred.  Gen- 
eral Gordon  had  the  Second  Corps,  without  arms  of  course, 
assembled  in  massed  columns  and  from  a  central  position,  on 
horseback,  delivered  to  them  a  farewell  address.  He  spoke 
of  their  great  and  heroic  achievements,  of  their  privations 
and  their  sufferings,  and  their  unselfish  devotion  to  duty,  and 
advised  them  to  return  to  their  homes  to  be  as  good  citizens  as 
they  had  been  soldiers.  Pie  opened  his  speech  with  these 
words :  '^Soldiers  of  the  Second  Army  Corps !  No  mathema- 
tician can  compute  the  odds  against  which  you  have  contend- 
ed," and  he  entered  into  an  exhortation  that  they  maintain 
their  principles  and  their  courage,  with  the  assurance  on  his 
part  that  in  all  future  emergencies,  if  the  contest  should  be  re- 
ncAved,  they  would  find  him  ready  to  lead  them  again ;  that 
''the  blood  of  the  martyrs  was  the  seed  of  the  church."  We 
heard  that  the  tenor  of  the  address  was  not  much  relished  at 
the  Federal  headquarters.  He  was  a  good  soldier  throughout 
his  entire  service,  and  if,  at  the  Wilderness  on  the  evening  of 
6  May,  1864,  when  he  struck  Sedgwick  he  had  been  in  com- 
mand of  a  corps,  he  would  have  rolled  up  Grant's  right  like  a 
scroll.  He  was  the  most  dashing  of  all  the  Confederates  at 
Appomattox.  Just  after  the  speaking,  or  while  it  was  going 
on,  a  number  of  Federal  cavalrymen,  who  had  been  riding 
about  our  camps,  one  of  them  being  under  the  influence  of 
strong  drink,  gave  us  some  trouble.  The  man  in  his  cups  in 
spinning  some  yarns  about  his  ]ierformanees  of  the  day  be- 
fore, mentioned  that  one  of  his  number  was  captured  by  some 
of  General  Longstreet's  men,  and  that  some  of  the  General's 
staff  had  taken  from  the  prisoner  his  housewife  (thread  and 
needle  case),  when  a  Georgian  standing  by,  not  being  famil- 
iar with  the  name  of  the  article  alleged  to  have  been  taken — 
house-wife — picked  up  a  stone  and  throwing  it,  brought  his 

264  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

man  to  the  ground.  Considerable  confusion  ensued,  and  be- 
cause of  that  circumstance,  an  order  was  issued  from  Federal 
headquarters  that  no  Union  soldiers  would  be  allowed  to  visit 
the  Confederate  camps  without  written  permission. 

On  that  day,  also.  General  Custer  rode  over  to  Johnston's 
Brigade  to  see  his  friend  and  classmate  at  West  Point,  John 
W.  Lea,  who  was  Colonel  of  the  Fifth  North  Carolina  Regi- 
ment, and  then  in  command  of  the  brigade.  They  had  met 
the  day  before  at  General  Custer's  quarters.  General  Cus- 
ter brought  with  him  an  orderly  with  a  basket  of  provisions 
and  a  flask  of  whiskey.  Upon  invitation  of  Colonel  Lea,  sev- 
eral of  the  ofiicers  of  the  brigade  joined  General  Custer  and 
himself  in  the  luncheon.  He  was  of  a  most  cheerful  disposi- 
tion and  very  handsome  in  personal  appearance.  He  told 
us  that  the  honors  of  th^  9th  wer^  really  with  the  Confed- 
erates, all  things  considered;  that  he  took  no  glory  to  him- 
self when  he  ascertained  the  numbers  of  the  Confederate 
army.  On  Monday  also  the  paroles  were  printed  and  sent 
around  to  regimental  headquarters — mine  is  now  before  me 
and  is.  dated  10  April,  and  signed  by  P.  Durham,  Captain 
Command  ing  R egiment. 

We  kept  no  guard  around  the  camp  and  had  no  duties  of 
any  kind  to  perform ;  nor  did  we  see  a  Union  soldier  with 
arms  in  his  hands  until  the  very  moment  at  which  our  men, 
early  on  Wednesday  morning,  stacked  their  guns  in  front  of 
the  Federal  Corps  detailed  to  receive  them.  That  was  a 
most  simple  ceremony.  In  a  line  north  and  south,  in  a  field, 
a  Federal  Corps  Avas  standing  with  arms  at  a  shoulder  wait- 
ing to  receive  the  Confederates  and  their  arms.  We  filed, 
in  fours,  just  in  front  of  them  and  ten  feet  off  came  to  a 
halt  and  faced  to  the  left ;  the  guns  were  then  stacked  and 
the  flags  laid  on  the  stacks. 

The  officers  were  allowed,  under  the  terms  of  the  surren- 
der, to  keep  their  side  arms.  Not  a  word  was  spoken ;  we 
did  not  even  look  into  each  others  faces.  We  were 
marched  from  the  spot  to  the  road  and,  without  returning 
to  camp,  turned  our  faces  toward  the  South,  toward  our 
homes — and  as  I  looked  back  for  the  last  time  the  Federal 
Corps  had  not  moved  from  its  tracks,  nor  had  a  gun  or  a  flag 



1.  J.  M.  B.  Hunt,  Captain,  Co.  B,  12th  Regt. 

2.  Milton  Blalock,  1st  Sergt.,  Co.  D,  12th  Regt. 

3.  George    Hall    Raney,  Private,  Co.  B,   12th 


4.  Cha?.  Wm  Raney,  Private,  Co.  B,  12th  Regt. 

5.  Thomas  D.  Royater,  Private,  Co.  D,  12th  Regt. 

6.  Richard  A.  Lloyd,  Private,  Co.  B,  12th  Regt. 

7.  Samuel  J.  Currin,  Private,  Co.  B,  12th  Regt. 

Appomattox  and  the  Return  Home.  265 

been  touched,  and  we  had  not  yet  opened  our  lips.  It  soon 
became  apparent  that  there  was  no  system,  or  plan  about  the 
march  of  the  troops  homeward. 

Somehow  or  other  it  became  understood  that  General 
Grimes  would  conduct  the  ]\^orth  CaTOlinians  on  their  w^ay; 
anyhow  a  considerable  number  of  them  were  under  his  direc- 
tions and  he  ordered  the  march  toward  Campbell  Court 
House,  with  the  intention  to  go  from  there  to  Danville.  For 
two  or  three  miles  everything  passed  off  smoothly.  When, 
however,  we  came  to  a  point  where  there  was  a  divergent  road 
leading  in  a  more  southerly  direction.  Private  Thomas  Roys- 
ter,  from  Granville  County,  saluted  the  General  and  said, 
"General,  you  are  a  good  officer  and  you  know  the  road  to  take 
a  good  many  of  these  bo^'s  to  their  homes,  but  I  live  lower 
down  the  Roanoke  than  Danville  and  it  seems  to  me  all  who 
want  to  go  to  counties  east  of  Granville  should  take  this  road ; 
anyhow  I  am  going  to  try  it  and  all  who  want  to  follow  me 
can  come  on."  Royster  was  a  splendid  soldier,  considerably 
over  six  feet  tall,  symmetrical  in  form,  with  one  of  the  best 
and  kindest  faces  I  ever  saw  and  an  eye  intelligent  and  most 
expressive.  A  considerable  number  followed  him.  Amongst 
the  number  T.  B.  Watson,  Austin  Allen,  R.  H.  Gilliland,  -Tas. 
M.  Bobbitt,  P.  A.  Bobbitt,  J.  H.  Duke,  Robert  C.  Montgom- 
ery, my  brother,  and  myself.  We  soon  formed  a  party,  for  the 
men  as  if  by  instinct,  broke  up  into  small  squads,  and  we  con- 
tmued  together  until  we  seven  reached  our  homes  in  Warren 
County.  We  started  off  with  a  small  quantity  of  bread  and 
coffee,  but  with  no  meat ;  but  on  our  way,  with  one  exception, 
we  met  with  kindness  and  consideration  from  the  residents. 
We  never  saw  Royster  after  ten  minutes  from  the  time  we 
left  the  main  column,  for  he  with  his  strong  body  and  long 
legs,  had  soon  distanced  us.  jSTor  did  we  have  any  conversa- 
tion with  aiiy  other  soldier  on  our  journey  except  a  young 
man  whom  we  found  in  a  barn  on  a  bed  of  straw  on  a  plan- 
tation, near  Rough  Creek  Church,  our  first  night's  camping 
ground.  At  that  home  there  were  only  a  mother  and  daugh- 
ter, the  male  memliers  of  the  household  being  in  their  places 
in  the  army.  At  dark  we  walked  up  to  the  house  and  in- 
formed them  of  our  condition  and  our  desire  to  be  allowed  to 

266  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

use  the  barn  for  lodgings  and  the  privilege  of  water  from  the 
well  in  the  yard.  Thev  received  us  not  only  with  politeness, 
but  with  kindness.  They  also  added  to  our  bread  and  coffee 
a  piece  of  bacon  and  some  sorghum  molasses.  In  front  of  the 
barn  we  made  a  live  coal  lire  and  soon  had  our  supper  pre- 
pared. When  the  meal  was  over  we  filled  our  pipes  with 
"Zephyr  Puif/'  a  brand  of  smoking  tobacco,  several  packages 
of  which  I  had  taken  from  a  burning  pile  in  the  streets  of 
Petersburg,  the  night  of  the  evacuation,  and  for  the  time  for- 
got our  troubles.  About  9  o'clock  we  went  again  to  the 
bouse  and  inquired  of  the  two  householders  if  they  would 
like  to  hear  some  music,  and  upon  the  response,  of  course,  in 
the  affirmative,  Watson,  who  Avas  a  musician,  leading  with  his 
cornet,  and  accompanied  by  the  voices  of  the  two  Bobbitts, 
my  brother  and  myself,  all  of  us  having  belonged  to  a  glee 
club  in  the  army,  we  entertained  them  for  half  an  hour.  On 
retiring  to  the  barn  and  making  our  beds  upon  the  straw,  we 
stumbled  upon  our  only  acquaintance  on  the  way,  who  was  in 
a  helpless  condition,  and  who  could  not  tell  vis  how  he  came 
to  be  there.  He  only  said  that  he  could  go  no  further  and 
had  laid  down  there  to  die.  He  was  exhausted  from  fatigue 
and  want  of  food  and  iipon  our  preparing  for  him  something 
to  eat  and  a  strong  pot  of  coffee,  his  strength  was  revived.  We 
left  him  in  fair  condition.  He  reached  his  home  in  Warren 
County  and  is  now  a  well-to-do  farmer  and  the  head  of  a 
large  family.  We  heard  of  General  Eansom  along  our  route 
helping  along  the  tired  and  foot-sore  by  often  dismounting 
and  placing  such  in  his  saddle,  and  speaking  to  them  wOrds  of 
hope  and  cheer.  We  greatly  wished  to  come  up  with  him, 
and  to  talk  with  him,  for  we  had  great  interest  and  pride  in 
him ;  his  people  and  ours  havino;  been  for  generations  con- 
nected by  ties  of  friendship.  We  had  watched  his  career 
as  a  soldier  which  had  reflected  honor  on  his  State  and  upon 
the  South,  and  especially  his  strikingly  brilliant  conduct  at 
Five  Forks,  a  few  days  before. 

We  spent  the  next  nicht  (Thursday)  near  the  town  of 
Chase  City,  then  called  Christiansbnrg.  In  passing  through 
Charlotte  Coui't  House,  on  that  day,  we  called  at  a  large  well- 
appointed  home  in  the  midst  of  extensive  grounds,  and   at 

Appomattox  and  the  Return  Home.  267 

once  were  asked  into  the  family  living  room,  the  family  con- 
sisting entirely  of  ladies  and  children,  and  at  once  were  made 
to  feel  at  ease.  An  invitation,  heartily  pressed  upon  us,  to 
dine  we,  of  course,  accepted.  In  the  interval  the  cornet  and 
the  voices  added  interest  to  the  occasion,  delighting  young 
and  old,  who  had  heard  no  sound  of  music  for  months.  The 
war  songs  and  old  Southern  ballads  we  had  practiced,  and 
often  along  the  Shenandoah  and  Rappahannock  w^e  had  given 
solace  and  pleasure  to  our  friends  and  companions;  but  un- 
fortunately on  the  present  occasion  we,  without  proper  fore- 
thought, began  ""There  Will  Be  one  Vacant  Chair,"  when  the 
younger  lady  commenced  to  weep. 

At  once  Ave  knew  the  cause.  We  w^ere  thoughtless  because 
there  were  so  many  vacant  chairs  in  Southern  households.  In 
that  particular  case  it  was  the  husband's.  But  the  elder 
lady  made  everything  so  easy  and  so  delicately  explained  the 
situation,  that  it  passed  off  without  further  embarrassment, 
and  we  left  their  home  after  dinner  with  their  thanks  and 
prayers,  as  if  we  had  conferred  a  favor  upon  them. 

Our  last  night  was  spent  near  the  Roanoke  at  the  hospita- 
ble home  of  Colonel  Eaton,  the  uncle  of  Captain  M.  F.  Tay- 
lor, who  was  mortally  wounded  on  the  retreat  from  Gettys- 
burg. The  nephew  was,  in  truth,  a  most  estimable  gentle- 
man and  capable  officer,  and  a  great  favorite  with  the  whole 
regiment.  He  was  the  idol  of  the  uncle,  and  we  all  could, 
sitting  around  that  hearthstone  with  truth* and  propriety  join 
in  honoring  the  dead  hero  and  kinsman.  The  host  was  of 
large  means,  given  to  hospitality,  and  until  a  late  hour  we 
grieved  over  our  losses,  celebrated  our  victories  and  mourned 
over  the  disappointment  of  our  hopes.  On  rising  the  next 
morning  for  an  early  breakfast,  had  at  our  request,  we  found 
our  shoes  cleaned,  our  tattered  uniforms  brushed  and  hung 
on  chairs.  After  the  meal  we  left  our  kind  entertainer  stand- 
ing on  the  front  portico  and  almost  overcome  by  his  feelings, 
watching  us  as  we  disap]'»eared  forever  from  his  sight,  down 
the  road  that  led  us  to  our  own  beloved  and  bereaved  ones. 

All  along  our  route  we  met  with  only  kindness  and  consid- 
eration with  one  exception,  and  that  at  the  house  of  a  man 
who  was  formerlv  a  resident  of  our  own  county.      He  refused 

268  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

us  water  from  his  well,  and  a  rest  upon  the  steps  of  his  house, 
although  we  informed  him  who  we  were,  and  he  knew  the 
families  of  us  all.  We  shook  the  dust  of  his  premises  from 
our  feet  and  renewed  our  journey.  Before  we  had  gotten  out 
of  sight  one  of  his  old  negro  slaves,  who  had  heard  the  con- 
versation between  us,  followed  with  his  wife  and  soon  over- 
taking us,  introduced  himself  as  an  old  acquaintance  of  the 
father  of  each  one  of  us  whom  he  had  known  in  Warren. 
He  made  apologies  for  the  conduct  of  his  master.  He 
brought  along  with  him  a  pair  of  chickens,  some  corn  meal, 
and  a  bucket  of  water,  and  in  a  short  while  the  old  man  and 
his  wife  had  prepared  for  us  a  feast. 

The  old  colored  man  said  to  us  that  when  the  female  mem- 
bers of  his  master's  family  protested  against  his  refusal  to 
give  to  a  Confederate  soldier  a  cup  of  cold  water  he  replied 
that  he  was  afraid  that  they  might  have  some  contagious 
disease  or  depredate  upon  his  poultry  during  the  night.  To 
the  credit  of  humanity  it  may  be  said  that  we  had  few  of  such 
in  the  South.  The  refined  feelings  and  delicate  sensibili- 
ties of  those  old  colored  people,  manifested  so  strikingly  in 
such  substantial  sympathy,  made  up  a  beautiful  picture  of 
Southern  life;  and  wherever  we  eight  have  been  we  have 
told  it  as  an  everlasting  memorial  of  them.  On  our  last  day's 
journey  at  a  fork  of  the  Ridgeway  and  Alexander  Ferry 
road,  our  party  broke  up,  Watson,  Allen  and  Gilliland  contin- 
uing their  way  to  their  homes  in  the  same  neighborhood  and 
we,  the  other  five,  to  ours  in  Warrenton.  We  are  all  still 
living  except  Gilliland,  and  all  bear  upon  our  bodies  lasting 
signs  of  those  days. 

Upon  our  arrival  at  Warrenton  the  streets  were  alive  w^ith 
the  inhabitants  anxiously  waiting  for  the  particulars  of  the 
surrender  of  which  they  had  heard  only  vague  reports.  They 
were  astonished  at  the  news  and  many  of  them  expressed 
themselves  in  favor  of  ''continuing  the  struggle,"  as  they  ex- 
pressed it ;  but  they  were  non-combatants. 

Walter  A.  Moxtgomery. 

Raleigh.  N.  C., 

13  December,  190L 


By  JAMES  M.  MULLEX,  Private  Company  A.,  13th  N.  C.  Battalion. 

After  the  evacuation  of  Plymouth,  Washington,  Kinston 
and  Goldsl)oro,  Brigadier-General  L.  S.  Baker  was  sent  to 
Weldon,  charged  with  the  duty  of  holding  on  to  that  place, 
not  only  for  the  purpose  of  preserving  railroad  communica- 
tion betAveen  the  other  forces  in  Xorth  Carolina  and  the  Army 
of  Northern  Virginia,  and  those  along  the  line  of  the  Wil- 
mington &  Weldon  Railroad  from  Goldsboro  to  that  point, 
but  of  collecting  supplies  for  these  armies  from  that  por- 
tion of  Eastern  Carolina  not  actually  in  the  possession 
of  the  enemy.  The  authorities  recognizing  the  importance 
of  this  position  in  these  respects,  it  being  one  of  the 
principal  sources  of  supply  for  the  armies  in  the  field,  in- 
structed General  Baker  to  hold  it  until  the  last  moment,  and 
at  the  same  time,  to  watch  o\it  for  and  repel  any  raids  of  the 
enemy  coming  from  the  Blackwater  and  Chowan,  and  from 
Plymouth,  Washington  and  Goldsboro.  With  the  force  un- 
der his  command,  this  was  no  light  duty,  and  he  was  necessa- 
rily abseut  from  Weldon  most  of  his  time  looking  after  the 
various  points  under  his  supervision.  Weldon,  however,  was 
the  headquarters  of  his  departnlent,  which  was  styled  "The 
Second  Military  District  of  North  Carolina."  In  his  ab- 
sence the  Captain  of  our  battery  (Captain  L.  H.  Webb,  Com- 
pany A,  Thirteenth  Battalion,  North  Carolina  Light  Artil- 
lery), was  in  command. 

These  were  times  that  tried  men's  souls,  and  put  to  the 
severest  test  the  metal  with  which  Confederate  soldiers  were 
made.  All  signs  indicated  that  the  end  was  near  at  hand.  Lee 
had  abaiidoned  Petersburg  and  Pichmond.  though  this  was  un- 
known to  us  until  several  days  thereafter,  as  I  shall  show  later 
on ;  all  of  North  Carolina  east  of  the  Wilmington  &  Weldon 

270  North  Carolina  Troops.   1861-'65. 

railroad  had  been  given  up,  and  Sherman  had  made  his  mem- 
orable march  through  Georgia  to  the  sea,  and  through  the 
Carolinas,  having  as  his  objective  point  Goldsboro,  where  he 
proposed  to  form  a  junction  with  Schofield,  coming  up  from 
Xew  Bern  via  Kinston,  and  Terry,  moving  from  Wilmington. 
This  was  accomplished  by  him  on  23  March,  1865.  The  giant 
arms  of  an  octopus  were  rapidly  closing  upon  the  Confeder- 
acy in  her  final  desperate  but  grand  struggle  for  independ- 
ence. Just  one  month  previous  to  the  junction  of  these  three 
armies,  flushed  as  they  were  with  victory,  that  old  war-horse, 
General  Joe  Johnston,  had  relieved  Beauregard  at  Charlotte, 
N.  C,  and  was  charged  with  the  difficult  task  of  collecting 
and  uniting  in  one  army  the  scattered  forces  of  Bragg,  Har- 
dee, Hood  and  Beauregard,  for  one  supreme  effort  to  stay  the 
tide  of  invasion,  and  he  prepared,  if  necessary,  to  unite 
his  forces  at  Danville  with  those  of  Lee,  who  even  then  con- 
templated abandoning  his  position  around  Petersburg  for 
that  purpose,  with  the  hope  that  the  two  armies  might  fall 
upon  Sherman  and  crush  him  before  Grant  could  come  to 
his  assistance.  Vain  hope,  born  of  desperation,  for  Sher- 
man, having  reached  Goldsl)oro,  his  next  plan  was  not  to  fol- 
low after  Johnston,  but  to  open  communication  with  Grant, 
so  that  the  two  might  act  together.  This  is  shown  by  his 
special  order,  issued  about  5  April,  at  Goldsboro,  which  reads : 
"The  next  grand  objective  is  to  place  this  army  (with  its  full 
equipment)  north  of  Eoauoke  river,  facing  west,  with  a  base 
for  supplies  at  Xorfolk,  and  at  Winton  or  Murfreesboro,  on 
the  Chowan,  and  in  full  communication  with  the  Army  of  the 
Potomac  at  Petersburg;  and  also  to  do  the  enemy  as  much 
harm  as  possible  en  route."  His  army  was  to  move  on  10 
April,  in  three  columns  of  25,000  each,  with  his  cavalry  un- 
der Kilpatrick  aiming  direct  for  Weldon  until  it  had  crossed 
the  Tar,  the  general  point  of  concentration  being  Warrenton, 
]Sr.  C.  But  the  whole  plan  w\as  suddenly  changed  by  the  news 
of  the  fall  of  Pichmond  and  Petersburg,  which  reached  him 
at  Goldsboro  on  6  April.  Inferring  that  Lee  would  succeed 
in  making  junction  with  Johnston,  with  a  fraction  of  his 
army  at  least,  somewhere  in  his  front,  he  prepared  on  the  day 
he  had  appointed   (10  April)   to  leave  Goldsboro  to  move 

Baker's  Command  at  Weldon.  271 

straight  on  Raleigh,  which  place  he  reached  on  13  April,  and 
found  that  Johnston  had  moved  further  on. 

Let  us  now  leave  Sherman  at  lialeigh,  and  go  back  to  the 
little  force  at  Weldon.  And  in  the  outset,  I  take  pleasure  in 
acknowledging  my  indehtedness  for  much  I  shall  now  recount 
to  mv  old  cominander,  Captain  L.  li.  Webb,  than  whom  a 
truer  soldier  never  drew  sword,  and  who  has  very  kindly  fur- 
nished me  extracts  from  his  diary  kept  during  this  period. 
I  have  also  obtained  valuable  information  from  that  gallant 
soldier,  Hon.  Jas.  C.  MacRae,  then  Assistant  Adjutant-Gen- 
eral on  General  Baker's  staff,  and  since  one  of  the  Supreme 
Court  Judges  of  North  Carolina. 

The  task  imposed  upon  this  small  force,  consisting  of  two 
or  three  hundred  infantry  and  our  battery  numbering  about 
one  hundred  and  twenty-five  men,  was  no  light  one.  For 
weeks  it  had  been  in  a  state  of  constant  activity  and  excite- 
ment, enhanced  towards  the  last  with  continual  suspense  and 
anxiety.  It  had  been  constantly  on  the  move  to  meet  threat- 
ened advances  from  the  directions  of  the  Tar  and  lower  Roan- 
oke, and  the  ChoAvan  and  Blackwater  rivers.  If  I  remember 
aright,  during  the  month  of  March,  it  had  been  sent  upon 
two  expeditions  through  Northampton,  Hertford  and  Bertie 
Counties,  to  repel  reported  raids  of  the  enemy's  cavalry  from 
the  Chowan,  one,  to  and  below  Tarboro  to  meet  a  threatened 
advance  from  the  lower  Tar  and  Roanoke,  and  one,  down  the 
Seaboard  &  Roanoke  Railroad  towards  Franklin,  to  check  a 
cavalry  raid  from  the  Blackwater.  This  last  expedition, 
however,  was  in  April,  the  command  returning  to  camp  there- 
from the  night  of  6  April.  It  was  under  command  of  Colo- 
nel Whitford,  who  had  with  him  not  to  exceed  two  hundred 
infantry,  (about  fifty  of  whom  were  members  of  our  com- 
pany, armed  with  inferior  rifles),  and  two  gi^ins  from  our  bat- 
tery. I  was  with  the  expedition  as  a  cannoneer  of  one  of  the 
guns  of  the  battery.  I  forgot  to  say  that  we  were  conveyed 
down  the  Seaboard  road  upon  two  or  three  flat  cars,  and  pos- 
sibly a  box  car  or  two.  Upon  reaching  Boykin's  Depot, 
about  twenty-five  miles  from  Weldon,  Ave  discovered  that,  all 
beloAv  that  point,  the  enemy  had  torn  up  and  burned  the  track 
so  that  it  Avas  impossible  for  us  to  proceed  further  on  the 

272  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

train.  Disembarking,  we  reconnoitered  the  situation  for  sev- 
eral miles  aronnd  and  remained  there  until  next  morning, 
when  hearing  that  the  enemy  was  making  his  way  in  the 
direction  of  Weldon,  we  boarded  the  train  and  started  back. 
After  passing  Seaboard,  a  small  station  about  ten  miles  east 
of  Weldon,  Colonel  Whitford,  \A-ho  was  riding  on  the  engine, 
saw  one  or  two  men  run  across  the  track  some  six  or  seven 
hundred  yards  ahead.  He  at  once  ordered  the  train  stopped. 
This  precaution  was  not  taken  any  too  soon ;  for  as  soon  as 
some  of  the  infantry  were  put  off  as  skirmishers  and  the  sit- 
uation was  'taken  in,  it  was  discovered  that  the  track  for  some 
distance  just  ahead  of  us  was  torn  up  and  that  the  enemy  had 
ambuscaded  both  sides.  We  had  passed  Seaboard  about  a 
mile.  As  soon  as  the  train  was  stopped  the  enemy  opened 
fire  upon  us.  Colonel  Whitford  caused  the  train  to  be  run 
back  to  Seaboard,  where  the  remainder  of  the  command  was 
put  in  position  to  await  the  return  of  the  skirmishers,  who 
were  ordered  to  fall  back  as  soon  as  they  could  ascertain  with 
some  certainty  the  force  and  purpose  of  the  enemy.  They 
soon  reported  that  the  enemy,  consisting  of  a  regiment  of  cav- 
alry, had  retired  in  the  direction  of  Jackson,  which  was  dis- 
tant some  eight  miles  in  a  southeast  direction  from  where  we 
were  and  away  from  Weldon.  Colonel  Whitford  concluded 
to  follow  on  after  them,  but  I  suspect  with  no  hearty  desire 
to  meet  up  with  them,  for  he  could  but  know  that  our  force 
was  not  able  to  cope  successfully  with  a  full  regiment.  Upon 
reaching  Jackson,  we  learned  there  that  the  regiment  was  the 
Third  Xew  York  Cavalry,  about  six  hundred  strong,  well 
mounted  and  thoroughly  equipped  with  Spencer  repeating 
carbines,  and  had  passed  through  that  town  some  hours  be- 
fore, and  then  must  be  near  Murfreesboro,  some  twenty-five 
miles  distant.  After  waiting  several  hours  at  Jackson,  our 
guns  were  ordered  back  overland  to  Weldon,  while  the  in- 
fantry under  Colonel  Whitford's  command  retired  to  Hali- 
fax. I  shall  always  remember  with  pleasure  one  little  inci- 
dent connected  with  this  affair.  Several  weeks  before,  as  we 
had  more  men  than  were  required  or  needed  to  man  the  guns, 
about  sixty  of  our  company  had  been  armed  with  rifles  and 
acted  with  the  infantrv.      When  the  train  was  halted  and  skir- 

Baker's  Command  at  Weldon.  273 

mishers  throAvn  off,  I  was  anxious  to  join  them  and  endeav- 
ored to  get  one  of  tlie  riflemen  to  exchange  pLaees  with  me.  I 
kneAv  he  was  disaffected  and  it  occurred  to  me  that  he  would 
not  hesitate  to  shirk  danger ;  l)ut  I  reckoned  without  ray  host. 
He  rejected  the  overture  with  some  indignation,  and  re- 
marked that  if  anybody  had  to  use  his  rifle  he  proposed  to  do 
it  himself ;  and  I  ascertained  that  he  behaved  as  gallantly  as 
any  man.  This  but  illustrates  that  it  was  not  cowardice  that 
caused  a  great  many  of  our  soldiers  to  waver  in  their  allegi- 
ance towards  the  close  of  the  war,  l)ut  the  terrible  hardships 
to  which  they  were  subjected,  the  distressing  accounts  of  suf- 
fering of  their  loved  ones  at  home,  and  the  intuitive  knowl- 
edge that  defeat  was  inevitable.  I  remember  with  sadness, 
without  any  feeling  of  censure,  many  instances  of  desertion 
of  as  brave  men  as  ever  marched  to  the  tap  of  a  drum. 

On  7  April,  about  5  o'clock  p.  m.,  a  telegram  was  received 
by  Captain  Webb,  avIio  was  in  command,  from  General  John- 
ston, ordering  that  all  trains  north  of  the  Koanoke  river  be 
recalled  at  once,  all  the  artillery  that  could  be  moved  got  on 
the  south  side,  and  such  heavy  guns  in  the  defences  north  of 
the  river  as  could  not  be  moved  be  destroyed,  and  tlie  railroad 
bridge  burned.  Steps  were  at  once  taken  to  execute  the  or- 
der, and  by  hard  service  all  night,  the  next  morning  (Satur- 
day, 8th )  found  everything  in  the  shape  of  guns,  ordnance, 
quartermaster  and  commissary  stores,  removed  from  the  north 
side  of  the  river  and  delivered  in  Weldon,  and  combustibles 
at  once  gathered  and  ])laced  at  each  end  of  the  railroad  bridge 
to  fire  it  as  soon  as  all  the  trains  were  safely  over.  The 
bridge,  however,  was  not  fired  tliat  day,  why,  I  will  let  Cap- 
tain Weill)  speak.  T  quote  from  his  diary:  "General  Baker 
came  up  about  10  o'clock  a.  m.  and  ordered  me  with  my  bat- 
tery and  Williams'  section  of  artillery  across  the  river  again. 
Upon  getting  my  battery  over  the  river  I  put  my  guns  in  posi- 
tion along  the  old  line  as  I  thought  best,  and  awaited  ulterior 
orders  from  lieadquarters.  My  only  support  were  the  feeble 
remains  of  a  company  of  so-called  cavalry  under  Captain 
Strange.  In  all  the  twenty  men  of  his  command,  there  was 
not  a  single  man  or  officer  decently  mounted.  With  my  old 
fiery  Bucephalus,  ''Duncan,"  I  could  have  charged  and  over- 

274  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

turned  every  skeleton  of  a  horse  in  his  company.  But  the  men 
were  all  true  ''Tar  Heels,"  and  there  was  no  braver  man  than 
Captain  Strange.  On  the  afternoon  of  the  10th,  the  artillery 
was  ordered  back  to  the  south  side,  and  preparations  made  to 
leave  Weldon.  According  to  Captain  Webb,  there  were  then 
at  that  point  about  five  hundred  men,  including  at  least  sev- 
enty-five stragglers,  furlonghed  men,  convalescents  from  the 
hospitals,  and  detailed  men. 

On  the  12th  the  command  to  leave  Weldon  was  given. 
Ca])tain  Webb  was  ordered  to  take  charge  of  the  column  and 
start  towards  Ealeigh,  keeping  as  near  the  railroad  as  possi- 
ble. By  10  o'clock  a.  m.,  the  column  was  well  on  its  way  in 
good  order,  the  objective  being,  if  possible,  to  join  General 
Johnston  at  or  near  lialeigh.  We  marched  about  sixteen 
miles  that  day. 

For  several  days  previous  to  our  departure,  and  even  while 
the  artillery  was  on  the  north  side  of  the  river,  everything  was 
done  to  put  the  force  in  good  marching  condition.  Unfit  and 
worthless  animals  connected  with  the  artillery,  quartermaster 
and  commissary  departments  were  condemned  and  either  sold 
or  given  away.  To  supply  their  places,  squads  of  mounted 
men  were  detailed  to  make  tours  through  the  adjacent  farms 
and  plantations,  to  impress  horses  and  mules.  The  extra 
men  of  the  connnand  were  parcelled  out  and  assigned  to  the 
different  regular  organizations,  and  everything  in  the  way  of 
stores  sent  off  by  rail  up  the  Raleigh  &  Gaston  Railroad.  The 
bridge,  however,  remained  m  statu  quo,  and  was  not  burned 
until  the  night  of  the  13th,  two  days  after  we  had  marched 
away.  One  of  the  duties  imposed  upon  the  men  of  our  bat- 
tery just  before  leaving  Weldon  Avas  the  collection  and  de- 
struction of  boats  along  the  river,  so  that,  upon  the  burning 
of  the  bridge,  communication  with  the  north  side  might  be 
effectually  cut  off.  Perhaps  it  was  a  precautionary  measure 
that  could  have  been  very  safely  dispensed  with ;  and  when  I 
recall  my  own  experience  in  the  performance  of  that  duty,  I 
am  strongly  inclined  to  that  opinion.  In  company  with  a 
mountaineer,  who  knew  nothing  of  boatcraft,  I  w^as  sent  up 
the  river  for  that  purpose.  After  proceeding  about  half  a 
mile  above  the  bridge,  we  came  across  a  boat ;  but  the  owner, 

Baker's  Command  at  Weldon.  275 

who  doubtless  had  taken  the  alarm,  had  hid  the  poles  with 
which  to  propel  it.  Xothing  daunted,  we  improvised  the 
best  we  could,  and  started  down  the  river.  Tempted  by  the 
sight  of  some  fish  upon  a  slide  near  by,  we  essayed  to  cross 
over  and  secure  them,  and  had  almost  reached  the  prize  when 
my  companion's  pole  broke  and  away  we  went  down  the 
rapids.  We  fortunately  passed  the  worst  safely,  and  by  dint 
of  extra  exertion,  reached  the  shore ;  but  for  a  few  moments 
there  were  two  badly  scared  navigators.  The  rest  of  the  trip 
to  the  point  we  were  ordered  to  bring  the  boats,  was  made  by 
swinging  around,  one  of  us  in  the  stern  and  the  other  at  the 
bow  alternately  cat<-liing  hold  of  and  turning  loose  the  bushes 
along  the  bank. 

The  scenes  in  and  around  Weldon  these  few  days  were 
heart-rending.  As  early  as  the  8th,  the  citizens  in  the  coun- 
try around,  especially  on  the  north  side  of  the  river,  became 
panic-stricken,  and  came  crowding  into  the  town,  imagining 
the  direst  calamities  would  befall  them  upon  the  withdrawal 
of  the  troo]3s.  We  could  but  remember  the  kind  and  hospita- 
ble treatment  these  good  and  loyal  people  had  always  extend- 
ed to  Confederate  soldiers,  and  were  deeply  touched  at  their 
distress.  But  some  of  us  who  had  witnessed  similar  scenes 
took  comfort  in  the  thought  that  it  would  not  be  half  as  bad 
as  they  imagined.  1  remember  the  confusion  and  consterna- 
tion in  and  around  my  own  home  upon  hearing  of  the  capture 
of  Koanoke  Island ;  and  yet,  the  storm  of  war  passed  by  with- 
out inflicting  the  grievous  woes  apprehended.  But  Sherman 
and  his  bummers  did  not  pass  that  way. 

By  sunrise  on  the  13th,  we  resumed  our  march  in  a  hard 
rain,  and  with  the  roads  in  a  terrible  condition.  Not  long 
after  starting,  we  began  to  meet  stragglers  making  their  way 
to  our  rear.  Among  the  first  to  attract  our  attention,  was  a 
weary  looking,  foot-sore  and  jaded  young  fellow  in  the  dirty 
and  tattered  uniform  of  a  Lieutenant  of  infantry,  who  told 
us  he  was  going  home,  that  Lee  had  surrendered,  and  what 
was  left  of  his  army  had  been  paroled.  Up  to  this  time,  we 
did  not  know  that  Petersburg  had  been  abandoned,  so  com- 
pletely were  we  isolated  and  cut  off.  Captain  Webb,  who 
was  in  command.  General  Baker  not  yet  having  come  up,  re- 

276  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

fused  to  believe  him,  and  ordered  him  and  some  others  under 
guard  to  accompany  the  command  until  their  story  was  ver- 
ified. But  it  was  not  long  before  all  were  fully  convinced  of 
the  truth  of  their  statements ;  for  the  roads  were  soon  filled 
with  soldiers  returning  from  Lee's  army.  I  shall  never  forget 
the  feeling  that  came  over  me  when  fully  impressed  with  the 
fact  that  Lee  had  surrendered.  LTntil  then  I  had  never  permit- 
ted myself  to  doubt  the  ultimate  success  of  the  Confederacy ; 
and,  as  to  the  Army  of  Xorthern  Virginia,  I  believed  that 
under  "Marse  Robert,"  it  was  simply  invincible.  I  appre- 
hend that  this  feeling  was  shared  by  most  of  the  Confederate 
soldiers,  hence  their  endurance,  courage  and  devotion  under 
the  sorest  trials  and  in  the  darkest  hours  of  the  cause.  With 
Lee's  surrender,  all  hope  fled,  and  thereafter,  obedience  and 
the  discharge  of  duty  were  purely  mechanical.  Swift  upon 
the  heels  of  the  news  of  this  terrible  disaster,  and  on  the  even- 
ing of  the  same  day,  came  the  rumor  that  Sherman  was  in  pos- 
session of  Raleigh,  and  that  Johnston  was  retiring  before  him 
tOAvards  Greensboro.  Madame  Rumor  was  not  a  lying  jade 
that  time.  About  nightfall,  weary  and  hungry,  depressed 
with  the  gloomy  outlook,  and  after  a  hard  day's  work,  we 
halted  and  went  into  camp  near  Warrenton  Junction.  Gen- 
eral Baker  had  not  yet  come  up,  and  Captain  Webb  was  in 
much  doubt  as  to  Avhat  course  to  pursue. 

Let  me  narrate  the  events  of  the  succeeding  day  in  the 
words  of  Captain  Webb  himself.      I  quote  from  his  diary : 

"Friday,  14  April:  About  daylight  this  morning,  the 
bugle  sounded  reveille,  and  as  soon  as  the  weary  men  could 
be  got  in  line,  and  the  horses  hitched,  without  breakfast,  we 
started  for  the  Junction,  about  four  miles  distant,  intending 
to  feed  at  that  place.  I  pressed  on  ahead  of  the  column,  to 
see  if  I  could  hear  anything  of  General  Baker,  and  at  that 
early  hour  T  found  the  road  filled  with  stragglers,  all  reiter- 
ating and  confirming  the  news  of  yesterday.  TsTothing  could 
be  heard  of  the  General.  The  column  came  up  in  about  an 
hour  and  halted,  horses  fed,  and  men  got  breakfast.  About 
the  time  we  were  ready  to  move  again,  a  solitary  horseman 
rode  up  to  the  depot,  in  whom  I  recognized  Brigadier-General 
M.  W.  Ransom.    He  dismounted  and  hitched  his  horse,  while 

Baker's  Command  at  Weldon.  277 

I  Avent  forward  to  meet  him.  He  confirmed  the  report  of  Gen- 
eral Lee's  surrender,  having  himself  been  there  and  witnessed 
it.  I  told  of  my  situation,  the  reported  occupation  of  Ral- 
eigh by  Sherman,  and  that,  surrounded  by  the  enemy  as  I 
was,  I  hardly  knew  what  to  do  with  the  stores  and  men  under 
my  charge.  He  replied  that  he  knew  nothing  of  Sherman's 
position,  but  hardly  thought  he  was  in  Raleigh,  that,  being  a 
paroled  soldier,  he  could  not  give  me  any  advice  in  the  prem- 
ises; but  that  his  lu'other,  Major-General  Robert  Ransom,  was 
at  his  house  only  about  four  miles  away,  and,  as  he  was  not 
paroled,  I  could  consult  him.  This  I  concluded  to  do,  and 
countermanding  the  order  to  resume  the  march,  we  mounted 
and  rode  off.  We  found  General  Robert  Ransom  at  his 
house.  He  was  home  on  sick  furlough,  and  I  entered  at  once 
into  the  matter  which  had  l^rought  me  to  his  presence.  Gen- 
eral Matt  was  present,  but  took  no  part  in  the  discussion. 
After  some  reflection,  General  Robert  remarked  that  under 
the  circumstances  he  could  see  no  good  in  holding  out  longer, 
explained  the  difficulties  of  reaching  Johnston  if  Sherman 
occupied  Raleigh,  and  that  he  thought  it  best  to  remain  where 
I  was,  and  send  a  flag  of  truce  to  Sherman  at  Raleigh,  offer- 
ing to  surrender  upon  the  same  terms  accorded  Lee's  army. 
At  the  conclusion  of  General  Robert's  remarks.  General  Matt, 
forgetful  of  the  fact  that  he  was  paroled  and  could  give  no 
advice,  sprang  to  his  feet,  and  exclaimed  with  flashing  eye 
and  extended  arm,  "Xever,  under  no  consideration  surrender 
until  there  is  a  force  in  your  front  sufficient  to  compel  it. 
But  Avhat  am  I  doing.  I  am  a  paroled  prisoner  and  have  no 
right  to  speak  in  this  manner,"  and  walked  out  of  the  room. 
There  was  that  in  his  manner,  looks,  and  ringing  tones,  which 
settled  the  question  for  me.  Bidding  both  "Good-bye,"  I 
mounted  my  horse  and  rode  back  to  Warrenton  Junction. 
L'pon  arriving  there  I  found  a  considerable  number  of  the 
men  in  a  state  of  disquietude  and  disorder,  amounting  to  al- 
most total  demoralization.  They  had  broken  into  one  of  the 
cars  containing  supplies  of  food,  were  wantonly  wasting  the 
supplies,  and  were  preparing  to  break  open  other  cars.  Spring- 
ing from  my  horse  and  making  my  way  to  them,  calling  my 
bugler  as  T  went,  I  had  him  sound  the  assemblv  and  told  them 

278  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

to  fall  in  with  their  several  commands  at  once.  The  better 
and  nobler  instincts  of  good  soldiers  coming  to  their  assist- 
ance, they  soon  quieted  down  and  readily  fell  into  line.  I 
then  addressed  them  as  best  I  could,  told  them  all  the  news  I 
could  learn,  of  my  conference  wdtli  the  generals,  that  we  had 
food  enough  for  a  week  at  least,  and  in  that  time  I  felt  sure 
something  would  be  done,  either  by  the  arrival  of  General 
Baker  or  in  some  other  way,  which  would  enable  us  either  to 
continue  or  close  our  services  as  Confederate  soldiers  in  an 
honorable  way.  That  I  proposed  now  to  move  on  to  Ridge- 
way,  halt  and  call  a  council  of  officers ;  and  urged  them  to  be 
men  a  little  longer  and  trust  me,  and  I  would  do  for  them  the 
best  I  could.  My  emotions  choked  my  utterance,  many  of 
the  men  wept  with  me,  and  all  promised  implicit  obedience 
to  my  orders.  The  column  was  soon  formed  and  marched  to 
Eidgewny,  where  we  arrived  about  noon.  Hastily  calling 
the  officers  together  for  consultation,  we  concluded  to  send  an 
engine  and  tender  up  the  road  as  near  Raleigh  as  possible  and 
ascertain,  if  we  could,  whether  Sherman  was  there  or  not. 
An  engine  on  the  track  already  fired  up  was  seized,  and  as 
many  men  armed  with  Enfield  rifles  as  could  be  were  put 
aboard  and  in  the  charge  of  Lieutenant  Blount,  of  the  Tenth 
N"orth- Carolina  Troops,  with  orders  to  go  as  near  Raleigh  as 
he  deemed  safe,  and  if  he  found  the  enemy  in  occupation  to 
return  with  the  best  speed  possible,  burning  the  most  impor- 
tant bridge  on  the  road  in  his  rear.  The  engine  was  about  to 
move  off,  when  the  president  of  the  road  (Dr.  W.  J.  Hawkins) 
w^ho  lived  here,  stepped  up  and,  in  an  authoritative  tone,  or- 
dered the  men  off  and  the  engine  not  to  move  an  inch.  I  re- 
newed my  former  order,  which  the  president  again  forbade, 
denying  my  authority  to  impress  his  rolling  stock  in  such  ser- 
vice. Remonstrances  proving  unavailing,  I  directed  a  Ser- 
geant with  a  file  of  men  to  remove  him  into  the  railroad  office 
and  keep  him  under  guard,  which  being  done  the  engine 
moved  off  up  the  road.  In  the  consultation  with  the  officers  it 
was  decided  that  if  upon  the  return  of  Lieutenant  Blount, 
General  Baker  had  not  come  up  or  been  heard  from,  another 
meeting  should  be  called  for  definite  action.  At  5  p.  m.,  news 
came  that  General  Baker  and  staff  were  comins:,  and  about  6 

Baker's  Command  at  Weldon.  279 

p.  m.,  they  rode  up.  Upon  his  arrival  the  president  of  the  road 
was  set  at  liberty  and  he  at  once  made  complaint  to  the  gen- 
eral, but  he  endorsed  all  I  had  done,  and  then  saying  he  would 
make  his  headquarters  with  the  president,  they  rode  off  to- 
gether. Soon  after  he  called  a  council  of  the  officers,  from 
which  I  returned  about  9 :30  p.  m.  With  few  dissenting 
votes,  it  was  decided  to  send  a  flag  of  truce  to  Sherman,  ten- 
dering our  surrender  upon  the  same  terms  allowed  Lee's 
army.  Lieutenant  Blount  had  returned  about  8  p.  m.,  re- 
porting that  he  had  gone  within  twelve  miles  of  Raleigh  and 
gotten  what  he  deemed  reliable  information  that  Sherman 
was  in  possession  of  the  city.  On  his  return,  in  obedience 
to  orders,  he  had  burned  the  railroad  bridge  over  Cedar 

On  the  morning  of  the  15th,  the  General  announced  an 
entirely  different  programme  from  that  determined  upon  the 
evening  before.  That  now  announced  was  to  abandon  the  ar- 
tillery and  all  except  absolutely  necessary  supplies,  and  with 
the  whole  command  in  as  light  order  as  possible,  mounted  on 
artillery  horses  and  transportation  animals,  as  far  as  could 
be  done,  and  armed  as  best  we  could,  try  to  get  to  Johnston  by 
passing  around  Sherman's  rear.  This  change  met  with  wide 
spread  dissatisfaction,  Imt  nothing  further  was  done  that 

On  the  IGth  (Sunday),  the  General  was  urged  by  some  of 
his  officers  to  carry  out  at  once  the  plan  originally  decided 
upon,  to  surrender;  for  they  were  satisfied  they  could  not 
control  their  men  longer.  He  promised  to  take  the  matter 
under  consideration  and  announce  his  final  decision  at  an  as- 
sembly of  all  the  forces  that  evening.  The  plan  finally 
adopted  was  to  try  and  cut  his  way  through  to  Johnston  with 
all  who  would  volunteer  to  follow  him,  the  others  to  disband 
and  go  home  as  best  they  could.  About  fifty  volunteered,  of 
whom  nineteen  were  from  our  battery.  These  fifty  were  au- 
thorized to  be  mounted  on  government  horses  and  armed  with 
Enfield  rifles.  This  was  done,  and  at  midnight  they  took  up 
their  march. 

The  next  morning,  having  been  up  all  night,  Ave  pre- 
sented auA^thing  but  a  martial  appearance ;  and,  if  the  truth 

280  North  Carolina  Troops.  1861-'65. 

musr  be  told,  our  enthusiasm  was  at  a  low  ebb ;  for  we  were 
pretty  well  satisfied  that  ours  was  a  "wild  goose  chase." 
JSTothing  but  a  sense  of  duty,  and  a  reluctance  to  turn  back  as 
long  as  we  were  called  upon  to  go  forward,  carried  us  on. 
For  two  days  we  wandered  on  over  the  hills  and  through  the 
woods  of  Franklin,  Johnston  and  Wake  Counties.  On  one 
of  these  days  we  passed  through  Louisburg,  worn  out  and 
hungry.  The  good  citizens  of  the  town  received  us  enthu- 
siastically and  treated  us  most  hospitably.  It  must  have 
been  an  amusing  sight  to  see  us  straggling  through  the  streets 
with  flowers  in  one  hand  and  something  to  eat  in  the  other. 
It  made  a  deep  impression  on  me  at  the  time,  and  I  shall 
never  forget  the  scene. 

About  sundown  on  the  18th  we  reached  Earpsboro  and 
halted.  There  the  General  informed  us  that  he  had  relia- 
ble information  that  Johnston  had  surrendered,  and  he  had 
determined  to  send  in  a  flag  of  truce  to  Raleigh,  tendering  his 

On  the  next  day,  having  recrossed  the  Tar  river  and  coun- 
termarched several  miles,  we  started  the  flag,  the  officer  in 
charge  bearing  the  following  letter: 

"IIeadQuaktehs  Second  Military  District^  JST.  C, 

"Nasii  County,  K  C,  19  April,  1865. 

^'Major-General  W.  T.  Sherman,  Commanding  United  States 
Forces,  Raleigh,  N.  C. : 

"General: — Finding  that  General  Johnston  has  surren- 
dered his  army,  of  which  my  command  forms  a  part,  I  have 
the  honor  to  surrender  my  command,  with  a  request  that  the 
same  terms  be  allowed  me  as  were  allowed  General  Johnston's 
army.  I  have  the  honor  to  be  very  respectfully, 
"Your  obedient  servant, 

"L.  S.  Baker, 
"Brigadier-General,   C.   S.   A." 

A  rumor  reached  us  to-night  that  President  Lincoln  had 
I)een  assassinated. 

About  5  o'clock  p.  m.,  on  the  20th,  our  flag  returned  with 
a  letter  from  General  Sherman  to  General  Baker,  stating 
that  General  Johnston  had  not  surrendered,  but  that  terms 

Baker's  Command  at  Weldon.  281 

had  been  agreed  upon  between  them  for  a  cessation  of  hos- 
tilities and  the  restoration  of  peace.  Accompanying  the  let- 
ter was  a  copy  of  the  agreement.  The  letter  gave  General 
Baker  the  right  to  disband  his  force  under  the  terms  granted 
Lee's  army. 

The  general,  deeming  it  best  to  accept  these  terms,  issued 
the  following  order: 

"Headquarters    Second   Military   District, 
"Department  N^orth  Carolina,  Blnn^s  House, 

April  20,  1865. 
General  Order  No.  25. 

"The  Brigadier-General  commanding,  announces  to  the 
officers  and  men  who  have  remained  with  him,  that  the  two 
grand  armies  of  the  Confederate  States  having  been  com- 
pelled to  make  terms  with  the  enemy,  it  has  become  necessary 
that  he  should  disband  his  command. 

"The  officers  and  men  will  be  allowed  to  return  to  their 
homes,  where  they  will  remain  peaceably  and  quietly,  until 
called  forth  again  by  the  proper  authorities. 

"He  offers  his  profound  thanks  to  those  who  have  remained 
with  him  to  the  last.  Though  their  labors  have  not  been  met 
with  present  success,  they  will  carry  with  them  the  proud  con- 
sciousness of  having  done  their  whole  duty  to  their  country, 
and  of  having  laid  down  their  arms  only,  when  they  could 
be  of  no  further  service  to  the  cause  to  which  their  lives  were 
so  freely  devoted. 

"With  the  kindest  wishes  for  their  future  welfare,  he  bids 
them  farewell. 

"By  order  of  Brigadier-General  Baker. 

"J.  C.  MacEae,  a.  a.  G." 

And  one  similar  to  the  following  to  each  commanding  of- 
ficer in  the  force,  to-wit. : 

"Captain  Lewis  H.  Webb,  Company  A,  Thirteenth  Battalion 
North  Carolina  Artillery : 
"Captain: — You  will  please  present  the   thanks  of  the 
Brigadier-General  commanding,  to  the  following  named  of- 
ficers and  men  of  your  company,  who  have  courageously  re- 

282  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

mained  at  the  post  until  the  last  moment,  and  who  have  not 
feared  to  trust  their  safety  to  him  in  the  hour  of  adversity. 
He  has  done  all  he  can  for  these  brave  men,  and  only  surren- 
ders them  when  it  would  he  folly  and  madness  to  continue 
longer  in  arms : 

Captain  L.  H.  Webb,  First  Lieutenant  H.  R.  Home,  Ser- 
geant T.  Gr.  Skinner;  Sergeant  J.  G.  Latham;  Corporal  L. 
W.  McMullen ;  Privates  James  M.  Mullen,  Alphonso  White, 
Peter  McMillan,  A.  J.  Baker,  J.  A.  Jacocks,  Daniel  Morri- 
son, Nathaniel  Hathaway,  Richard  Bogue,  Walter  J.  Webb, 
Charles  Barber,  Thomas  H.  Snowden,  Wm.  H.  Whedbee,  R. 
W.  Happer  and  George  W.  Fentress. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be  very  respectfully. 
Your  obedient  servant, 

'•Jas  C.  MacRae.  a.  a.  G." 

The  men  Xvere  each  furnished  with  the  following: 

"Headquaetees  Second.  Mil.  Dist.  Dep't.  N.  C. 

''Bunn's  House,  April  20,  1865. 
"In   accordance  Avith   an   agreement  with   Major-General 
Sherman,  commanding  United  States  forces  in  North  Caro- 
lina, Private ,  Company  A,  Thirteenth  Battalion 

North  Carolina  Artillery,  is  permitted  to  go  to  his  home,  and 
there  quietly  remain,  takin"'  with  him  one  horse,  his  private 
property.  L.  S.  Baker, 


In  passing,  let  me  say  that  the  horse  was  the  best  pay  I 
ever  received  from  the  Confederacy,  and  he  proved  a  most 
valuable  acquisition.  Early  the  next  morning  (Friday,  21 
April)  we  turned  our  faces  homeward,  feeling  as  if  a  heavy 
weight  had  been  lifted  off  our  shbulders,  and  believed  that  the 
suspense  was  over.  Captain  Webb,  who  was  going  to  join  his 
wife  on  the  Blackwater,  accompanied  the  Perquimans  County 
boys  until  just  before  reaching  Halifax,  when  Captain  Webb, 
Wm.  H.  Whedbee  and  I  pushed  on  ahead.  T  quote  again 
from  the  Captain's  diary:  "On  Sunday,  23  April,  at  Mar- 
tin's cross  roads,  Northampton  County,  N.  C,  T  parted  from 
Mullen  and  "Wliedbee,  the  last  two  of  my  company,  to 'remain 
with  me." 

Baker's  Command  at  Weldon.  283 

I  have  but  little  more  to  add.  After  leaving  Captain 
Webb,  Whedbee  and  I  pushed  on  to  Murfreesboro.  Reach- 
ing there  we  found  the  ferry  had  been  destroyed,  and  we  were 
compelled  to  cross  the  Meherrin  river  in  a  small  canoe,  swim- 
ming our  horses.  Our  nearest  route  home  from  Murfrees- 
boro would  have  been  to  cross  the  Chowan  at  Winton,  but  the 
citizens  of  Murfreesboro  informed  us  that  at  Winton  were 
several  Federal  gunboats.  We  did  not  know  how  we  might 
be  received  by  the  enemy,  so  deemed  it  the  wiser  course  to 
abandon  that  route  and  cross  the  Chowan  at  a  ferry  higher  up. 
This  we  did,  but  there  we  met  with  the  same  luck  as  at  the 
Meherrin — had  to  cross  in  a  small  boat  ourselves,  and  swim 
our  horses.  Here  a  bit  of  good  luck  befel  us,  not  much,  but 
we  Avere  thankful  for  small  favors.  We  met  up  with  a  gen- 
tleman who  had  a  sulky  which  he  wanted  to  get  to  the  town 
(Hertford)  in  which  I  lived.  It  must  be  borne  in  mind,  we 
were  not  cavalrymen,  and  yet  we  had  been  in  the  saddle  seven 
or  eight  days  on  the  go  all  the  time,  were  completely  worn 
out,  and  had  still  before  us  about  sixty  miles  to  travel  before 
reaching  our  homes.  We  gladly  availed  ourselves  of  this  op- 
j)ortunity  to  change  our  mode  of  locomotion.  Whedbee  and 
I  agreed  we  should  ride  "turn  about,"  with  my  first  go.  But 
"all  is  not  gold  that  glitters,"  and  we  are  often  doomed  "to  see 
our  fondest  hopes  decay."  I  had  hardly  started  before  the 
fear  of  the  thing  breaking  dowm  took  possession  of  me.  The 
trouble  was,  compared  with  the  vehicles  (caissons  and  gun 
carriages)  I  had  been  used  to  for  three  years,  the  frail  appear- 
ance and  elastic  motion  of  the  sulky  were  alarming.  I  soon 
yielded  the  concern  to  Whedbee,  who  seemed  to  take  it  better. 
This  was  inspiring,  and  when  my  turn  came  around  again  I 
claimed  the  privilege,  and  accustomed  myself  to  its  motions. 
Whedbee.  who  lived  in  the  country,  left  me  when  I  was  sev- 
eral miles  from  home.  He  was  hardly  out  of  sight  when  I 
heard  in  the  direction  I  was  going  the  booming  of  cannon, 
repeated  at  intervals.  It  occurred  to  me  at  once  that  the 
firing  was  from  gunboats  lying  in  the  river  at  Hertford,  and 
out  of  respect  to  President  Lincoln.  This  was  not  very  com- 
forting; for  while  there  was  no  reason  why  I  should  appre- 
hend trouble  or  annoyance,  I  did  not  fancy  facing  the  music 

284  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861 -'65. 

all  alone,  satisfied  as  I  was  of  meeting  in  the  town  sailors  and 
soldiers  from  these  boats.  But  seating  myself  more  firmly  in 
my  novel  vehicle,  drawing  the  reins  of  my  steed  tighter,  and 
mustering  up  courage  for  the  ordeal,  I  dashed  over  the  Vidge 
and  through  the  main  street  of  the  town  in  fine  style.  As  I 
expected,  the  town  was  filled  with  sailors  and  soldiers,  but 
they  gave  me  a  cheer  as  I  passed,  and  shouted,  "there  goes  a 
Johnny  coming  home  in  the  best  style. yet."  I  realized  at 
once  that  ''this  cruel  war  was  over,"  and  these  hearty  greet- 
ings from  quondam  foes  went  a  long  way  towards  reconstruct- 
ing me. 

James  M.  Mullen. 
Petersburg,  Ya,, 

56  April,  1901. 

Note. — The  author  of  the  above  very  interesting  sketch  after  the  war 
located  in  Halifax,  N  C,  becoming  one  of  the  most  prominent  lawyers 
in  the  State.  He  represented  that  county  in  the  State  Senate  Some 
years  since  he  removed  to  Petersburg  where  he  is  now,  and  for  many 
years  has  been.  Judge  of  the  City  Court  —Ed. 


CAPTURE   OF   FORT   HAHBT,    14   nAT,    1565. 

By  R.  Z.  LINNEY,  Private  Co.   A,   Seventh  Regiment,  N.  C.  T. 

All  wars  are  demoralizing.  The  Confederate  and  the  Fed- 
eral armies  in  the  war  of  the  United  States  were  probably 
as  well  disciplined,  and  the  red-eyed  daughters  of  war,  plnn- 
der  and  rapine,  as  well  restrained  as  in  any  war  in  the  world's 
history.  Even  nnder  these  conditions  we  were  not  entirely 
exempt  from  that  demoralization  which  defies  the  most  rigid 
army  discipline. 

In  March,  186.">,  General  Stoneman  left  East  Tennessee, 
moving  by  the  turnpike  leading  from  Taylorsville,  Tenn., 
through  Watauga  County  to  Deep  Gap  on  the  Blue  Ridge. 
On  26  Marcli  he  entered  Boone,  iST.  C,  and  on  the  27th  the 
column  A\as  divided,  one  division  under  General  Stoneman 
marching  towards  Wilkesboro,  vhile  the  other,  under  General 
Gilliam,  crossed  the  Blue  Ridge  at  Blowing  Rock  and  went 
to  Patterson,  in  Caldwell  County,  and  then  joined  Stoneman 
at  Wilkesboro.  l^eaving  Wilkesboro  on  the  31st,  General 
Stoneman  moved  over  into  Surry  County,  going  towards  Mt. 
Airy.  During  the  march  through  this  section  of  the  State, 
Stoneman's  men  committed  many  depredations,  and  after 
leaving  Wilkesboro  a  number  of  the  lawless  element  of  his 
command  deserted.  Shortly  after  this  a  number  of  men, 
some  deserters  from  Stoneman's  command  and  other  worth- 
less characters,  led  by  two  desperate  men,  Wade  and  Sim- 
mons, completely  terrorized  a  large  portion  of  Wilkes  County 
by  their  frequent  raids. 

In  order  to  fully  understand  the  situation,  the  condition  of 
the  country  at  that  time  must  be  taken  into  consideration. 
Almost  every  man  fit  for  military  service  was  in  the  army, 
and  the  country  was  almost  completely  at  the  mercy  of  the 
robbers.  It  was  thought  after  Lee  had  surrendered  and  the 
soldiers  returned  home  that  these  depredations  would  be  dis- 
continned,  but  they  were  not. 

286  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

These  marauders  were  divided  into  two  bands.  One,  led 
by  Simmons,  had  its  headquarters  in  the  Brushy  Mountains, 
and  the  other,  led  by  Wade,  had  its  headquarters  near  the 
Yadkin  river  in  Wilkes  County.  The  bands  at  times  oper- 
ated together,  but  it  is  principally  with  Wade's  band  that 
this  article  is  to  deal.  The  house  which  Wade  had  chosen 
and  fortified  was  situated  near  the  road  which  leads  from 
Wilkesboro  to  Lenoir,  in  Caldwell  County,  and  about  a  mile 
from  Holman's  Ford,  where  the  valley  road  crosses  the  Yad- 
kin river.  The  house  was  situated  on  a  high  hill, .jeommand- 
ing  a  fine  view  of  the  Yadkin  Valley,  and  of  the  valley  roady 
for  a  distance  of  a  mile  above  and  a  mile  below  the  ford.  The " 
house  fronted  the  river  on  the  south  while  the  rear  was  pro- 
tected by  the  'Tlat  Woods"  belt,  in  which  there  were  sympa- 
thizers if  not  aiders  and  abettors  of  the  band.  From  this 
position  the  Yadkin  Valley  and  the  surrounding  country  for 
at  least  half  a  mile  in  every  direction  could  be  swept  and  con- 
trolled by  Wade's  guns.  There  is  a  legend  that  this  point 
was  chosen  by  Daniel  Boone  as  a  splendid  military  post  to 
protect  himself  against  the  Indians.  At  any  rate  it  would 
have  been  almost  impossible  to  have  chosen  a  stronger  loca- 
tion, both  offensive  and  defensive,  than  this.  The  house  Avas 
built  of  oak  logs,  and  was  two  stories  high.  In  the  upper 
story  Wade  had  cut  ])ort  holes  for  his  guns,  which  were  army 
guns  of  the  most  improved  type,  and  could  command  the  ap- 
proaches to  the  house  from  all  directions,  making  it  indeed 
hazardous  to  attempt  to  reach  it.  This  house  belonged  to 
some  dissolute  women  by  the  name  of  Hamby,  and  after 
Wade  had  fortified  it,  the  name  by  which  it  was  known  was 
"Fort  Hamby."  The  exact  number  of  men  engaged  in  these 
depredations  is  unknown,  though  it  has  been  stated  on  good 
authority  to  have  at  no  time  exceeded  thirty. 

Making  this  their  headquarters.  Wade's  force  began  to 
plunder  the  surrounding  country,  and  from  their  cruelty  it 
appears  that  their  object  was  to  gratify  a  spirit  of  revenge  as 
well  as  to  enrich  themselves.  They  marched  as  a  well-drilled 
military  force,  armed  with  the  best  rifles.  It  was  only  a  short 
time  before  they  brought  the  citizens  for  many  miles  around 
in  every  direction  under  their  dominion.    They  plundered  the 

A  Battle  After  the  War.  287 

best  citizens,  subjecting  men  and  women  to  the  grossest  in- 
sults. Their  cruelty  is  shown  by  this  act :  A  Avoman  was  work- 
ing in  a  field  near  Holman's  Ford,  having  a  child  with  her. 
The  child  climbed  on  the  fence  and  the  men  began  to  shoot  at 
it,  and  finally  killed  it.  Emboldened  by  their  success  in  Wilkes 
County,  they  made  a  raid  into  Caldwell  County  on  7  May. 
Major  Harvey  Bingham,  with  about  half  a  dozen  young  men 
from  Caldwell  and  Watauga  Counties,  attempted  to  rout 
these  marauders  from  their  stronghold  at  Fort  Hamby.  On 
Sunday  night  after  their  raid  into  Caldwell,  Major  Bingham 
rnade  a  well-planned  move  on  the  fort,  at  a  late  hour  of  the 
night.  For  some  reason.  Wade  and  his  men  were  not  aware 
of  the  approach  of  Bingham's  men  until  they  had  entered  the 
house.  Wade  and  his  men  announced  their  defenceless  con- 
dition, and  begged  for  their  lives.  Major  Bingham  had  as- 
sured Wade,  who  was  a  deserter  from  General  Stoneman's 
command,  and  who  had  organized  this  band  of  robbers,  that 
his  only  ]mrpose  was  to  compel  them  to  desist  from  any  fur- 
ther robbery  and  insult  u]ion  the  citizens,  and  it  was  agreed 
that  no  violence  was  to  be  done  them,  and  they  were  to  be 
delivered  to  the  military  authorities  at  Salisbury  for  trial. 
This  the  robbers  pretended  to  be  willing  to  submit  to.  No 
guns  were  seen,  and  they  were,  so  Bingham  believed,  his 
prisoners.  They  gave  Wade  and  his  men  time  to  dress,  after 
which,  at  a  moment  when  the  captors  were  off  their  guard, 
they  rushed  to  their  guns,  which  were  concealed  about  their 
beds,  and  opened  fire  on  them.  The  result  was  that  Clark,  a 
son  of  General  Clark,  of  Caldwell  County,  and  Henley,  from 
the  same  county,  were  killed.  The  others  escaped,  leaving 
the  bodies  of  Clark  and  Henley. 

Clark  and  Flenley  were  both  young  men  of  rare  excellence 
of  character.  Major  Bingham  himself  narrowly  escaped 
being  a  victim  of  this  treachery.  The  robbers,  being  encour- 
aged by  the  failure  to  dislodge  them,  began  to  enlarge  the 
territory  wdiich  they  were  to  plunder.  About  a  week  previous 
to  this  Simmons  with  his  band  had  crossed  into  Alexander 
County  and  had  made  a  raid  on  Colonel  McCurdy,  a  well-to- 
do  planter.  They  forced  this  excellent  old  gentleman  to 
lead  them  to  the  place  where  his  money  was  concealed,  but  it 

288  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

was  not  until  tliev  had  tied  him  to  the  limb  of  an  apple  tree 
and  l^egan  to  flay  him  alive  that  he  surrendered  and  led 
them  to  his  hidden  treasure. 

About  this  time  Mr.  W.  C.  Green,  of  Alexander  County, 
who  had  been  a  Lieutenant  in  the  Confederate  Army,  re- 
ceived news  from  a  friend  in  Wilkes  County  that  Wade  had 
planned  to  move  into  Alexander  County  and  make  a  raid  on 
his  father,  Rev.  J.  B.  Green,  and  to  kill  him  (W.  C.  Green) 
if  found,  ^]r.  Green  began  to  fortify  his  house,  barring  all 
the  doors  witli  iron.  They  also  took  five  negroes  into  their 
confidence  and  these  promised  to  assist  in  defending  the  house 
against  Wade.  It  was  found  out  that  they  had  in  the  house 
fire-arms  enough  to  shoot  eighteen  times  without  reloading. 
Weapons  were  also  provided  for  the  negroes. 

Wade  started  across  the  Brushy  Mountains  on  Saturday, 
13  May,  and  reached  Mr.  Green's  that  evening  about  dark. 
Mr.  W.  C.  Green  saw  a  number  of  men  stop  their  horses  in 
the  road  above  the  house,  and  he  concluded  that  they  were 
Wade's  men.  He  notified  his  father,  and  mustered  the  ne- 
groes in  the  dining  hall.  All  the  lights  were  extinguished, 
though  the  moon  was  shining  brightly.  Mr.  J.  B.  Green 
stationed  himself  at  the  front  door,  with  a  revolver  in  one 
hand  and  a  dirk  in  the  other.  Mr.  W.  C.  Green  took  his  posi- 
tion at  a  window  commanding  a  view  of  the  front  gate  and 
porch.  The  negroes  were  stationed  in  the  rear  part  of  the 
house.  Three  men  with  guns  approached  the  house  in  front, 
one  of  them  being  Wade  who  had  on  a  bright  Confederate 
uniform  which  he  always  wore  on  his  raids,  posing  as  a  Con- 
federate soldier  when  necessary  to  gain  admission  into  the 
houses  he  wished  to  plunder.  The  other  members  of  the  com- 
pany' took  another  route  and  surrounded  the  house  from  the 
rear,  though  this  was  not  known  at  the  time.  Wade  pre- 
tended that  they  were  Confederate  soldiers ;  that  they  had 
belonged  to  the  cavalry  and  were  now  on  their  way  home, 
having  been  detained  on  account  of  sickness.  Mr.  J.  B. 
Green  told  him  "he  lied,  that  he  knew  w^ho  he  was,  what  his 
business  was,  and  that  he  could  not  enter  his  house  except 
over  his  dead  body." 

Some  of  the  men  had  by  this  time  come  up  from  the  rear 

A  Battle  After  the  War.  289 

and  were  trying  to  force  an  entrance.  When  this  fact  was 
made  known  to  Mr.  W.  C.  Green  by  one  of  the  negroes,  he 
rushed  to  the  rear,  knocked  out  a  pane  of  glass  and  opened 
fire  on  them,  wounding  one  of  the. men.  This  unexpected 
turn  of  affairs  seemed  to  frighten  them  and  they  all  began  to 
retire.  Mr.  J.  B.  Green  and  Mr.  W.  C.  Green  rushed  into  the 
yard  and  opened  fire  on  them  as  they  retreated,  Wade  and  his 
men  at  the  same  time  returning  the  fire.  They  retreated  so 
rapidly  that  two  of  the  men  left  their  horses. 

It  was  found  out  afterwards  that  five  of  Wade's  men  had 
passed  on  down  the  Cove  Gap  road  to  the  store  of  W.  C.  Lin- 
ney,  where  there  was  some  powder  and  lead,  and  were  w^atch- 
ing  the  store.  A  number  of  old  Confederate  soldiers  had 
visited  W.  C.  Linney  that  night,  and  remained  in  the  store 
with  him,  and  though  it  was  only  about  one  mile  to  Rev.  J.  B. 
Green's,  they  had  no  knowledge  of  what  was  going  on  there, 
nor  of  the  action  of  the  five  desperadoes  who  were  watching 

It  was  Sunday  morning  before  the  news  was  circulated. 
Mr.  W.  C.  Green  went  to  York  Collegiate  Institute  and  in- 
formed several  men,  and  by  10  o'clock  twenty-two  men, 
almost  all  of  them  Confederate  soldiers,  had  gathered,  ready 
to  pursue  the  robbers.  In  this  party  were  several  officers  of 
tlie  Confederate  army  and  they  were  dressed  in  their  uni- 
forms. Colonel  Wash  Sharpe  was  placed  in  command  of  the 
squad  and  they  started  in  pursuit.  The  first  news  from 
Wade  was  A^'hen  they  reached  ''Law's  Gap."  Here  it  was 
found  that  Wade  liad  camped  in  the  Brushy  Mountains  part 
of  the  nigbt  after  the  attack  on  Mr.  Green,  and  about  sunrise 
the  next  morning  had  made  a  raid  on  Mr.  Laws  and  forced 
him  to  give  up  liis  money.  He  informed  the  party  that  two 
of  Wade's  men  were  wounded.  The  pursuers  followed  the 
trail  and  found  that  five  miles  from  Wilkesboro  Wade's  men 
had  left  the  public  road  and  had  taken  a  shorter  route  by  way 
of  Hix's  IMill  and  Holman's  Ford  to  Fort  Hamby.  The  ford 
was  reached  in  the  evening  of  14  May,  and  after  crossing  the 
river,  and  traveling  along  the  public  road  for  about  half  a 
mile,  the  pursuing  party  left  the  public  road  and  followed 

290  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

a  pi'ivate  road  whicli  led  to  a  creek  at  the  base  of  the  hill  on 
which  Hamby  house  stood.  In  the  plan  of  attack,  part  of 
the  company  under  Colonel  G.  W.  Flowers  was  to  approach 
from  the  north  while  the  other  part  under  Captain  Ellis,  was 
to  approach  from  the  south,  and  then  surround  the  house. 
In  the  enthusiasm  of  the  moment  all  seemed  to  forget  the  dan- 
ger. Colonel  Flowei's'  men  had  gotten  within  seventy-five 
yards  and  Captain  Ellis'  men  within  twenty  yards  of  the 
house  wjien  its  defenders  poured  a  voll'ey  of  minie  balls 
through  the  port  holes.  James  Polk  Linney,  only  16  years 
old,  and  Jones  Brown,  about  IS  years  of  age,  were  killed.  As 
the  squad  that  followed  Captain  Ellis  to  the  south  side  of  the 
house  got  within  fifty  yards  of  the  east  end  of  the  house,  W. 
F.  Patterson  and  Burrel  Connolly,  two  Confederate  veterans, 
rushed  up  the  hill  to  the  house,  Patterson  before,  Linney 
next  and  Connolly  next.  When  they  reached  the  house  I 
heard  the  voice  of  my  brother  for  the  last  time,  say :  '^Boys, 
they  are  going  to  shoot."  Immediately  the  gims  of  the  rob- 
bers were  heard  and  Patterson  and  Connolly  rode  away,  while 
Linney  sat  on  his  horse  ar  the  east  end  of  the  house  with  his 
body  bent  as  though  he  were  trying  to  adjust  his  spur.  Soon 
he  went  to  the  ground  still  holding  the  reins  of  his  horse. 
He  was  mortally  wounded  by  a  ininie  ball  passing  through 
his  head,  having  entered  just  below  the  right  eye.  The  rob- 
bers gave  him  no  assistance,  not  even  a  drink  of  water,  until 
Monday  evening,  when  he  died. 

Brown  was  charging  up  the  hill  on  the  west  side  when  he 
was  wounded.  Some  of  the  men  were  compelled  to  jump 
from  their  horses  and  throw  themselves  on  the  ground  in  or- 
der to  esca])e  being  shot  down.  Their  horses  became  fright- 
ened and  breaking  loose  from  them,  ran  to  where  Wade's  men 
had  their  horses.  Tavo  of  these  horses  were  the  ones  captured 
from  Wade  at  Mr.  Green's.  These  men  did  not  recover  their 
horses  at  this  time. 

Under  the  severe  fire  the  men  were  compelled  to  retreat, 
and  when  they  had  retreated  to  a  small  stream,  Brown,  who 
had  been  shot,  fell  from  his  liorse  and  died  in  the  presence  of 
Eev.  L.  P.  Gwaltney,  who  Avas  then  a  boy  about  the  age  of 
Brow]i.      ]\rr.  Gwaltnev  savs: 

A  Battle  After  the  War.  291 

''As  we  were  ap]")roaching  Ilolman's  Ford  the  word  passed 
along  the  line  that  the  honse  standing  on  an  eminence  to  our 
right  was  the  headquarters  of  the  desperate  land  pirates 
whom  we  were  ]mrsuing.  Brown  looking  in  that  direction, 
turned  and  said,  'They  are  going  to  fight,  sure.'  Pointing 
his  finger  towai-d  a  wood  above  the  Hamhv  house,  some 
women  were  plainly  to  be  seen  retreating  into  the  woods, 
^That,'  said  he,  "means  business.'  Then,  taking  his  gun  from 
his  shoulder  and  laying  it  across  his  saddle,  holding  it  and  the 
reins  of  his  horse  with  his  left  hand  and  laying  his  right 
hand  on  the  Imtt  of  his  revolver,  he  rode  silently  on.  After 
crossing  the  Yadkin  river  a  detour  of  perhaps  half  a  mile 
was  ma<le  when  we  found  ourselves  halted  on  the  bank  of  a 
roaring,  rocky  little  stream,  Avliile  our  advance  Avas  slowly 
crossing  the  rougli  and  rapid  stream.  The  sun  was  stooping 
loAv  towards  the  smumits  of  the  Blue  Kidge  in  our  rear, 
Brown  casting  his  eye  over  his  shoulder,  gazed  at  the  beauti- 
ful scene  and  observed,  'What  a  beautiful  Sunday  to  be  en- 
gaged in  work  like  this,  guiding  his  horse  into  the  stream 
and  ere  all  had  landed,  our  advance  had  reached  the  open 
field  and  the  fray  was  on.  As  we  emerged  from  the  thicket 
skirting  the  stream.  Brown  fired  his  gun  towards  the  house. 
James  Linney,  brave,  noble  youth,  was  shot  from  his  horse 
near  the  fatal  den.  Brown  hastily  drawing  his  revolver, 
with  flashing  eye  and  face  aflame,  plunged  forward  to  the 
fray,  only  a  few  leaps  were  taken,  only  twice  did  his  faithful 
revolver  s]ieak  wlien  the  fearful  whack  of  the  enemy's  bullet, 
as  distinctly  heard  as  the  smiting  together  of  the  palms  of  the 
hands,  indicated  some  one  was  struck.  Brown  suddenly 
reined  his  horse,  threw  up  his  right  hand  from  which  his 
smoking  revolver  fell  and  exclaimed,  'I'm  shot,  I'm  killed.' 
The  hope  was  expressed  that  he  was  not  seriously  hurt.  'Ah,' 
he  said,  pointing  to  his  bleeding  leg  from  which  the  blood  was 
flowing  in  a  streain,  'I  shall  be  dead  in  five  minutes.'  Then 
lifting  his  eyes  upward  as  if  in  prayer,  he  cried,  'O,  such  a 
little  time  to  ]>repare  to  die.'  These  were  the  last  words  I 
heard  him  s])cak.  Almost  simultaneous  with  this  we  began 
to  dismount  and  a  confused  retreat  began.  Passing  the  spot 
the  writer  snatched  his  revolver  and  brought  it  away.      Cast- 

292  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'6o. 

ing  my  eye  tOAvard  the  river  I  saw  Brown  still  on  his  horse 
as  he  was  being  assisted  across  by  two  friends.  Ten  paces 
perhaps  from  the  landing  his  horse  reared  and  hurled  the 
dying  man  to  the  ground.  He  arose  to  his  feet,  staggered 
once  or  twice  around  a  small  circle,  and  fell  with  his  face  to 
the  earth.  The  writer  was  among  the  last  recrossing  the 
stream.  Hastening  to  the  spot  where  my  dying  playmate 
lay,  I  dismounted,  gave  my  reins  to  Lansing  Lowrance,  who 
dismounted  and  remained  with  me.  Running  to  my  friend, 
I  raised  him  in  my  arms.  Only  a  few  moments  passed,  hia 
eyes  closed  forever  to  scenes  of  blood,  the  brave  heart  grew 
still,  and  that  noble  spirit  that  no  face  of  earthly  foe  could 
daunt,  passed  bravely,  grandly  into  the  great  beyond." 

The  force  was  now  divided,  part  having  fallen  back  across 
the  creek,  and  part  having  reached  the  pines  east  of  the  build- 
ing. There  Avas  no  chance  to  re-unite,  and  after  waiting  un- 
til dark,  rlie  men  withdrew,  some  reaching  Moravian  Falls 
that  night.  These  met  the  others  at  "Squire"  Hubbard's  next 
morning.  In  retreating  under  the  severe  fire  from  the  fort, 
the  men  were  compelled  to  leave  the  bodies  of  Linney  and 
Brown.    Wade's  men  afterwards  buried  them  near  the  fort. 

These  men  returned  to  Alexander  County  and  raised  a 
large  company,  a  strong  force  having  been  brought  from  Ire- 
dell County  under  the  command  of  Wallace  Sharpe.  On 
Wednesday  the  force  started  towards  Fort  Ilamby.  After 
crossing  Cove's  Gap,  a  courier  was  sent  back  to  Iredell  County 
to  request  Captain  Cowan  to  raise  a  company  and  come  to 
their  assistance ;  also,  another  courier  was  sent  to  Statesville 
to  an  encampment  of  Federal  soldiers  to  inform  them  of  the 
condition  of  things  and  to  ask  their  assistance.  Before 
reaching  Moravian  Falls,  they  received  a  message  from 
Wade  saying,  "Com,e  on ;  I  am  looking  for  you ;  I  can  whip  a 
thousand  of  you."_  It  was  dark  when  Holman's  Ford  was 
reached.  Some  one  in  the  woods  before  the  company  ordered 
them  to  halt.  Thp  men  thought  that  the  order  was  from 
some  of  Wade's  ban,d  and  were  about  to  fire  upon  them,  when 
it  Avas  found  out  that  this  was  a  company  from  Caldwell 
County,  under  the  command  of  Captain  Isaac  Oxford,  on  the 
same  mission.      They  had  encamped  near  the  ford  and  had 

A  Battle  After  the  War.  293 

thrown  out  tlieir  sentinels.  The  two  companies  camped 
together  that  night,  and  next  morning  marched  np  the  river 
and  crossed  at  a  small  ford.  They  came  to  the  house  of  Mr. 
Talbert,  who  lived  on  the  public  road,  and  there  they  found  a 
woman  dying.  She  had  been  shot  the  day  before  by  the  men 
from  the  fort,  while  she  and  her  husband  were  coming  to  the 
ford  in  a  wagon  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  river  from  the  fort 
. — nearly  a  mile  distant. 

Mr.  Talbert  begged  the  men  to  return,  telling  them  that 
Wade  was  expecting  them,  and  had  sent  for  reinforcements. 
He  told  them  that  it  Avas  impossible  to  dislodge  him,  and  to 
make  an  attempt  and  fail  would  make  it  worse  for  the  people. 

Captain  R.  M.  Sharpe,  of  Alexander  County,  assumed 
command  of  both  companies,  numbering  several  hundred 
men.  W.  E.  Gwaltney  was  sent  with  a  small  body  of  men  to 
reach  a  high  hill,  overlooking  a  creek  (Lenoir's  Fork),  and 
to  remain  there  while  all  the  others  marched  around  to  the 
north  and  east  of  the  fort.  Gwaltney's  men  were  to  be  noti- 
fied by  the  firing  of  a  gun,  when  the  main  body  had  reached 
their  position.  One  or  two  men  were  seen  to  escape  from  the 
fort  before  it  could  be  surrounded.  They  were  fired  at,  but 
escaped.  The  supposition  was  that  they  had  gone  to  get  re- 
inforcements from  the  other  band.  The  companies  had  left 
their  encampment  before  day  and  by  daybreak  the  -fort  was 
surrounded,  the  men  being  placed  about  twenty  steps  apart. 
The  soldiers  ke])t  up  the  fire  on  the  fort  during  the  day  and 
night.  Wade's  men  returned  the  fire,  shooting  with  great 
accuracy.  The  soldiers  were  compelled  to  keep  behind  logs 
and  trees,  or  out  of  range  of  the  guns.  It  seemed  impossible 
to  take  the  fort.  ''Some  of  the  bravest  men  were  in  favor  of 
giving  it  up,  while  others  said  death  was  preferable  to  being 
run  over  by  such  devils." 

One  old  veteran,  James  Harvey  Connolly,  was  heard  to  re- 
mark, "Well  my  interest  in  heaven  may  not  be  much,  but 
such  as  it  is  I  wonld  be  willing  to  give  it  all  for  a  piece  of  ar- 
tillery one  hour."  Thursday  morning  just  before  daylight, 
Wallace  Sharpe  and  two  others  approached  a  small  house  near 
the  log  fort,  under  cover  of  the  night,  and  Sharpe  set  fire  to 
it.      Wade  and  his  crowd  begced  for  terms.      Sharpe  in  vig- 

294  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

orous  language,  informed  them  that  the  death  of  our  young 
heroes,  Clarke,  Hcnly,  Lijiney  and  Brown  must  be  avenged. 
As  the  flames  of  this  out  house  began  to  ascend,  all  the  men 
surrounding  the  fort  began  to  rush  up.  Wade  made  a  rush 
towards  the  river,  through  a  body  of  Caldwell  men,  who 
opened  lire  on  him,  but  as  it  was  yet  a  little  dark,  he  escaped. 
Four  men  were  captured.  Beck,  Church,  Lockwood,  and  one 
whose  name  cannot  be  ascertained.  The  flames  which  had 
caught  the  fort  ^.\'ere  extinguished,  and  in  the  house  was 
found  property  of  almost  every  description.  Five  ladies' 
dresses  and  bonnets  had  been  taken  for  the  dissolute  women 
Avlio  occupied  the  house.  About  twenty  horses  were  found 
stabled  near  the  fort.  Some  of  the  property  was  restored  to 
the  owners.  The  men  who  were  captured  plead  for  a  trial 
according  to  the  course  and  ])ractice  of  the  courts.  They  were 
informed  that  they  would  be  disposed  of  as  summarily  as 
they  had  disposed  of  Clark,  Henley,  Brown  and  Linney. 
Stakes  were  put  up,  and  on  the  way  to  the  place  of  execution 
they  were  given  time  to  pray.  They  knelt  down  to  pray, 
but  the  prayer  was,  "O,  men,  spare  us."  Wallace  Sharpe 
replied :  ''Men,  pray  to  God  ;  don't  pray  to  us.  He  alone  can 
save  you."  Cajitain  Sharpe  requested  W.  R.  Gwaltney  to 
pray,  but  he  re]ilied  that  he  never  felt  as  little  like  praying 
in  his  life.  Ca])tain  Isaac  Oxford  said,  'Tf -you  will  hold  my 
gun  1  will  pray;"  but  instead  of  praying  for  the  men,  he 
thanked  God  that  they  were  to  be  brought  to  justice  and  that 
none  of  the  party  had  been  killed.  After  this  Rev.  W.  R. 
Gwaltney  offered  an  earnest  ]irayer  for  them,  and  then  they 
were  shot,  "as  nearly  in  strict  conformity  to  military  usage  as 
these  old  Confederate  soldiers,  under  the  excitement  of  the 
occasion,  could  conform  to." 

After  the  prisoners  were  shot,  the  fort  was  set  on  fire. 
When  the  flames  reached  the  cellar,  the  firing  of  guns  was 
like  a  hot  skirmish.  Wade's  men  had  stored  away  a  great 
many  loaded  guns,  and  a  large  quantity  of  ammunition. 

Wade  was  seen  in  the  vicinity  several  days  after.  He 
claimed  to  have  been  a  ^Major  in  Stonenian's  command  and  a 
native  of  Michigan.  He  said  that  he  had  escaped  to  the  Yad- 
kin river  from  the  fort  and  had  hid  under  the  banks  until 

A  Battle  After  the  War.  295 

night ;  that  in  searching  for  him  the  soldiers  had  frequently 
come  within  six  feet  of  him. 

On  the  way  back  to  Alexander  County  Captain  Cowan, 
from  Iredell,  was  met  with  a  small  body  of  men  on  their  way 
to  Fort  Hamby.  Also  a  company  of  Federal  troops,  then 
stationed  in  Statesville,  were  met  on  their  way  to  the  fort. 
They  were  told  what  had  been  done.  The  Captain  ordered 
three  cheers,  which  the  men  gave  with  a  good  will.  The  bodies 
of  Linney  and  Brown  were  brought  back  home  for  final  burial. 
Though  all  the  desperadoes  were  not  brought  to  justice,  this 
comi^letely  broke  up  their  depredations. 

The  most  startling  thing  about  tlie  Avhole  tragedy  is  this: 
Major  Bingham  attacked  the  robbers  and  lost  two  young 
heroes  eleven  days  before  the  fort  was  taken  and  four  of  the 
robbers  shot.  It  seems  almost  incredible  that  such  a  band 
of  robbers  should  be  permitted  to  plunder  a  county  where 
700  men  able  to  wear  an  helmet,  and  of  sufficient  courage  to 
assail  any  foe,  had  their  homes.  The  writer  inquired  of  Col- 
onel Flowers  a  few  days  since  how  he  was  armed.  ''I  had  a 
small  pistol,"  said  he.  So  had  I.  We  had  no  gims  of' 
any  value  to  use  upon  such  a  fort,  such  a  strong  log  wall.  The 
rifles  of  the  robbers  were  the  very  best  then  used  in  the  Fed- 
eral army.  The  writer  has  one  of  them  taken  from  the  fort 
from  the  robbers  we  shot.  It  shoots  with  accuracy  1000  yards 
and  the  lock  to-day  appears  to  be  as  strong  as  when  first  made. 
The  gun  weighs  ten  pounds.  The  destruction  of  the  band 
of  robbers  was  at  great  sacrifice  indeed.  It  put  an  end  to 
plunder  and  insult  of  our  people,  but  the  loss  of  the  lives  of 
four  of  the  gallant  youths  that  had  survived  the  war  was  a 
dear  price  to  pay  for  it. 

Romulus  Z.  Ltn:s^ey. 

Taylorsville,  N.  C, 

14  May,  1901. 

N.  C.  IN  The  Navy. 


30    APRIL,    1864. 


Albemarle, — Iron-clad  sloop,  two  guns,  Commander  J.  W. 

Netise*, — Iron-clad  sloop,  two  giins.  First  Lieutenant  B.  P. 

W.    F.    LYNCH. 

Noiih  Carolina, — Iron-clad  sloop,  four  guns.  Commander 
W.  L.  Maury. 

Raleigh, — Iron-clad  sloop,  four  guns.  First  Lieutenant  J. 
Pembroke  Jones. 

Arctic, — Floating  battery,  three  guns.  First  Lieutenant  C. 
B.  Poindexter. 

Yaclkin, — Steam  gun-boat,  one  gun,  First  Lieutenant  W. 
A.  Kerr. 

Two  torpedo  boats  at  Wilmington  under  construction. 
(9  Off.  Bee.  Union  and  Confed.  Navies,  809.) 

*Later  the  iVi?  was  commanded  by  Commander  Joseph  Price,  a  na- 
tive North  Carolinian  who  distinguished  himself  in  the  capture  of  the 
Water-Witch  in  Ossabaw  Sound,  3  June,  1864,  for  which  he  received  his 
promotion  to  Commander. — Ed. 

1.     J.  W.JCooke,  Captain. 
3.     John  Newland  Maffitt,  Commander. 

3.  James  Iredell  Waddell,  1st  Lieut  ,  Commandintr  the  "  Shenandoah." 

4.  James  Knight  Wood,  Sailor,  on  Gunboat  ••  North  Carolina." 

5.  Gilbert  Elliott.  Builder  of  the  "  Albemarle.'" 


By  ADAM  TREDWELL,  Acting  Paymaster  N.  C.  Navy,  Assistant 
Paymaster  Confederate  States  Navy. 

The  State  of  Xorth  Carolina,  more  than  a  month  (14  and 
15  April)  before  passing  the  ordinance  of  secession,  took 
possession  of  the  forts  at  Beaufort  and  below  Wilmington 
and  immediately  after  its  passage  began  the  defences  of  her 
inland  sounds  by  the  construction  of  forts  at  Hatteras  and 
Ocraeoke  Inlets,  and  bv  the  purchase  of  several  small  steam- 
ers, which  were  converted  into  gun-boats.  After  the  ordi- 
nance of  secession  was  passed,  her  sons,  who  were  in 
the  United  States  jN'avy,  tendered  their  resignations,  and 
placed  their  services  at  the  disposal  of  their  native  State, 
prominent  among  them  was  William  T.  Muse,  who  was  or- 
dered by  the  Xaval  and  Military  Board,  of  which  Warren 
Winslow  was  Secretary,  to  Xorfolk,  Va.,  to  take  charge  of, 
and  fit  out,  as  gun-boats  at  the  navy  yard  at  N'orfolk,  the 
steamers  purchased  by  the  State. 

The  first  of  them  to  be  placed  in  commission  Avas  the  Whis- 
lov\,  formerly  the  J.  E.  Coffee,  a  side-wheel  steamer,  plying 
between  Xorfolk,  Virginia,  and  the  eastern  shore  of  Vir- 
ginia, under  command  of  Captain  Patrick  McCarrick.  When 
the  Coffee  was  purchased  by  the  State  of  jSTorth  Carolina, 
Captain  McCarrick  was  commissioned  a  Master  in  the  Worth 
Carolina  Xavy,  and  remained  attached  to  her  until  she  was 
Slink  in  Ocraeoke  Inlet  in  November,  1861.  She  mounted 
one  short  32-pounder,  and  was  commanded  by  Lieutenant 
Thomas  M.  Crossan,  formerly  of  the  United  States  ISTavy. 
Acting  under  orders  he  proceeded  to  Pamlico  Sound,  IST.  C. 
Upon  the  outside  of  Hatteras  and  Ocraeoke  Inlets  he  preyed 
on  the  commerce  of  the  Xorth,  and  captured  a  number  of  ves- 
sels loaded  with  difl^erent  kinds  of  merchandise.  Prom  the 
Official  Records  of  the  Union  and  Confederate  Navies,  Series 
i.  Volume  1,  the  names  of  the  following  vessels  are  given: 
Brig  Itasca,  brig  }yiUiam  McGilvery,  schooners  Seawitch, 

300  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'6o. 

Henry  Nutt,  Nathaniel  Chase,  Herbert  Manton,  Transit, 
and  brig  Hannah  Balch.  Mr.  Jas.  W.  McCarrick,  of  ISTor- 
folk,  Va.,  who  was  a  master's  mate  in  the  North  Carolina 
Navy,  attached  to  the  steamer  Winsloic,  says  "that  the  brig 
Hannah  Balch  when  captured,  was  in  charge  of  a  prize  crew, 
commanded  by  Past  Midshipman  Kantz,  now  a  Rear  Ad- 
miral in  the  United  States  Navy.  This  brig  loaded  with 
sugar  and  molasses,  had  been  captured  by  a  Federal  vessel, 
while  attempting  to  enter  harbor  at  Savannah,  Ga.,  and  put 
in  charge  of  the  prize  crew."  The  vessels  captured  were 
sent  to  New  Bern,  N.  C,  where  they  were  condemned  as 
prizes.  The  State  of  North  Carolina  paid  the  officers  and 
crew  of  the  Winsloiv  full  prize  money. 

The  next  steamer  sent  out  was  the  Beaufort,  mounting  one 
long  32-pounder,  commanded  by  Lieutenant  W.  C  Duvall. 
On  9  July  hoisted  ensign,  and  put  the  Beaufort  in  commis- 
sion, after  taking  on  powder  and  other  equipment,  proceeded 
under  orders  to  her  station  in  Pamlico  Sound.  "On  21  July 
when  off  Oregon  Inlet  Lieutenant  Duvall  reports  the  first 
naval  engagement  with  the  Federal  forces.  The  Federal  ves- 
sel was  a  large  three-masted  propeller,  carrying  a  battery  of 
eight  guns,  one  rifle  cannon  forward  and  aft,  working  on 
pivots,  position  taken  by  this  vessel  was  not  over  11/4  miles 
from  the  Beaufort,ivom  where  she  opened  fire  across  a  narrow 
strip  of  land.  Her  shots  were  replied  to  by  the  Beaufort; 
firing  was  kept  up  as  long  as  the  gun  could  be  elevated  suf- 
ficient to  graze  the  sand  hill.  The  enemy  not  fancying  the 
shots,  withdrew  behind  the  high  sand  hills,  where  she  was 
out  of  range.  On  30  July,  came  to  anchor  opposite  Island 
of  Portsmouth." 

The  steamer  Ealeigh  was  next  fitted  out,  mounting  one  32- 
pounder.  July  22  Lieutenant  Commanding  J.  W.  Alexan- 
der was  ordered  to  command  her. 

The  Ellis,  mounting  one  32-pounder,  commanded  by  Com- 
mander W.  T.  Muse,  sailed  from  Norfolk  2  August,  1861, 
arriving  off  Ocracoke  Inlet  the  4th. 

The  capture  of  these  vessels  by  the  Winsloiv  produced  an 
outcry  from  the  commercial  circles  of  the  North,  which  no 
doubt  called  the  attention  of  the  naval  authorities  to  the  ne- 

North  Carolina  Navy.  301 

cessity  of  blocking  tlie  inlets  leading  into  the  North  Carolina 

In  the  early  part  of  the  Summer  of  1861,  the  naval  author- 
ities of  the  North,  seeing  the  advantage  of  taking  possession 
of  these  inland  waters  of  North  Carolina,  commenced  the 
preparation  of  a  naval  expedition,  and  the  work  had  so  far 
progressed  as  to  enable  the  expedition  to  sail  on  26  August. 
The  expedition  consisted  of  the  frigate  Alinnesota,  flagship 
of  Flag  Officer  Stringham;  steam  frigate  Wabash,  steamers 
MonticellOj,  Paivnee  and  Harriet  Lane.  The  army  accom- 
panying this  expedition  was  in  command  of  General  B.  F. 
Butler.  On  the  28th  the  frigates  Cumberland  and  Susque- 
hana  joined  the  fleet,  and  with  the  Wabash,  opened  Are  on 
Fort  Clark,  which  was  abandoned  28  August,  after  standing 
the  bombardment  two  and  a  half  hours,  the  garrison  falling 
back  to  Fort  Hatteras. 

Early  in  the  morning  of  the  28th,  news  reaching  Ocracoke 
Inlet  of  the  attack  on  forts  at  Hatteras,  Commander  Muse 
immediately  made  preparations  for  embarking  the  troops  sta- 
tioned on  the  Island  of  Portsmouth  (being  part  of  Seven- 
teenth Regiment,  N.  C.  T. )  taking  on  his  vessel  Captain 
Sharp's  company.  Remainder  of  the  troops  were  taken  on 
board  of  schooner  in  tow  of  steamer.  The  Ellis  weighed 
anchor  about  11  o'clock  a.  m.  Commander  Muse  proceed- 
ing with  all  dispatch  to  the  assistance  of  the  forts,  arriving 
early  in  the  afternoon  of  the  28th.  After  landing  Captain 
Shai'p's  company,  assisted  in  landing  the  troops  from  the  ves- 
sel, and  ammunition  from  the  Winsloir  just  arrived.  Com- 
mander Muse  having  sent  ashore  all  of  the  ainmunition  he 
could  spare  from  his  ship.  All  of  this  work  was  accom- 
plished under  direct  fire  from  the  Federal  fleet,  without  any 
damage  being  done.  Flag  officer  Barron,  who  was  in  com- 
mand of  the  naval  forces,  arrived  on  the  Winslow.  Imme- 
diately after  his  arrival,  Flag  Officer  Barron  landed,  and 
went  into  Fort  Hatteras,  "when  at  the  request  of  the  com- 
manding officer.  Major  W.  S.  G.  Andrews,  he  assumed  com- 
mand. Colonel  Martin,  of  the  Seventeenth  North  Carolina, 
being  completely  exhausted  from  his  previous  day's  fighting." 

302  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861 -'65. 

See  Flag  Officer  Barron's  report,  Union  and  Confed.  Navies, 
Series  1,  Vol.  6',  page  139. 

During  the  night  of  the  28th,  Lieutenant  W.  H.  ]\[ur- 
daugh,  formerly  of  the  United  States  Navy,  and  Lieutenant 
William  Shar]-),  formerly  of  the  United  States  Navy,  with 
Midshipman  Statford,  of  the  Ellis,  landed  and  went  into  the 
fort  and  took  charge  of  gun  Xo.  8,  which  was  mounted  on  a 
navy  gun  carriage.  Early  in  the  morning  of  the  29th  the 
Federal  fleet  opened  fire  on  the  fort,  and  kept  up  an  inces- 
sant fire,  throwing  9,  10  and  11  inch  shells.  From  the  posi- 
tion taken  by  the  Northern  fleet  the  guns  from  Fort  Hatteras 
were  unable  to  reach  them.  After  standing  the  heavy  fire 
from  the  ship  for  more  than  three  hours,  the  commanding 
officer,  seeing  that  to  hold  out  longer  would  only  entail  heavy 
loss  of  life,  without  his  being  able  to  inflict  any  damage  to 
the  enemy,  wisely  decided  to  surrender,  and  about  noon, 
hoisted  a  white  flag.  In  the  meantime  the  officers  and  men, 
who  succeeded  in  getting  out  of  the  fort,  were  taken  aboard 
the  Wi7isloii',  commanded  by  Commander  Arthur  Sinclair, 
who  had  succeeded  Lieutenant  T.  M.  Crossan,  among  them 
Lieutenant  Murdaugh,  who  had  his  left  arm  shattered  during 
the  bombardment.  After  the  surrender  of  Fort  Hatteras, 
the  Harriet  Lane,  in  attempting  to  cross  the  Inlet,  grounded, 
and  remained  ashore  several  days. 

Flag  Officer  Stringham,  in  his  report.  Union  and  Confed. 
Navies,  Series  1,  Vol  6,  parje  122,  says  "that  General  Butler, 
on  the  steamer  Fanny,  went  into  the  inlet  to  the  rear  of  tlie 
forts  to  take  possesion,  and  about  2:30  p.  m.,  returned  to  the 
flagship,  bringing  with  him  three  senior  officers,  viz. :  Sam- 
uel Barron,  Flag  Officer  C.  S.  N,  commanding  naval  defences 
of  North  Carolina  and  Virginia ;  William  F.  Martin,  Colo- 
nel of  the  Seventh  Regiment  North  Carolina  Volunteers ; 
Major  W.  S.  G.  Andrews,  commanding  Forts  Hatteras  and 
Clark.  The  officers  and  troops  captured  were  carried  North 
on  the  flagship  Minnesota."  See  Commander  Rowan's  let- 
ter to  Warren  Winslow,  Esq.,  Military  Secretary,  same  vol- 
ume at  page  155. 

The  Ellis  returned  to  the  Island  of  Portsmouth,  and 
taking  on  board  the  officers'  wives  and  other  families  sojourn- 

North  Carolina  Navy.  303 

ing  there,  proceeded  to  Washington,  North  Carolina,  arriv- 
ing there  on  the  afternoon  of  the  30th.  The  Winsloir  and 
other  ships  were  ordered  to  New  Bern,  N.  C. 

Flag  Officer  Wm.  F.  Lynch  having  been  ordered  to  com- 
mand the  naval  defences  of  North  Carolina  and  Virginia, 
ordered  Commander  Mnse  to  keep  close  watch  from  the 
mouth  of  the  Pamlico  river.  Similar  orders  were  given  to 
Lieutenant  Commander  "W.  11.  Parker,  commanding  the 
Beaufort,  to  keep  a  lookout  from  the  mouth  of  the  Neuse 
river.  On  29  October  the  Ellis  left  Pamlico  Point  for  New 

On  the  30th  Lieutenant-Commander  J.  W.  Cooke  took 
command  of  the  Ellis,  Commander  Muse  being  ordered  to 
the  command  of  the  naval  station  at  Wilmington,  when  the 
propeller.  Uncle  Ben,  was  fitted  out  as  a  gun-boat,  and  sta- 
tioned inside  of  New  Inlet.  The  Uncle  Ben,  as  I  remember, 
was  turned  over  to  the  Confederate  Government  by  the  State 
of  North  Carolina. 

The  vessels  under  Flag  Officer  Lynch  were  assembled  in 
the  sounds  of  North  Carolina,  where  he  cruised  to  intercept 
any  steamer  that  might  be  found  in  the  sounds. 

"On  the  afternoon  of  1  October,  the  Federal  steamer 
Fanny,  mounting  two  rifled  cannon  and  loaded  with  ammu- 
nition and  supplies  for  the  Federal  forces  at  Loggerhead  In- 
let, was  sighted.  After  an  engagement  Avith  the  Curlew, 
Baleigh  and  Junalusl'i,  lasting  fifty- five  minutes,  the  Fanny 
surrendered."  See  Colonel  Wright's  report.  Union  and  Con- 
fed.  Navies,  iSeries  1,  Vol.  6,  page  218.  This  was  the  first 
naval  success  in  North  Carolina,  and  the  first  capture  made 
of  an  armed  vessel  of  the  enemy. 

I  am  indebted  to  Mr.  Lames  W.  McCarrick,  of  Norfolk, 
who  was  a  master's  mate  in  the  North  Carolina  Navy,  for 
the  following,  in  reference  to  the  saving  of  the  officers  and 
crew  of  the  French  corvette  Proney: 

"On  4  November,  1861,  the  French  Corvette  Proney,  Com- 
mander DeFontanges,  was  wrecked  at  Ocracoke  Inlet.  The 
steamer  ^yinslou',  Master  Patrick  McCarrick,  commanding, 

304  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

went  to  their  assistance,  and  coming  into  Ocracoke  Inlet,  she 
struck  on  the  wreck  of  a  sunken  vessel  and  was  sunk.  The 
officers  and  crew  of  the  Proney  and  'Winslow  were  taken  off 
by  the  Curlew,  Lieutenant-Commander  Thomas  T.  Hunter, 
without  the  loss  of  a  man.  Commander  DeFontanges  and 
his  officers  were  carried  to  jSTorfolk,  where  they  were  cordially 
and  hospitably  received  by  the  naval  officers  and  citizens. 
The  French  Vice  Consul,  Leon  Schisano,  of  TsTorfolk,  Va., 
formally  thanked  Master  McCarriok,  his  officers  and  crew 
for  the  rescue." 

The  land  and  naval  fight  at  Roanoke  Island  took  place  on 
7  and  8  February,  1862,  the  odds  being  greatly  against  the 
Confederate  forces.  The  fleet  under  Commodore  Lynch  was 
composed  of  eight  small  steamers  and  one  schooner,  each 
steamer  being  mounted  with  one  32-pounder  and  the  schooner 
with  two  32-pounders.  The  following  are  the  names  of  the 
vessels:  The  Seabird  (Commodore  Lynch's  flagship),  Lieu- 
tenant-Commanding Patrick  McCarrick;  Curlew,  Lieuten- 
ant-Commander Thomas  T.  Hunter;  Ellis,  Lieutenant-Com- 
mander J.  W.  Cooke;  Appomattox,  Lieutenant-Commander 
C.  C.  Simms ;  Beaufort,  Lieutenant-Commander  W.  H.  Par- 
ker; Raleigh,  Lieutenant-Commander  J.  W.  Alexander; 
Fanny,  Midshipman  Commanding  Taylor ;  Forest,  Lieuten- 
ant-Commanding James  L.  Hoole;  and  the  schooner  Blach 
Warrior,  Lieutenant  Harris.  The  enemy's  fleet  consisted  of 
about  thirty  gun-boats  mounted  with  guns  of  9,  10  and  11- 
inch  calibre.  The  fight  lasted  through  the  entire  day.  All 
of  the  ammunition  of  the  fleet  having  been  exhausted,  at 
night  Commodore  Lynch  called  a  consultation  of  his  officers, 
when  it  was  decided  to  fall  back  to  Elizabeth  City,  which  was 
done  during  the  night,  arriving  there  on  the  morning  of  the 
8th,  when  Commodore  Lynch  sent  express  to  ISTorfolk  for 
more  ammunition,  which  he  received  the  next  day. 

On  the  morning  of  the  10th  the  fleet,  under  Commodore 
Rowan,  "renewed  the  fight  off  Elizabeth  City,  N.  C,  when 
after  a  desperate  resistance  all  of  the  vessels  were  either  cap- 
tured or  sunk,  with  the  exception  of  the  Raleigh  and  Beau- 
fort, which  escaped,  passing  through  the  canal,  arriving  in 

North  Carolina  Navy.  305 

safety  at  Norfolk,  where  they  were  heard  from  again  in  the 
naval  engagement  in  Hampton  Roads  between  the  United 
States  ships  and  the  Confederate  States  iron-clad  Virginia. 
The  Beavfort  at  this  time  was  in  command  of  Lieutenant 
William  Sharp,  who  was  captured  at  the  fall  of  Hatteras,  but 
who  in  the  meantime  had  been  exchanged. 

I  here  append  the  official  reports  of  Flag  Officer  W.  F. 
Lynch  and   Lieutenant-Commander  J.  W.  Cooke. 

Report  of  Flag  Officer  Lyxch^  C.  S.  Navy,  Comaeaxd- 
iNG  Naval  Defences  of  North  Carolixa  and  Virginia. 

{Official  Records  Union  and  Confed.  Navies,  Series  1,  Vol. 
6,  Page,  59 Jf.) 

''Petersburg,  Va.,  18  February,  1862. 

'"Sir  : — I  have  the  honor  to  report  that  the  enemy  on  the 
Tth  instant,  at  10  :30  a.  m.,  made  an  attack  upon  the  squadron 
under  my  command  and  the  battery  at  Pork  Point,  Roanoke 
•Island.  His  force  consisted  of  from  80  to  100  sail,  of  wdiich 
22  heavy  steamers  and  one  tug  constituted  the  attacking  force. 
This  last  division  was  again  subdivided,  one  portion  assailing 
us  and  the  other  the  battery ;  but  whenever  we  approached 
too  near,  the  fire  of  the  whole,  except  two  or  three  close  in- 
shore, would  be  concentrated  upon  us.  As  his  force  was 
overwhelming,  we  commenced  the  action  at  long  range,  but  as 
our  shells  fell  short,  whilst  his  burst  over  and  around  us, 
we  were  eventually  compelled  to  lessen  the  distance. 

"The  fight  lasted  continuously  until  5  p.  m.,  when  the  en- 
emy withdrew  foi-  the  night.  The  soldiers  in  the  battery  sus- 
tained their  position  under  a  terrific  fire  with  a  gallantry 
which  won  our  warmest  admiration.  At  times  the  entire 
battery  would  be  enveloped  in  the  sand  and  dust  thrown  up 
l)y  shot  and  shell,  and  jet  the  casualties  were  only  one  man 
killed  and  three  wounded.  The  earthwork,  however,  was 
very  much  cut  up,  but  doubtless  repaired  during  the  night. 
I  deem  it  proper  to  say  thus  much  of  the  battery,  because,  in 
all  probability,  this  communication  will  reach  you  before  in- 
telligence is  received  from  tlie  appropriate  official  source. 

"Repeatedly  in  the  course  of  the  day  I  feared  that  our 

306  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

little  squadron  of  seven  vessels  would  be  utterly  demolished, 
lont  a  merciful  Providence  preserved  us.  Master-Coimnand- 
:ing  Hoole,  of  the  Forrest,  received  a  wound  in  the  head  which 
"was  at  first  pronounced  serious,  if  not  mortal,  but  1  trust  that 
"this  promising  young  officer,  who  so  bravely  fought  his  ship, 
will  be  spared  to  the  service.  IMidshipman  Camm,  acting 
as  executive  officer  of  the  Ellis,  had  his  left  arm  shot  off,  and 
the  right  arm  of  Seaman  Ely,  of  the  Curlew,  was  fractured. 
These,  with  three  others  slightly  wounded,  constitute  the 
sum  of  our  personal  casualties.  Our  physical  ones  were  seri- 
ous. About  2:30  p.  m.,  a  heavy  shell  perforated  the  deck 
of  the  Curlew,  passed  through  the  magazine,  and,  driving  out 
one  of  the  iron  plates,  of  which  her  bottom  consists,  caused 
her  to  fill  so  rapidly  as  to  make  it  necessary  to  run  toward 
the  shore,  near  which  she  sank.  About  the  same  time  the 
Forrest  was  disabled  by  the  displacement  of  her  propeller. 
We  received  other  injuries  from  shot  and  shell  (one  of  the 
latter  passing  through  the  flagship,  but  above  the  water  line), 
but  none  of  a  serious  character. 

^'Witli  the  exception  of  the  vessels  named,  we  could  have 
been  prepared  for  action  the  ensuing  day,  if  we  only  had 
ammunition,  but  I  had  not  one  charge  of  powder  nor  a  loaded 
shell  remaining,  and  few  of  the  other  vessels  were  better  off. 
In  common  prudence,  I  should,  perhaps,  have  reserved  some 
for  contingencies,  but  the  battery  was  so  sorely  pressed  that 
I  felt  bound  to  annoy  its  assailants  as  much  as  possible. 
During  the  latter  part  of  the  engagement,  when  our  ammuni- 
tion was  nearly  exhausted,  I  sent  to  the  upper  battery  for  a 
suppl}^,  but  ten  charges  were  all  that  could  be  spared. 

'"While  recovering  the  rifled  gun,  and  other  articles  of 
value  from  the  wreck  of  the  Curleir,  I  sent  Lieutenant-Com- 
manding Parker  with  the  Beaufort,  to  the  upper  battery  with 
a  note  for  the  commanding  officer  on  the  island,  informing 
him  of  our  shortness  of  ammunition  and  of  my  intention  to 
proceed  to  Elizabeth  City,  thirty-five  miles  distant,  for  a  sup- 
ply, and  return  immediately. 

"I  felt  sure  that  Pork  Point  Battery  coiild  hold  out,  and 
earnestly  hoped  that,  profiting  by  the  mistake  at  Hatteras, 
the  enemy,  who  had  landed  on  a  point  of  marsh,  would  be  at- 

North  Carolina  Navy.  307 

tacked  and  defeated  during'  the  night.  With  this  conviction 
and  in  this  hope,  with  the  Forrest  in  tow,  I  proceeded  with 
my  little  squadron  to  Elizabeth  City  for  ammunition,  but 
finding  only  a  small  quantity  there,  dispatched  Commander 
Hunter  express  to  JS^orfolk  for  it. 

''There  were  reasons  for  retiring  on  Norfolk,  had  I  known 
that  very  little  ammunition  could  be  procured  at  Elizabeth 
City.  But  even  had  I  known  it,  the  desertion  of  that  town, 
situated  near  the  head  of  the  Dismal  Swamp  Canal,  would 
have  been  unseemly  and  discouraging,  more  particularly  as 
I  had  urged  the  inhabitants  to  defend  it  to  the  last  extremity, 

''In  the  conflict  of  the  Tth  instant  Commander  Hunter, 
Lieutenants-Commanding  Cooke,  Parker  and  Alexander, 
and  Masters-Commanding  McCarrick,  Tayloe,  Hoole  and 
Harris  bravely  sustained  the  credit  of  the  service,  and  the 
other  officers  and  most  of  the  crews  of  the  vessels  were  scarce 
less  zealous  than  their  commanders.  To  Commander  Hunter 
and  Lieutenants-Commanding  Cooke  and  Parker  I  am  par- 
ticularly indebted. 

"Lieutenant-Commanding  Simms  was  absent  on  detached 
service,  and  only  returned  at  the  close  of  the  conflict,  but  ex- 
hibited such  an  eagerness  to  participate  as  to  give  assurance 
that  if  gratified  he  would  have  upheld  his  high  rejmtation. 

"Having  procured  fuel  and  ammunition  sufficient  for  two 
steamers,  I  left  Elizabeth  City  in  the  Seahird,  with  the  Ap- 
poviattox  in  company-,  on  the  9th  instant  for  Poanoke  Island 
with  the  purpose  of  rendering  what  assistance  we  could.  At 
the  mouth  of  the  river  we  met  a  boat,  from  which  we  learned 
that  our  forces  on  the  island  had  capitulated.  We  then  con- 
tinued on  in  the  hope  of  rescuing  the  men  stationed  at  the 
Croatan  floating  battery,  but  were  forced  to  retire  upon  the 
appearance  of  a  division  of  the  enemv's  fleet,  steering  to- 
ward the  river. 

"Immediately  upon  our  return  I  sent  an  express  to  Gen- 
eral Henningsen  and  distributed  the  ammunition  between 
the  Seahird,  Ellis,  Appomattox,  Beaufort,  Fanny  and  the 
schooner  Black  Warrior,  the  gun-boats  forming  in  line  of  bat- 
tle abreast  across  the  river,  a  little  above  the  fort,  and  the 
schooner  moored  parallel  with  and  close  to  the  eastern  shore, 

308  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

opposite  to  Cobb's  Point  Battery,  the  latter  consisting  of 
four  smooth-bore  32-pounders.  The  Curlew  our  largest 
steamer,  had  been  sunk  during  the  engagement  off  Roanoke 
Island;  the  Forrest  was  on  the  ways  in  Elizabeth  City,  un- 
dergoing repairs,  and  the  Raleigh  I  had  the  day  before  sent 
up  the  canal  to  expedite  forwarding  ammunition  from  Nor- 
folk. Shortly  after  daylight  on  the  10th  the  enemy  ap- 
peared in  sight,  and  it  was  reported  by  the  lookout  that  he 
was  landing  troops  below.  I  immediately  went  to  the  bat- 
tery to  arrange  for  its  defence,  and  found  it  ungarrisoned, 
in  charge  of  a  civilian  and  seven  militiamen.  As  the  bat- 
tery was  our  principal  reliance,  and  the  enemy  must  pass  it 
before  reaching  the  gimboats,  I  determined  to  defend  it  in 
person,  and  sent  for  Lieutenant-Commanding  Parker,  of  the 
Beaufort,  to  bring  on  shore  his  ammunition,  officers  and 
crew,  leaving  only  sufficient  of  the  latter  to  take  that  vessel 
up  to  the  canal.  We  at  first  manned  three  of  the  guns  with 
the  aid  of  the  militiamen,  but  they  speedily  deserted,  and  we 
fought  with  only  two  32-pounders.  The  enemy  advanced 
very  boldly  and,  contrary  to  my  expectation,  instead  of  tak- 
ing position  as  he  did  at  Roanoke  Island  for  the  purpose  of 
shelling  out  the  battery,  he  continued  to  press  on ;  in  one 
hour  and  five  minutes  succeeded  in  passing  it,  and,  with  full 
complements  of  men,  closed  upon  our  half-manned  gun-boats. 

''The  commanders  of  the  latter  were  instructed,  when 
their  ammunition  failed,  to  escape  with  their  vessels  if  they 
could ;  if  not,  to  run  into  shoal  water,  destroy  the  signal 
books,  set  fire  to  the  vessels  and  save  their  crews. 

"The  Appomattox  succeeded  in  making  her  escape ;  the 
Seabird  was  sunk  in  the  action ;  the  Ellis  was  overpowered 
and  captured,  and  the  Fanny  ran  aground  and  was  set  on  fire 
by  her  commander,  who  brought  her  crew  safely  ashore. 

"By  the  capture  or  destruction  of  the  gun-boats  the  enemy 
gained  positions  to  enfilade  the  battery  (the  guns  of  which 
could  no  longer  be  brought  to  bear),  bringing  the  magazine 
in  their  line  of  fire,  and  as  further  resistance  would  have 
availed  nothing,  the  town  being  at  their  mercy,  the  guns  of 
the  battery  were  carefully  spiked  and  the  officers  and  men 
deliberatelv  withdrawn. 

North  Caeolina  Navy.  309 

"The  Forrest,  in  obedience  to  my  orders,  was  burned  by 
her  officers  before  leaving  Elizabeth  City ;  the  Ellis  was  cap- 
tured; the  Beaufort,  Raleigh  and  Appomattox  escaped;  the 
Fanny  was  set  on  fire  and  blew  up ;  and  the  flagship  was  sunk, 
so  that  of  our  little  squadron  of  gun-boats,  the  Ellis  (next  to 
the  Forrest  the  most  indifferent  one)  alone  fell  into  the 
hands  of  the  enemy.  Of  casualties,  I  regret  to  say  that 
Acting  Midshipman  Jackson  and  one  seaman  of  the  Ellis, 
and  Seamen  Ballance  and  Bragg,  of  the  Sea  Bird,  w^ere  killed 
and  one  seaman  of  the  Ellis  and  Third  Assistant  Engineer 
Henderson  and  four  seamen  of  the  Sea  Bird  were  wounded. 

"The  officers  exhibited  great  gallantry,  but  were  not  uni- 
versally sustained  by  their  men,  for  some  of  them,  being  raw 
recruits,  shrank  from  a  hand-to-hand  encounter  with  a 
greatly  su]ierior  force.  Until  better  informed,  I  cannot  par- 
ticularize the  conduct  of  the  officers  afloat,  but  will  do  them 
full  justice  in  a  future  communication. 

"Lieutenant-Commanding  Parker,  Acting  Master  John- 
son, and  Acting  Midshipmen  Gardner  and  Mallory  were  with 
me  in  the  battery,  and  by  cool  intrepidity  sustained  the  con- 
fidence I  placed  in  them.  To  Lieutenant-Commanding  Par- 
ker I  am  specially  indebted,  as  well  for  his  brave  deportment 
in  battle  as  for  the  judicious  manner  he  conducted  upward  of 
fifty  officers  and  men  from  Elizabeth  City  to  Norfolk.  Mr. 
Hinrick,  the  ei^'ilian  mIioui  we  found  in  charge  of  the  bat- 
tery, stood  by  us  to  the  last,  and  deserves  to  be  gratefully  re- 

"Wm.  F.  Lynch, 
"Flag  Officer,  Commanding  Naval  Defences  of  North  Caro- 
lina and  Virginia. 

"Hon.  S.  E.  ]\Lallory,  Secretary  of  the  Navy,  Richmond." 

Report  of  Lieutexaxt  Cooke,  C.  S.  Navy,  Commanding 

C.   S.   S.   Eelis. 

(Official  Becords  Union  and  Confed.  Navies,  Series  1,  Vol. 

6,  Page  597..) 

"Waeeenton,  N.  C,  16  April,  1862. 

"Sir: — In  consequence  of  being  wounded  in  my  right  arm, 

and  unable  to  write,  I  have  until  now  deferred  making  out  to 

310  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861 -'65. 

you  my  official  report  of  the  engagements  of  the  8th  (7th)  and 
11th  (10th)  of  February. 

"That  of  the  8th  (7th),  at  Roanoke  IsLqnd,  commenced 
about  10:30  a.  m.,  at  long  range.  At  2  p.  m.,  finding  all  of 
my  ammunition  expended,  I  obtained  your  permission  to  be 
supplied  from  the  Forrest.  As  I  procured  that,  she  had 
dropped  out  of  the  enemy's  range  in  a  crippled  condition.  I 
very  soon  expended  all  that  she  had,  and  soon  after  the  Cur- 
leiv  becoming  disabled  and  in  a  sinking  condition,  I  was 
again  supplied  from  her,  and  renewed  the  attack.  At  about 
4:30  p.  m.,  as  we  were  retiring  from  the  engagement,  the 
firing  having  generally  ceased,  Midshipman  Camm,  the  sec- 
ond in  command,  had  his  left  arm  taken  off  just  below  the 
shoulder  by  a  Parrott  shell.  He  had  fired  bis  eighty-fourth 
round  when  wounded,  and  I  can  not  speak  too  highly  of  this 
efficient  and  meritorious  officer,  who  had  bravely  performed 
his  duty  throughout  the  action.  I  then,  by  your  order,  went 
to  the  assistance  of  the  Curlew  to  remove  ordnance  and  ord* 
nance  stores,  etc.,  to  the  schooner  Blade  Warrior,  for  the  pur- 
pose of  falling  back  to  Elizabeth  City,  where  we  arrived  on 
Saturday  morning,  and  where  we  were  attacked  on  Monday, 
the  11th  f  10th),  by  the  Federal  gun-boats  by  an  overwhelm- 
ing and  overpowering  force.  In  consequence  of  the  width  of 
the  river,  the  enemy  were  enabled  to  run  down  upon  us  with 
his  entire  force,  numbering,  I  think,  fourteen  gun-boats,  any 
one  of  which  was  superior  to  ours,  and  of  a  heavier  metal. 
Being  surrounded  and  boarded  by  two  of  the  enemy's  vessels, 
and  having  made  every  possible  effort  to  resistance,  and  see- 
ing that  further  resistance  was  useless,  I  gave  the  order  to 
blow^  the  vessel  up,  which  was  prevented  liy  one  of  my  negro 
coal  heavers  discovering  it  and  betraying  it  to  the  enemy.  I 
also  gave  the  order  for  the  men  to  save  themselves,  if  possible, 
we  being  very  near  the  shore,  one  of  the  gun's  crew  being 
killed  and  several  wounded.  The  rest  left  the  vessel,  and,  in 
endeavoring  to  make  their  way  to  the  shore.  Midshipman 
Jackson,  the  second  in  command  (who  came  on  board  in  the 
place  of  Mr.  Camm),  was  wounded,  and  died  in  twenty 
hours  on  board  one  of  the  Federal  vessels.      Several  of  the 

North  Carolina  Navy.  311 

men  were  also  wounded  in  the  water,  one,  I  believe,  mortally, 
William  Walker,  ordinary  seaman. 

"Midshipman  Jackson  was  a  meritorious  and  promising 
officer,  and  the  country  has  sustained  a  loss  in  his  death. 

"I  must  here  speak  of  the  efficient  services  of  Mr.  Knight 
(rated  as  fireinan,  but  performing  the  duties  of  boatswain, 
gunner,  and  watch  officer)  ;  Mr.  Mayo,  the  pilot ;  also  Mr. 
Bagley,  the  clerk,  and  the  crew,  all  of  whom  performed  their 
respective  duties  with  promptness  and  efficiency. 

"After  the  surrender,  I  am  sorry  to  say,  that  the  two  negro 
coal  heavers  and  the  steward,  as  also  one  or  two  of  the  men 
from  the  Sea  BWd,  deserted  to  the  enemy,  when  called  upon 
in  my  presence  to  take  their  parole. 

"Very  respectfullv,  vour  obedient  servant, 

"J.  W.  Cooke, 
"Lieutenant   Commanding  Ellis. 
"Plag    Officer    W.    F.    Lynch,    Commanding    Virginia    and 
North  Carolina  Naval  Defences." 

Commander  John  N.  Maffitt,  C.  S.  N.,  in  his  reminiscences 
(published  in  United  Service  Magazine,  1880),  writ- 
ing of  the  engagement  in  Albemarle  Sound  and  Elizabeth 
City,  says  in  reference  to  the  steamer  Ellis,  as  follows : 

"The  Ellis,  commanded  by  James  W.  Cooke,  resisted  to 
the  bitter  end.  Boarders  swarmed  on  board  of  her.  and  were 
met,  cutlass  in  hand,  by  the  dauntless  captain  who,  though 
badly  A\ounded  by  a  musket  ball  and  by  a  thrust  from  a  bay- 
onet, fought  Avith  the  fierceness  of  a  tiger,  refusing  to  sur- 
render or  haul  down  his  flag. 

"Overpowered  by  numbers  he  was  borne  to  the  deck,  and 
would  have  been  slaughtered  on  the  spot,  but  for  the  generous 
interference  of  an  old  associate,  who  caused  him  to  be  safely 
conveyed  to  Commodore  Row^an's  flagship,  where  extreme 
kindness  was  extended.    . 

"The  naval  battles  in  Albemarle  Sound  and  off  Elizabeth 
City  reflected  much  credit  upon  the  personal  courage  of  all 
the  Confederate  officers  therein  engaged.  With  mere  abor- 
tions for  gun-boats,  badly  armed  and  spare  of  ammunition, 

312  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

they  confronted  without  hesitation  the  well-equipped  and 
powerful  vessels  of  the  North." 

The  officers  and  crew  of  the  Ellis  and  Sea  Bird  captured  at 
Elizabeth  City  on  10  February,  were  taken  to  Roanoke  Island 
and  there  on  the  12th  Avere  released  on  parole  and  allowed  to 
return  to  their  homes  to  remain  until  exchanged. 

Commander  W.  T.  Muse,  the  first  commander  of  the  Ellis, 
was  born  in  Pasquotank  county,  N.  C,  and  entered  the  ser- 
vice of  the  United  States  Navy  as  midshipman.  He  resigned 
on  the  secession  of  his  native  State,  having  attained  to  the 
rank  of  Commander. 

J.  W.  Cooke,  who  succeeded  Commander  Muse  in  the  Ellis, 
was  born  at  Beaufort,  N.  C,  and  entered  the  United  States 
Navy  as  a  midshipman.  After  being  exchanged  he  was  sent 
to  Edward's  Ferry,  on  the  Roanoke  river,  to  superintend  the 
building  by  Gilbert  Elliott,  of  the  iron-clad  Alheinarle,  and 
which  vessel  he  afterwards  commanded  and  fought  with  such 
gallantry  at  Plymouth,  N.  C. 

Thomas  M.  Crossan  was  of  l^orthern  birth,  but  having 
married  a  lady  from  North  Carolina,  on  the  secession  of  the 
State  he  cast  his  fortunes  with  her,  and  noble  service  did  he 
perform  as  the  first  commander  of  the  Minslow,  and  after- 
wards as  commander  of  the  North  Carolina  blockade-runner 
Ad-Tuncc,  which  successfully  ran  the  blockade  a  number  of 
times,  bringing  in  the  much  needed  supplies  for  the  North 
Cai'olina  troops  in  the  fields. 

Master  McCarrick,  who  succeeded  Commander  Crossan 
and  Sinclair  as  connnander  of  the  steamer  AYvnsloiv,  was  of 
Irish  birth,  lived  in  Norfolk,  and  on  the  purchase  of  his  ves- 
sel by  the  State  of  North  Carolina,  he  entered  her  navy  as 
a  master,  and  up  to  the  day  of  his  death  was  a  great  admirer 
of  the  Old  North  State.  Vice  Consul  Schisano's  letter  of 
thanks  for  assistance  rendered  the  French  Corvette  Pronej 
is  still  in  possession  of  the  McCarrick  family. 

Lieutenant-Commander  J.  W.  Alexander,  formerly  of  the 
United  States  Navy,  commander  of  the  Rale igk,  Avas  born  in 
Lincoln  county.  North  Carolina.  He  was  captured  off  Sa- 
vannah in  18G3,  and  taken  to  Fort  Warren,  whence  he  made 

North  Carolina  Navy.  313 

a  thrilling,  but  ineffectual,  attempt  to  escape,  an  account  of 
which  is  given  by  him  in  this  work. 

In  writing  this  sketch  I  have  endeavored  only  to  follow 
those  boats  which  composed  the  North  Carolina  Navy,  and 
which  the  State  turned  over  to  the  Confederate  States  Navy. 

Adam  Tredwell. 
Norfolk,  Va.. 

28  October,  1901. 

Note. — Captain  Adam  Tredwell  was  Secretary  to  Commodore  Muse 
and  Acting  Paymaster  in  North  Carolina  Navy.  In  1862  he  was  com- 
missioned Assistant  Paymaster  in  the  Confederate  States  Nav}^  and 
attached  to  the  Staff  of  Commodore  W.  F  Lynch  and  Commodore  E  F. 
Pinckney  with  headquarters  at  Wilmington,  N.  C.  Since  the  war  he  has 
been  and  is  now  one  of  the  most  prominent  business  men  of  Norfolk. 
North  Carolina's  Navy  consisted  of  the  seven  vessels  first  above  named. 
She  sold  and  transferred  them  to  the  Confederate  Navy  in  the  fall  of 
1801.— Ed. 


No  adequate  Roster  of  the  North  Carolinians,  other  than 
officers,  serving  in  the  Confederate  Na\'y  has  been  kept. 
In  Moore's  Roster,  Vol.  4,  p.  443--448  is  an  imperfect  roll 
of  the  North  Carolina  rank  and  file  in  Navy  service.  In 
Vol.  4  of  this  work  at  page  402  is  a  scant  reference  to  the 
North  Carolinians  serving  in  the  Naval  Battalion.  No 
doubt,  those  in  the  Navy  formed  a  considerable  part  of  the 
^'3,100  men  from  this  State  serving  in  other  commands  and 
not. borne  on  our  rolls"  which  were  reported  by  the  Adjutant 
General  19  November,  1864. 





By  Her  Builder,  GILBERT   ELLIOTT,*  Adjutant  17th  N.  C.  T. 

During  the  Spring  of  1863,  having  been  previously  en- 
gaged in  unsuccessful  efforts  to  construct  war  vessels,  of  one 
sort  or  another,  for  the  Confederate  Government,  at  different 
points  in  Eastern  Korth  Carolina  and  Virginia,  I  undertook 
a  contract  with  the  Navy  Department  to  build  an  iron-clad 
gun-boat,  intended,  if  ever  completed,  to  operate  on  the  waters 
of  Albemarle  and  Pamlico  Sounds.  Edward's  Ferry  on  the 
Eoanoke  river,  in  Halifax  County,  North  Carolina,  about  30 
miles  below  the  town  of  Weldon,  was  fixed  upon  as  the  most 
suitable  for  the  purpose.  The  river  rises  and  falls,  as  is  well 
known,  and  it  was  necessary  to  locate  the  yard  on  ground  suf- 
ficiently free  from  overflow  to  admit  of  uninterrupted  work 
for  at  least  twelve  months.  No  vessel  was  ever  constructed 
under  more  adverse  circumstances.  The  shipyard  was  es- 
tablished in  a  corn  field,  where  the  ground  had  already  been 
marked  out  and  planted  for  the  coming  crop,  but  the  owner  of 
the  land,  W.  R.  Smith,  Esq.,  was  in  hearty  sympathy  with 
the  enterprise,  and  aided  me  then  and  afterwards,  in  a  thou- 
sand ways,  to  accomplish  the  end  I  had  in  view.  It  was  next 
to  impossible  to  obtain  machinery  suitable  for  the  work  in 
hand.  Here  and  there,  scattered  about  the  surrounding 
country,  a  portable  saw  mill,  blacksmith's  forge,  or  other  ap- 
paratus was  found,  however,  and  the  citizens  of  the  neighbor- 
hoods on  both  sides  of  the  river  were  not  slow  to  render  me 

Note. — Gilbert  Elliott  was  born  at  Elizabeth  City,  10  December,  1843, 
and  hence  was  only  19  years  of  age  when  he  nndertook  to  bnild  the  Al- 
bemarle After  the  war  he  practiced  law  in  Norfolk,  Ya.,  St.  Lonis  and 
New  York.  He  was  a  brother  of  Captain  <  harles  G.  Elliott,  A.  A.  G., 
of  the  Martin-Kirkland  brigade  and  of  Warren  G.  Elliott,  now  President 
of  the  W.  &  W.  R  R.  Company.  He  died  at  Staten  Island.  N  Y..  9 
May,  1895.  This  article  appeared  in  the  "Century"  Magazine,  July  " 
by  whose  kind  permission  it  is  reproduced  here. — Ed. 

316  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861 -'65. 

assistance,  but  co-operated,  cordially,  in  the  completion  of  the 
iron-clad,  and  at  the  end  of  about  one  year  from  the  laying 
of  the  keel,  during  which  innumerable  difficulties  were  over- 
come by  constant  application,  determined  effort,  and  inces- 
sant labor,  day  and  night,  success  crowned  the  efforts  of  those 
engaged  in  the  undertaking. 

Seizing  an  opportunity  offered  by  comparatively  high 
water,  the  boat  was  launched,  though  not  without  misgiv- 
ings as  to  the  result,  for  the  yard  being  on  a  Ijluff  she  had  to 
take  a  jump,  and  as  a  matter  of  fact  was  ''hogged"  in  the  at- 
tempt, but  to  our  great  gratification  did  not  thereby  spring  a 

The  plans  and  specifications  were  prepared  by  John  L. 
Porter,  Chief  Constructor  of  the  Confederate  Navy,  who 
availed  himself  of  the  advantage  gained  by  his  experience  in 
converting  the  frigate  Merrimac  into  the  iron-clad  Virginia 
at  the  Gosport  navy  yard. 

The  Albemarle  was  152  feet  long  between  perpendiculars; 
her  extreme  width  was  45  feet ;  her  depth  from  the  gun-deck 
to  the  keel  was  9  feet,  and  when  launched  she  drew  614  feet 
of  water,  but  after  being  ironed  and  completed  her  draught 
was  about  8  feet.  The  keel  was  laid,  and  construction  was 
commenced  by  bolting  down,  across  the  center,  a  piece  of 
frame  timljer,  which  was  of  yellow  pine,  eight  hj  ten  inches. 
Another  frame  of  the  same  size  was  then  dovetailed  into  this, 
extending  outwardly  at  an  agle  of  45  degrees,  forming  the 
side,  and  at  the  outer  end  of  this  the  frame  for  the  shield  was 
also  dovetailed,  the  angle  being  35  degrees,  and  then  the  top 
deck  was  added,  and  so  on  around  to  the  other  end  of  the  bot- 
tom beam.  Other  l>eams  were  then  bolted  down  to  the  keel, 
and  to  the  one  first  fastened,  and  so  on,  working  fore  and  aft, 
the  main  deck  Ijeams  being  interposed  from  stem  to  stern. 
The  shield  was  00  feet  in  length  and  octagonal  in  form.  When 
this  part  of  the  work  was  completed  she  w^as  a  solid  boat,  built 
of  pine  frames,  and  if  calked  would  have  floated  in  that  con- 
dition, Init  she  was  afterwards  covered  with  4-inch  planking, 
laid  on  longitudinally,  as  ships  are  usually  planked,  and  this 
was  properly  calked  and  pitched,  cotton  being  used  for  calk- 
ing instead  of  oakum,  the  latter  being  very  scarce  and  the 

The  Ram  "AlbExMarle."  317 

former  almost  the  only  article  to  be  had  in  abundance.  Much 
of  the  timber  was  hauled  long  distances.  Three  portable 
saw  mills  were  obtained,  one  of  which  was  located  at  the  yard, 
the  others  being  moved  about  from  time  to  time  to  such  grow- 
ing timber  as  could  be  procured. 

The  iron  plating  consisted  of  tw^o  courses,  7  inches  wide 
and  2  inches  thick,  mostly  rolled  at  the  Tredegar  Iron  Works, 
Richmond.  The  first  course  was  laid  lengthwise,  over  a 
wooden  backing,  16  inches  in  thickness,  a  2-inch  space,  filled 
in  with  wood,  being  left  between  each  two  layers  to  afford 
space  for  bolting  the  outer  course  through  the  whole  shield, 
and  the  outer  course  was  laid  flush,  forming  a  smooth  surface, 
similar  to  that  of  the  Virginia.  The  inner  part  of  the  shield 
was  covered  with  a  thin  course  of  planking,  nicely  dressed, 
mainly  with  a  view  to  protection  from  splinters.  Oak  knees 
w^ere  bolted  in,  to  act  as  braces  and  suj^ports  for  the  shield. 

The  armament  consisted  of  two  rifled  "Brooke"  guns 
mounted  on  pivot-carriages,  each  gun  working  through  three 
port-holes,  as  occasion  required,  there  being  one  port-hole  at 
each  end  of  the  shield  and  two  on  each  side.  These  Avere  pro- 
tected by  iron  covers  lowered  and  raised  by  a  contrivance 
worked  on  the  gun-deck.  She  had  two  propellers  driven  by 
two  engines  of  200-horse  poAver,  each,  with  20-inch  cylinders, 
steam  being  supplied  by  two  flue  boilers,  and  the  shafting  was 
geared  together. 

The  sides  were  covered  from  the  knuckle,  four  feet  below 
the  deck,  Avdtli  iron  plates  two  inches  thick. 

The  prow  was  built  of  oak,  running  18  feet  back,  on  center 
keelson,  and  solidly  bolted,  and  it  was  covered  on  the  outside 
with  iron  plating,  2  inches  thick,  and,  tapering  off  to  a  4-inch 
edge,  formed  the  ram. 

The  work  of  ]iutting  on  the  armor  was  prosecuted  for  some 
time  under  the  most  disheartening  circumstances,  on  account 
of  the  difficulty  of  drilling  holes  in  the  iron  intended  for  her 
armor.  But  one  small  engine  and  drill  could  be  had,  and  it 
required,  at  the  best,  twenty  minutes  to  drill  an  inch  and  a 
quarter  hole  through  the  plates,  and  it  looked  as  if  we  would 
never  accomplish  the  task.  But  "necessity  is  the  mother  of 
invention,"  and  one  of  my  associates  in  the  enterprise,  Peter 

318  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

E.  Smith,  of  Scotland  Xeck,  Xortli  Carolina,  invented  and 
made  a  twist-drill  with  which  the  work  of  drilling  a  hole 
could  be  done  in  four  minutes,  the  drill  cutting  out  the  iron 
in  shavings  instead  of  fine  powder. 

For  many  reasons  it  Avas  thought  judicious  to  remove  the 
boat  to  the  town  of  Halifax,  about  twenty  miles  up  the  river, 
and  the  Avork  of  completion,  putting  in  her  machinery,  arma- 
ment, etc.,  was  done  at  that  point,  although  the  actual  finish- 
ing touches  Avere  not  given  until  a  fcAv  days  before  going  into 
action  at  Plymouth. 

Forges  Avere  erected  on  her  decks,  and  blacksmiths  and  car- 
penters Avere  kept  hard  at  Avork  as  she  floated  down  the  river 
to  her  destination. 

Captain  James  W.  Cooke,  of  the  Confederate  XaAy,  a  na- 
tiA^e  of  North  Carolina,  Avas  detailed  by  the  department  to 
Avatch  the  construction  of  the  A'essel  and  to  take  command 
Avhen  she  Avent  into  commission.  He  made  eA^ery  effort  to 
hasten  the  completi<:)u  of  the  boat.  He  Avas  a  bold  and  gallant 
officer,  and  in  the  battles  in  Avhich  he  subsequently  engaged 
he  proA''ed  himself  a  hero.  Of  him  it  Avas  said  that  ''he  aa'ouM 
fight  a  poAvder  magazine  Avith  a  coal  of  fire,"  and  if  such  a 
necessity  could  by  any  possibility  liaA^e  existed  he  Avould, 
doubtless,  liaA'e  been  equal  to  the  occasion. 

In  the  Spring  of  1864  it  had  been  decided  at  headquarters 
that  an  attempt  should  be  made  to  recapture  the  tOAvn  of  Ply- 
mouth. General  Hoke  Avas  j^laced  in  command  of  the  land 
forces,  and  Captain  Cooke  received  orders  to  co-operate.  Ac- 
cordingly Hoke's  Division  proceeded  to  the  vicinity  of  Ply- 
mouth and  surrounded  the  toAvn  from  the  river  above  to  the 
river  beloAv,  and  preparation  Avas  made  to  storm  the  forts  and 
breastAvorks  as  soon  as  the  Albemarle  could  clear  the  river 
front  of  the  Federal  Avar  vessels  protecting  the  place  AA^ith 
their  guns. 

On  the  morning  of  18  April,  1864,  the  Albemarle  left  the 
toAvn  of  Hamilton  and  proceeded  doAATi  the  river  tOAvards  Ply- 
mouth, going  stern  foremost,  Avith  chains  dragging  from  the 
boAv,  the  rapidity  of  the  current  making  it  impracticable  to 
steer  with  her  head  down  stream.  She  came  to  anchor  about 
three  miles  above  Plymouth,  and  a  mile  or  so  above  the  bat- 

The  Ram  "Albemarle."  319 

tery  on  the  bluff  at  Warren's  jSTeck,  near  Thoroughfare  Gap, 
where  tor^Dedoes,  sunken  vessels,  piles,  and  other  obstructions 
had  been  placed.  An  exploring  expedition  was  sent  out,  un- 
der conunand  of  one  of  the  Lieutenants,  which  returned  in 
about  two  hours,  with  the  report  that  it  was  considered  impos- 
sible to  pass  the  obstruction.  Thereupon  the  fires  were 
banked,  and  the  officers  and  crew  not  on  duty  retired  to  rest. 
Having  accompanied  Captain  Cooke  as  a  volunteer  aide, 
and  feeling  intensely  dissatisfied  with  the  apparent  intention 
of  lying  at  anchor  all  that  night,  and  believing  that  it  was 
"then  or  never"  with  the  ram  if  she  was  to  accomplish  any- 
thing, and  that  it  would  be  foolhardy  to  attempt  the  passage 
of  the  obstructions  and  batteries  in  the  day  time,  I  requested 
permission  to  make  a  personal  investigation.  Captain  Cooke 
cordially  assenting,  and  Pilot  John  Luck  and  tw^o  of  the  few 
experienced  seamen  on  board  volunteering  their  services,  we 
get  forth  in  a  small  lifeboat,  taking  with  us  a  long  pole,  and 
arriving  at  the  obstructions  proceeded  to  take  sounding.  To 
our  great  joy  it  was  ascertained  that  there  was  ten  feet  of 
water  over  and  above  the  obstructions.  This  was  due  to  the 
remarkable  freshet  then  prevailing ;  the  proverbial  "oldest  in- 
habitant" said,  afterwards,  that  such  high  water  had  never 
before  been  seen  in  Roanoke  river.  Pushing  on  down  the 
stream  to  Plymouth,  and  taking  advantage  of  the  shadow  of 
the  trees  on  the  north  side  of  the  river,  opposite  the  town,  we 
watched  the  Federal  transports  taking  on  board  the  women 
and  children  who  were  being  sent  away  for  safety,  on  account 
of  the  approaching  bombardment.  With  mufiled  oars,  and 
almost  afraid  to  breathe,  we  made  our  way  back  up  the  river, 
hugging  close  to  the  northern  bank,  and  reached  the  ram 
about  1  o'clock,  reporting  to  Captain  Cooke  that  it  was  prac- 
ticable to  pass  the  obstructions  provided  the  boat  was  kept  in 
the  middle  of  the  stream.  The  indomitable  commander  in- 
stantly aroused  his  men,  gave  the  order  to  get  up  steam,  slip- 
ped the  cables  in  his  impatience  to  be  off,  and  started  down 
the  river.  The  obstructions  were  soon  reached  and  safely 
passed,  under  a  fire  from  the  fort  at  Warren's  ISTeck  which 
was  not  returned.  Protected  by  the  iron-clad  shield,  to  those 
on  board  the  noise  made  by  the  shot  and  shell  as  they  struck 

320  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

the  boat  sounded  no  louder  than  pebbles  thrown  against  an 
empty  barrel.  At  Boyle's  Mill,  lower  down,  there  was  an- 
other fort  upon  which  was  mounted  a  very  heavy  gun.  This 
was  also  safel}'  passed,  and  we  then  discovered  two  steamers 
coming  up  the  river.  They  proved  to  be  the  Miami  and  the 
Southfield.  The  Miami  carried  6  9-inch  guns,  1  100-pounder 
Parrott  rifle,  and  1  24-pounder  S.  B.  howitzer,  and  the  ferry 
boat  Soutlipcld  5  9-inch,  1  100-pounder  Parrott  and  1  12- 
pounder  howitzer. 

The  tAvo  ships  were  lashed  together  with  long  spars,  and 
with  chains  festooned  between  them.  The  plan  of  Captain 
Flusser,  who  commanded,  was  to  run  his  vessels  so  as  to  get 
the  Albemarle  between  the  tAvo,  which  would  have  placed  the 
ram  at  a  great  disadvantage,  if  not  altogether  at  his  mercy ; 
but  Pilot  John  Luck,  acting  under  orders  from  Captain 
Cooke,  ran  the  ram  close  to  the  southern  shore ;  and  then  sud- 
denly turning  toward  the  middle  of  the  stream,  and  going 
with  the  current,  the  throttles,  in  obedience  to  his  bell,  being 
wide  open,  he  dashed  the  prow  of  the  Albemarle  into  the  side 
of  the  Southfield,  making  an  o])ening  large  enough  to  carry 
her  to  the  bottom  in  much  less  time  than  it  takes  to  tell  the 
story.  Part  of  her  crew  went  down  with  her.  Of  the  of- 
ficers and  men  of  the  Southfield,  seven  of  the  former,  includ- 
ing Acting  Volunteer  Lieutenant  C.  A.  French,  her  com- 
mander, and  forty-two  of  her  men  were  rescued  by  the  Miami 
and  the  other  Union  vessels ;  the  remainder  were  either  cap- 
tured or  drowned. 

The  chain-plates  on  the  forward  deck  of  the  Albemarle  be- 
came entangled  in  the  frame  of  the  sinking  vessel,  and  her 
bow  was  carried  down  to  such  a  depth  that  water  poured  into 
her  port-holes  in  great  volume,  and  she  would  soon  have 
shared  the  fate  of  the  Southfield,  had  not  the  latter  vessel 
reached  the  bottom,  and  then,  turning  over  on  her  side,  re- 
leased the  ram,  thus  allowing  her  to  come  up  on  an  even  keel. 
The  Miami,  right  alongside,  had  opened  fire  with  her  heavy 
guns,  and  so  close  were  the  vessels  together  that  a  shell  with  a 
ten-second  fuse,  fired  by  Captain  Flusser,  after  striking  the 
Albemarle  rebounded  and  exploded,  killing  the  gallant  man 
who  pulled  the  laniard,  tearing  him  almost  to  pieces.     Not- 

The   Ram  "Albemarle."  321 

withstanding  the  death  of  Fhisser,  an  attempt  was  made  to 
board  the  ram,  which  was  heroically  resisted  by  as  many  of 
the  crew  as  could  be  crowded  on  the  top  deck,  who  were  sup- 
plied with  loaded  muskets  passed  up  by  their  comrades  below. 
The  Miami,  a  powerful  and  very  fast  side- wheeler,  succeeded 
in  eluding  the  Albemarle  without  receiving  a  blow  from  her 
ram,  and  retired  below  Plymouth,  into  Albemarle  Sound. 

Captain  Cooke  having  successfully  carried  out  his  part  of 
the  programme.  General  Hoke  attacked  the  fortifications  the 
next  morning  and  carried  them ;  not,  however,  without  heavy 
loss.  Ransom's  Brigade  alone  leaving  500  dead  and  wounded 
on  the  field,  in  their  most  heroic  charge  upon  the  breastworks 
protecting  the  eastern  front  of  the  town.  General  Wessells, . 
commanding  the  Federal  forces,  made  a  gallant  resistance, 
and  surrendered  only  when  further  effort  would  have  been 
worse  than  useless.  During  the  attack  the  Albemarle  held 
the  river  front,  according  to  contract,  and  all  day  long  poured 
shot  and  shell  into  the  resisting  forts  with  her  two  guns. 

On  5  May,  1864,  Captain  Cooke  left  the  Roanoke  river 
with  the  Albemarle  and  two  tenders,  the  Bombshell  and  Cot- 
ton Plant,  and  entered  tlie  Sound  with  the  intention  of  recov- 
eriiig,  if  possible,  the  control  of  the  two  Sounds,  and  ulti- 
mately of  Hatteras  Inlet.  He  proceeded  about  sixteen  miles 
on  an  east-northeasterly  course,  A\hen  the  Federal  squadron, 
consisting  of  seven  well-armed  gun-boats,  the  Mattabesett, 
Sassacus,  Wyalusing,  Whitehead,  Miami,  Commodore  Hull, 
and  Ceres,  all  under  the  command  of  Captain  Melancthon 
Smith,  hove  in  sight,  and  at  2  o'clock  that  afternoon  approach- 
ed in  double  line  of  battle,  the  Mattabesett  being  in  advance. 
They  proceeded  to  surround  the  Albemarle,  and  hurled  at  her 
their  heaviest  shot,  at  distances  averaging  less  than  one  hun- 
dred yards.  The  Union  fleet,  as  we  now  know,  had  32  guns 
and  23  howitzers,  a  total  of  55.  The  Albemarle  responded 
effectively,  but  her  boats  were  soon  shot  away,  her  smoke- 
stack was  riddled,  many  iron  plates  in  her  shield  were  injured 
and  broken,  and  the  after-gun  was  broken  off  eighteen  inches 
from  the  muzzle,  and  rendered  useless.  This  terrible  fire 
continued,  without  intermission,  until  about  5  p.  m.,  when 
the  commander  of  the  double-ender  Sassacus  selected  his  op- 

522  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

^ortunity,  and  with  all  steam  on  struck  the  Albemarle 
squarely  just  abaft  her  starboard  beam,  causing  every  timber 
in  the  vicinity  of  the  blow  to  groan,  though  none  gave  way. 
The  pressure  from  the  revolving  wheel  of  the  Sassacus  was 
so  great  that  it  forced  the  after  deck  of  the  ram  several  feet 
below^  the  surface  of  the  water,  and  created  an  impression  on 
board  that  she  was  about  to  sink.  Some  of  the  crew  became 
demoralized,  but  the  calm  voice  of  the  undismayed  captain 
-checked  the  incipient  disorder,  with  the  command,  "Stand  to 
jour  guns,  and  if  we  must  sink  let  us  go  down  like  brave 

The  Albemarle  soon  recovered,  and  sent  a  shot  at  her  as- 
nsailant  which  passed  through  one  of  the  latter's  boilers,  the 
liissing  steam  disabling  a  number  of  the  crew.  Yet  the  disci- 
pline of  the  Sassacus  was  such  that,  notwithstanding  the  nat- 
■ural  consternation  under  these  appalling  circumstances,  two 
•of  her  guns  continued  to  fire  on  the  Albemarle  until  she 
drifted  out  of  the  arena  of  battle.  Two  of  the  fleet  attempted 
to  foul  tlie  })ropellers  of  the  ram  with  a  large  fishing  seine 
which  they  had  previously  procured  for  the  purpose,  but  the 
line  parted  in  paying  it  out.  Then  they  tried  to  blow  her  up 
wdth  a  torpedo,  but  failed.  Xo  better  success  attended  an 
effort  to  throw  a  keg  of  gunpowder  down  her  smoke-stack,  or 
what  was  left  of  it,  for  it  was  riddled  with  holes  from  shot 
and  shell.  This  smoke-stack  had  lost  its  capacity  for  draw- 
ing, and  the  boat  lay  a  helpless  mass  on  the  water.  While  in 
this  condition  every  effort  was  made  by  her  numerous  ene- 
mies to  destroy  her.  The  unequal  conflict  continued  until 
night.  Some  of  the  Federal  vessels  were  more  or  less  disa- 
bled, and  both  sides  were  doubtless  well  content  to  draw  off. 
Captain  Cooke  had  on  board  a  supply  of  bacon  and  lard,  and 
this  sort  of  fuel  being  available  to  burn  without  draught  from 
a  smoke-stack,  he  was  able  to  make  sufficient  steam  to  get  the 
boat  back  to  Plymouth,  where  she  tied  up  to  her  wharf  cov- 
ered with  wounds  and  with  glory. 

The  Albemarle  in  her  different  engagements  was  struck  a 
great  many  times  by  shot  and  shell,  the  upper  section  alone  of 
the  smoke-stack  has  114  holes  made  by  shot  and  shell,  and  yet 
fcut  one  man  lost  his  life,  and  that  was  caused  by  a  pistol-shot 

The   Ram  "Albemarle."  323 

from  the  Miami,,  the  imprudent  sailor  having  put  his  head 
out  of  one  of  the  port-holes  to  see  what  was  going  on  outside. 
Captain  Cooke  was  at  once  promoted  and  placed  in  com- 
mand of  all  the  Confederate  naval  forces  in  Eastern  Xorth 
Carolina.  The  Albemarle  remained  tied  to  her  wharf  at 
Plymouth  until  the  night  of  27  October,  1864,  when  Lieuten- 
ant William  B.  Crushing,  of  the  United  States  I*^avy,  per- 
formed the  daring  feat  of  destroying  her  with  a  torpedo. 
Having  procured  a  torpedo-boat  so  constructed  as  to  be  very 
fast,  for  a  short  distance,  and  with  the  exhaust  steam  so  ar- 
ranged as  to  be  noiseless,  he  proceeded,  with  a  crew  of  four- 
teen men,  up  the  Roanoke  river.  Guards  had  been  stationed 
by  the  Confederate  military  connnander  on  the  wreck  of  the 
South  field,  whose  top  deck  was  then  above  water,  but  they 
failed  to  see  the  boat.  A  boom  of  logs  had  been  arranged 
around  the  Albemarle,  distant  about  thirty  feet  from  her  side. 
Captain  Cooke  had  planned  and  superintended  the  construc- 
tion of  this  arrangement  before  giving  up  the  command  of 
the  vessel  to  Captain  A.  F.  Warley.  Cushing  ran  his  boat  up 
to  these  logs,  and  there,  under  a  hot  fire,  lowered  and  ex- 
ploded the  torpedo  under  the  Alberaarle's  bottom,  causing  her 
to  settle  down  and  finally  to  sink  at  tlie  wharf.  The  torpedo- 
boat  and  crew  were  captured ;  but  Cushing  refusing  to  sur- 
render, though  twice  called  u]:>on  to  do  so,  sprang  into  the 
river,  dived  to  the  bottom,  and  swam  across  to  a  swamp  oppo- 
site the  town,  thus  making  his  escape ;  and  on  the  next  night, 
after  having  experienced  great  suffering,  wandering  through 
the  SM'amp,  he  succeeded  in  obtaining  a  small  canoe,  and  made 
his  way  back  to  the  fleet. 

The  river  front  being  no  longer  protected,  and  no  appli- 
ances for  raising  the  sunken  vessel  being  available,  on  31  Oc- 
tober the  Federal  forces  attacked  and  captured  the  town  of 
Plymouth.  The  Albemarle  was  subsequently  raised  and 
towed  to  the  Norfolk  ISTavy  Yard,  and  after  being  stripped  of 
her  armament,  machinery,  etc.,  she  was  sold,  1.5  October, 

Gilbert  Elliott. 
St.  Louis,  Mo., 

20  April,   1888. 


y^EV    BERN,    2    FEBRUARY.    1564. 

By  B.  p.  LOYALL,  Commander  C.  S.  N. 

After  the  fall  of  Roanoke  Island  in  the  winter  of  1862,  the 
Federals  had  control  of  the  sounds  of  JSTorth  Carolina,  and  of 
some  of  the  rivers  emptying  into  them.  They  had  occupied 
all  the  towns  situated  on  the  water,  and  among  them  New 
Bern,  which  lies  at  the  confluence  of  the  ISTeuse  and  Trent 
rivers,  occupying  an  angle  between  the  two — a  place  easily 
defended  by  the  power  having  control  of  the  water.  They 
had  built  strong  earthworks  on  the  land  side,  stretching  from 
river  to  river,  and  had  several  gunboats  cruising  about  to  pro- 
tect the  place  on  the  water  side. 

Among  these  gunboats  one  was  the  Underwriter,  which  had 
been  a  heavy  ocean  tugboat  at  New  York,  and,  purchased  by 
the  United  States  Government,  had  been  converted  into  quite 
a  formidable  vessel  of  war.  She  w^as  the  ship  that  fired  the 
first  gun  in  the  attack  upon  Roanoke  Island,  where  the  writer 
had  the  misfortune  to  be  captured,  and  it  may  be  said  there 
was  something  like  the  rule  of  compensation  w^hen  he  had  a 
hand  in  capturing  her.  She  was  armed  with  two  8-inch  guns, 
one  3-inch  rifle  and  one  12-pounder  howitzer,  and  had  a  crew 
of  about  85  all  told.  Picture  to  yourself  a  steamer  about  the 
size  of  the  Northampton,  with  very  low  guards  and  stripped 
of  her  sides  or  bulwarks,  except  a  wooden  rail  with  rope  net- 
ting from '  that  to  her  deck.  The  quiet  possession  of  New 
Bern  by  the  Federals  had  distressed  and  worried  the  patriotic 
peo^Dle  of  North  Carolina,  and  General  Hoke,  than  whom 
there  was  not  a  more  competent  or  brilliant  officer  of  his  rank 
in  the  Confederate  army,  strongly  advocated  a  quick  move- 
ment upon  the  place  by  the  army,  assisted  by  the  navy  on  the 
water,  predicting  certain  success,  and  large  reward  in 
stores,  munitions  and  prisoners.      The  matter  took  definite 

326  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861 -'65. 

shape  in  January,  1864,  and  it  was  decided  to  send  Gen- 
eral Pickett  with  as  much  of  his  division  as  might  be  availa- 
ble to  make  the  attempt.  On  Friday,  29  January,  1864, 
orders  were  received  by  the  four  ships  lying  at  Drewry's 
Bluff,  each  to  fit  out  a  cutter  fully  armed  for  service 
on  a  secret  expedition.  oSTo  one  in  the  squadron  knew  of 
our  destination,  except  myself  and  Captain  Parker,  serving 
on  the  Patrick  Henry,  and  we  were  ordered  to  take  five  days' 
rations.  I  was  put  in  command  of  that  part  of  the  expedi- 
tion, with  confidential  orders  to  report  to  Captain  John  Tay- 
lor Wood  (his  naval  rank)  at  Kinston,  N.  C. 

To  escape  notice  as  much  as  possible  we  pulled  down  James 
river  to  the  Appomattox,  and  reached  Petersburg  before  day- 
light. There  w^as  a  railway  train  waiting  for  us,  and  we 
hauled  our  boats  out  of  the  water,  and,  by  hard  Avork,  loaded 
them  on  the  flat  cars  before  the  people  were  up  and  about. 

We  started  off  at  once,  and  it  was  a  novel  sight  to  see  a 
train  like  that — Jack  sitting  up  on  the  seats  of  the  boats  and 
waving  his  hat  to  the  astonished  natives,  who  never  saw  such 
a  circus  before.  Many  of  them  had  never  seen  a  boat.  We 
reached  Kinston  on  Sunday  morning,  and  immediately  got 
the  boats  in  the  water  of  the  Neuse  river,  dropped  down  a 
short  distance  below  the  village  and  put  things  in  shape  for 
the  trial  of  battle.  Captain  Wood  met  us  at  Kinston  (where 
we  were  joined  by  three  boats  fully  armed  from  Wilmington, 
N.  C.)  and  took  command  of  the  expedition.  About  4  o'clock 
in  the  afternoon  we  shoved  off  from  the  river  bank  and  started 
down  for  New  Bern,  which  is  about  forty  miles  distant  by  the 

W^hen  we  had  gotten  some  tAvo  miles  below  the  town  orders 
were  given  for  every  man  to  put  a  band  of  white  cotton  cloth 
on  the  left  arm,  above  the  elbow,  and  the  name  ''Sumpter" 
was  given  as  the  watchword. 

These  precautions  are  necessary  in  a  night  attack,  as  there 
are  no  flags  in  sight  to  rally  upon.  Every  man  was  armed 
with  a  cutlass  and  navy  revolver. 

Before  dark  the  Commander  ordered  all  boats  to  assem- 
ble together,  and,  as  we  floated  down  the  quiet  stream,  he  of- 
fered up  the  petitions  from  the  prayer  book  to  Almighty  God 

Capture  of  the  "Underwriter."  327 

for  those  about  to  engage  iu  battle.  It  was  a  solemn  and  im- 
pressive scene — just  as  the  shades  of  evening  were  falling — 
this  unusual  assemblage  of  armed  men.  Then,  with  muffled 
oars  a  single  line  was  formed,  and  we  pulled  with  measured 
stroke  down  the  stream.  The  river  is  narrow  and  full  of 
turns,  winding  in  and  out,  with  low  sedgy  banks.  Here  and 
there  huge  cyj^ress  and  water  oak  trees,  which  almost  lock 
their  heavy  branches  over  the  stream. 

The  night  was  so  dark  that  we  could  not  see  each  other,  and 
often  the  leading  boat  ran  into  a  shoal  point,  got  aground,  and 
the  whole  line  would  be  jumbled  up  in  a  crowd. 

After  2  o'clock  in  the  morning  the  river  widened,  and  we 
began  to  see  better  around  us.  Soon  we  reached  the  mouth  of 
Swift  C-reek  and  sniffed  the  salt  air  from  the  sound.  Every 
eye  was  strained  to  see  a  ship.  We  pulled  in  the  direction  of 
the  town  of  New  Bern,  and  searched  in  vain  to  find  some- 
thing afloat,  although  we  got  close  enough  to  the  wharf  to 
hear  talking,  probably  the  sentries  on  the  dock. 

There  was  nothing  to  be  done  but  find  some  refuge  out  of 
sight  until  next  night,  but  it  was  hard  letting  down  from  the 
pitch  of  excitement  and  expectation  we  had  been  under — the 
unbending  of  the  boAV  that  had  been  strung  for  action.  We 
moved  up  the  river  some  three  or  four  miles  to  Bachelor's 
Creek,  where  among  the  reeds  and  rushes  we  tried  to  hide  our- 
selves and  rest  until  next  night,  and  try  it  again.  We  felt 
very  uneasy  lest  we  should  be  discovered,  and  our  purpose 
known ;  for  unless  our  attack  should  be  a  surprise,  it  would  be 
useless  and  madness  to  undertake  it.  ]^o  force  in  small 
boats,  except  in  overwhelming  numbers,  can  capture  an  armed 
ship,  unless  by  taking  her  unawares.  We  spent  a  day  of  tedi- 
ous waiting.  Officers  and  men  laying  low,  spinning  yarns 
and  talking  about  our  prospects.  I  happened  to  hear  the 
talking  in  one  of  the  groups,  where  a  fine  young  officer  said : 
"Fellows,  where  will  we  be  this  time  to-morrow  ?"  He  was 
among  the  killed,  and  it  was  such  a  lesson  on  the  uncertainty 
of  human  life.  Among  those  present  were  Hoge  and  Gard- 
ner and  Henry  Cooke  and  Gill  and  Palmer  Saunders  and 
Goodwin,  from  Virginia,  and  Gift  and  Porcher  and  Scharf 
and  Williamson  and  Kerr  and  Poby,  all  trained  at  Annapolis 

328  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

and  true  as  steel — among  tliese  three  were  from  Norfolk  and 
Portsmouth.  In  plain  sight  of  us  was  a  tall  crow's  nest,  oc- 
cupied by  a  lookout  of  the  Federal  army  on  their  picket  line, 
and  I  assure  you  it  gave  us  a  creepy,  uneasy  feeling  to  think 
that  our  whole  movement  and  intention  might  be  discovered. 
And  here  let  me  remark  that  this  very  situation  determines 
and  exemplifies  what  I  judge  to  be  a  man  of  war — a  leader 
who  does  not  allow  his  -plans  to  be  upset  by  what  he  thinks 
the  enemy  is  going  to  do.  He  must  be  always  combative  and 
not  calculating  chances.  Wood  paid  no  attention  to  doubts 
and  surmises,  but  had  his  eye  fixed  upon  boarding  and  cap- 
turing that  ship,  and  doing  his  part  in  the  fall  of  New  Bern. 

We  were  in  full  hearing  of  Pickett's  dashing  attack  upon 
the  Federal  outerworks  that  day,  and  knew  that  he  was  driv- 
ing them  from  the  advanced  line  of  fortifications.  Before 
sunset  Wood  called  for  the  swiftest  boat,  and,  with  the  writer 
in  company,  pulled  cautiously  down  the  river,  keeping  close 
under  the  banks.  We  had  not  gone  two  miles,  when  simul- 
taneously we  both  cried :     "There  she  is." 

We  discovered  a  black  steamer  anchored  close  up  to  the 
right  flank  of  the  outer  fortifications  of  New  Bern,  where  she 
had  come  that  day,  and,  having  located  her  exactly,  we  re- 
tiTrned  to  our  hiding  place,  with  the  understanding  that  we 
would  attack  her  between  12  and  4  o'clock  in  the  morning. 
Orders  were  given  accordingly,  and  all  hands  were  made  to 
know  the  order  of  battle,  and  what  they  had  to  do.  In  rush- 
ing pell-mell  upon  the  side  of  a  ship  with  boats,  they  naturally 
rebound  and  leave  a  gap  that  is  not  easy  to  get  across,  so  each 
bow  oarsman  was  ordered  to  be  ready  to  jump  aboard  with  a 
grapnel  as  soon  as  she  struck,  and  make  her  fast,  and  our 
coolest  men  were  picked  for  that  duty,  which  you  will  easily 
see  is  risky.  Some  time  after  midnight  we  got  under  way 
and  pulled  slowly  down  the  river  in  two  columns  of  four  boats 
each,  Wood  to  board  her  forward  with  his  boats  and  I  to  board 
her  abaft  with  mine. 

The  night  was  very  dark  and  gloomy,  and  we  could  not  see 
a  light  anyAvhere,  except  an  occasional  glimmer  about  the 
town,  but  we  knew  pretty  nearly  where  the  vessel  was,  and 
with  our  glasses  in  the  evening  had  made  out  her  1)uild  and 

Capture  of  the  "Underwriter."  329 

structure.  The  stroke  of  the  muffled  oars  was  ahnost  noise- 
less, and  suddenly  the  dark  hull  of  the  ship  loomed  up,  and, 
it  seemed  almost  at  the  same  moment  there  came  from  her  the 
shout:  *'Boat,  ahoy  I"  Then  we  heard  the  loud  and  cheer- 
ing cry  from  ^Vood :  ''Give  way,  boys,"  which  was  caught  up 
and  echoed  along  both  lines  of  boats.  Then  rang  out  loud  and 
sharp  from  the  ship  the  rattle,  calling  the  men  to  quarters  for 
action,  and  now  the  fight  was  on.  Xo  need  for  orders  now  to 
these  disciplined  men.  I  suppose  the  distance  was  about 
one  hundred  yards,  and,  while  our  men  were  straining  at  their 
oars,  we  heard  the  sharp  click  of  rifles,  and  the  only  reply 
we  could  make  was  by  the  marines  (three  or  four  being  in 
each  boat)  who  delivered  their  fire  with  great  coolness. 

It  seems  to  me  now  that  of  all  the  uncomfortable  things  a 
fighting  man  might  have  to  do,  that  of  pulling  an  oar  with  his 
back  to  his  foe  must  be  the  most  trying  and  disheartening, 
but  not  a  man  weakened.  In  less  time  than  is  required  to 
tell  of  this  we  were  into  her.  Our  boat  struck  the  vessel  just 
abaft  the  wheelhouse,  where  the  guards  make  a  platform,  an 
admirable  place  for  getting  on  board.  The  ship's  armory, 
where  all  the  small  arms  were  kept,  was  in  a  room  just  there 
under  the  hurricane  deck,  and  they  did  not  stop  to  reload,  but 
loaded  guns  were  handed  to  the  men,  as  fast  as  they  could 
fire.  It  seemed  like  a  sheet  of  flame,  and  the  very  jaws  of 
death.  Our  boat  struck  bow  on,  and  our  bow  oarsman, 
James  Wilson,  of  Norfolk,  (after  the  war  Avith  the  Baker 
Wrecking  Company)  caught  her  with  his  grapnel,  and  she 
swung  side  on  with  the  tide. 

As  we  jumped  aboard  Engineer  Gill,  of  Portsmouth, 
among  the  first,  was  shot  through  the  head,  and  as  he  fell 
dead  our  men  gave  a  yell,  and  rushed  upon  the  deck,  with 
the  crews  of  the  two  other  boats  close  behind.  ISTow  the  fight- 
ing was  furious,  and  at  close  quarters.  Our  men  were  eager, 
and  as  one  would  fall  another  came  on.  Xot  one  faltered 
or  fell  back.  The  cracking  of  fi^-e  arms  and  the  rattle  of  cut- 
lasses made  a  deafening  din.  The  enemy  gave  way  slowly, 
and  soon  began  to  get  away  by  taking  to  the  ward  room  and 
engine  room  hatches  below. 

Thev  fell  l)ack  under  the  hurricane  deck  before  the  steady 

330  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

attack  of  our  men,  and  at  that  time  I  heard  the  cheers  and 
rush  of  our  comrades  from  forward,  and  I  knew  we  had 
them.  They  came  along  from  forward  with  the  cutlasses  and 
muskets  they  had  found,  clubbing  and  slashing.  In  a  short 
time  I  heard  the  cry:     "We  surrender.'' 

They  coukl  not  stand  the  force  and  moral  effect  of  an  at- 
tack like  that,  and,  remember,  the}'  were  not  Spaniards  we 
were  fighting. 

Wood  gave  the  order  to  cease  firing,  and  after  a  brief  con- 
sultation, we  ordered  the  two  firemen  we  had  with  us  to  go 
down  into  the  engine  and  fire  room  to  see  if  they  could  get 
her  under  way  and  take  her  up  the  river,  where  we  might 
put  her  in  shape,  and,  as  she  was  the  largest  vessel  at  New 
Bern  we  could  have  temporary  command  of  the  river.  It 
was  in  the  fight  on  the  forward  deck  that  the  intrepid  young 
Palmer  Saunders  gave  up  his  life  for  his  country.  He  at- 
tacked a  stalwart  sailor  with  his  cutlass  and  killed  him,  but 
had  his  head  split  open  and  a  shot  in  his  side.  I  wish  I  could 
relate  the  deeds  of  individual  prowess  and  gallantry,  but  in 
such  a  melee  as  that  one  has  all  he  can  do  to  keep  on  his  feet 
and  look  out  for  himself. 

We  found  the  fires  banked  and  riot  steam  enough  to  turn 
the  wheels  over.  At  this  juncture  Fort  Stevens  opened  fire 
upon  our  vessel,  regardless  of  their  own  people.  One  shell 
struck  part  of  her  lever  beam,  went  through  a  hen  coop  near 
where  the  marines  were  drawn  up,  and  passed  through  her 
side.  Upon  further  consultation  we  decided  to  burn  her,  and 
gave  the  order  to  man  the  boats,  taking  special  care  of  our 
own  and  the  enemy's  wounded,  and  our  dead,  and  all  prison- 
ers we  could  get  hold  of. 

I  thoiTght  it  very  strange  that  the  captain  of  the  vessel 
could  not  be  found,  but  upon  inquiry  among  his  men  we 
learned  that  he  had  been  wounded  in  the  leg  and  had  jumped 
overboard.     He  was  drowned. 

Poor  Palmer  Saunders  was  carefully  placed  in  a  blanket, 
and  laid  in  the  bow  of  my  boat,  where  he  could  be  better  sup- 
ported than  aft.  He  was  breathing,  but  entirely  unconscious. 
Of  course,  some  of  the  men  missed  their  boats,  as  nobody 

Capture  of  the  "Underwriter."  331 

stood  upon  the  order  of  his  going  in  the  face  of  the  firing 
from  those  forts. 

After  seeing  all  the  boats  under  my  charge  get  away,  we 
shoved  off  and  pulled  away  from  the  ship.  The  duty  of  set- 
ting fire  to  the  Underv:ritei-  had  been  assigned  to  Lieutenant 
Hoge,  of  Wlieeling,  a  talented  young  officer  of  fine  attain- 
ments and  undaunted  courage.  When  we  had  gotten  half 
mile  from  the  ship  Wood  pulled  up  towards  our  boats  and 
asked  if  1  had  ordered  the  ship  set  afire.  I  said:  "Yes," 
but  it  looked  as  if  it  had  not  been  done  successfully.  Just 
then  Hoge  came  along  in  his  boat,  and  said  that  he  had  set 
fire  to  her. 

Wood  ordered  him  to  go  on  board  and  make  sure  of  it,  and 
he  went  promptly.  Here  was  trying  duty  to  perform.  The 
forts  were  firing  every  few  minutes  in  our  direction,  wildly, 
of  course,  as  big  guns  cannot  be  aimed  well  at  night,  but  you 
never  can  tell  wdiere  they  are  going  to  strike. 

In  about  ten  minutes  we  saw  a  flame  leap  out  of  a  win- 
dow forward  of  the  wheelhouse,  where  the  engineer's  supplies 
were  kept,  and  Hoge  pulling  away.  In  a  very  few  minutes 
the  whole  expanse  of  water  was  lighted  up,  and  you  may  be 
sure  we  struck  out  with  a  vim  to  rendezvous  at  Swift  Creek, 
about  six  miles  up  the  river,  on  the  opposite  side  from  jSTew 
Bern,  Avhere  Gen-eral  Bearing  had  a  small  cavalry  camp.  As 
we  were  pulling  up  we  could  hear  now  and  then  the  boom 
of  the  guns  of  the  Undenvriter  as  they  were  discharged  by 
heat  from  the  burning  ship,  and  just  before  reaching  our 
landing  place  we  heard  the  awful  explosion  of  the  sturdy  ves- 
sel, when  the  fire  reached  her  magazine. 

After  daybreak  we  reached  the  place  on  the  bank  of  the 
creek,  where  there  was  a  clearing,  and  landed  our  cargo  of 
dead  and  wounded  and  prisoners. 

As  we  were  taking  Saunders  out  of  the  boat  he  breathed 
his  last,  and  so  passed  into  the  presence  of  God  the  soul  of 
that  young  hero. 

As  soon  as  the  surgeon  had  made  the  wounded  as  comfort- 
able as  possible  under  the  circumstances,  the  prisoners  were 
drawn  up  in  line  to  make  a  list  of  them.  As  I  passed  down 
the  line,  a  strapping  big  fellow,  without  any  trousers  on  and 

332  North  Carolina  Troops,    1861-65. 

barefooted,  said:  "Mj  Lord,  is  that  you?"  I  looked  liim 
over  and  recognized  him  as  an  old  quarter-gunner  that  had 
been  shipmate  with  me  in  the  frigate  Congress  ten -years  be- 
fore, and  among  the  wounded  I  was  called  to  have  a  greeting 
from  a  young  fellow,  who  had  been  a  mizzen-topman  in  the 
same  ship,  and  after  the  war  got  me  to  give  him  a  certificate 
to  secure  his  pension. 

Our  casualties  had  been  six  killed,  twenty-two  wounded, 
all  of  them  brought  away.  Two  were  missing  and  afterwards 
accounted  for.  The  Federal  loss  was  nine  killed,  eighteen 
wounded,  and  nineteen  prisoners — about  thirty  of  her  crew 

The  wounded  and  prisoners  were  promptly  taken  care  of 
by  General  Dearing's  command,  and  sent  up  to  Kinston,  Cap- 
tain Wood  proceeded  to  Richmond  at  once.  As  soon  as 
proper  arrangements  could  be  made  the  command  was  sum- 
moned to  pay  the  last  rite  of  burial  of  the  dead.  At  3  o'clock 
in  the  afternoon,  under  the  stately  pines  that  bordered  the 
stream,  I  read  the  church  service  for  the  burial  of  the  dead, 
and  the  bodies  of  our  lamented  comrades  were  tenderly  laid 
in  mother  earth,  there  to  rest  until  we  shall  all  be  summoned 
to  the  great  assize. 

General  Pickett's  plans  miscarried,  it  was  alleged,  by  the 
failure  of  one  of  his  brigadiers  to  make  an  attack  at  the  ap- 
pointed time  on  the  Trent  river  side  of  the  defense. 

He  withdrew  his  force  leisurely  and  retired  upon  Kinston. 

I  could  never  understand  wli}'  the  other  giTuboats  at  New 
Bern  did  not  attack  the  Uiiderwriter  after  her  capture  by  us. 
Instead  of  that,  two  of  them  got  under  v/ay  and  steamed 
around  into  Trent  river,  as  fast  as  they  could  go.  While  we 
were  getting  ready  to  abandon  the  ship,  it  worried  us  very 
much  to  see  one  of  those  boats  coming  directly  toAvard  us,  but 
she  soon  turned  and  went  in  the  other  direction,  much  to  our 

In  speaking  of  our  casualties,  it  was  said  that  there  were 
two  missing,  and  it  was  from  laughable  circumstances.  When 
we  took  to  our  boats  two  of  the  men  rushed  to  the  stern  where 
they  saw  a  boat  made  fast,  and  they  slided  dowm  into  her.  In 
a  few  moments  other  men  piled  into  her,   and  "shove  off" 

Capture  of  the  "Underwriter."  333 

was  the  word.  It  soon  developed  that  the  boat  had  eight  Yan- 
kees and  two  rebels  on  board,  and  these  two  poor  fellows  set 
up  a  fearful  cry  for  help.  We  heard  them  howling  from  our 
boat,  but  could  not  see,  nor  imagine  what  it  meant.  The 
poor  fellows  were  rowed  ashore  to  IsTew  Bern  by  their  Yankee 
prisoners — so  to  speak.  They  were  afterwards  exchanged 
and  I  met  one  of  them  in  Richmond.  He  said  he  never  felt 
so  mean  in  all  his  life,  and  he  ahnost  split  his  throat  halloo- 
ing for  us  to  get  them  out  of  the  scrape. 

The  attack  upon  New  Bern  was  well  planned,  and  we  all 
know  that  the  assault  of  that  intrepid  division  was  irresisti- 
ble, but  here  was  another  case  where  somebody  had  blundered. 
If  General  Pickett's  orders  had  been  carried  out,  there  would 
have  been  another  exemplification  of  the  power  of  a  navy,  by 
its  very  absence  in  this  case ;  for  the  neutralizing  of  the  help 
given  by  the  Underwriter  in  the  defense  of  ]Srew  Bern  would 
have  made  General  Pickett's  assault  upon  the  right  flank  of 
those  defenses   a  very  different  affair.* 

Referring  to  this  capture  Admiral  Porter,  United  States 
Navy,  wrote  at  that  time:  "This  was  rather  a  mortifying 
affair  for  the  navy,  however  fearless  on  the  part  of  the  Con- 
federates. This  gallant  expedition  was  led  by  Commander 
John  Taylor  Wood.  It  was  to  be  expected  that  with  so  many 
clever  officers,  who  left  the  Federal  navy  and  cast  their  for- 
tunes with  the  Confederates,  such  gallant  action  would  often 
be  attempted,  and  had  the  enemy  attacked  the  forts,  the 
chances  are  that  they  would  have  been  successful,  as  the  gar- 
rison was  unprepared  for  an  attack  on  the  river  flank,  their 
most  vulnerable  side." 

That  night  our  command  pulled  up  to  Kinston,  tired  and 
fagged  from  four  days  of  work  and  unrest,  and  so  we  went 
back  to  our  ships  at  Richmond. 

B.    P.    LOYALL. 

Norfolk,  Va., 

2  February,  1901. 

*NoTE  —General  Pickett  was  evidently  a  favorite  at  Richmond  and  the 
command  of  this  expedition,  as  of  part  of  the  charge  at  Gettysburg,  was 
given  him  as  opportunity  to  earn  higher  promotion.  It  is  not  improb- 
able that  impartial  history  may  write  him  down  as  unequal  to  his  op- 
portunities How  differently  both  would  have  turned  out  under  a 
leader  like  Stonewall  Jackson,  or  Pender,  or  Hoke. — Ed. 


By  JAMES  MAGLENN,  Chief  Engineer. 

This  steamer,  formerly  called  the  "Lord  Clyde,"  running 
between  Dublin  and  Glasgow,  was  }uirchased  by  the  State 
of  JSTorth  Carolina  to  carry  out  cotton  and  other  Southern 
products,  and  bring  in  arms  and  supplies  of  clothing  and  medi- 
cines for  the  I^ortli  Carolina  State  Troops,  and  was  named 
the  Ad- Vance.* 

I  joined  the  ship  on  her  first  arrival  in  Wilmington,  and 
was  with  her  until  captured  September,  1864,  with  the  ex- 
ception of  one  trip  made  from  Wilmington  to  Nassau  and  re- 
turn, serving  in  different  capacities ;  first  trip  as  second  as- 
sistant engineer,  second  trip  as  first  assistant  engineer,  then 
as  chief  engineer,  making  several  successful  trips,  one  to  Liv- 
erpool for  repairs,  returning  to  Bermuda  in  June,  1864, 
thence  to  Wilmington. 

Some  of  her  trips  were  very  exciting  and  hazardous.  On 
one  occasion  there  were  four  steamers  leaving  St.  Georges, 
Bermuda,  including  the  Ad-Vance,  for  Wilmington.  But 
two  of  these  arrived  in  Wilmington.  One  put  back  to  Ber- 
muda badly  disabled ;  the  other  Avas  lost  in  the  gale.  On 
this  occasion  I  Avas  limited  to  twelve  revolutions  per  minute 
for  thirty-six  hours,  or  during  the  severest  of  the  gale,  which 
was  just  enough  for  the  ship  to  mind  the  helm,  being  head  to 
the  gale  all  this  time  and  water  increasing  in  the  hold  to  such 
an  extent  that  it  got  within  six  inches  of  the  grate-bars.  In 
fact,  I  thought  our  time  had  come  and,  therefore,  informed 
Captain  Wiley  hoAv  matters  were  in  the  engine  and  fire  room, 
and  that  "avc  could  not  hold  out  this  way  much  longer."  I 
suggested  to  him  the  importance  of  turning  the  ship  around 
and  running  before  the  Avind,  to  enable  me  to  get  the  Avater 

*This  was  said  to  have  had  a  triple  significance,  Ad.  Vance  i.  e.  (1)  To 
Vance,  (2)  Ad.  Vance  in  honor  of  Mrs  Vance  whose  name  was  Adelaide, 
(3)  As  the  advance  or  pioneer  ship. — Ed. 

336  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'6o. 

out  by  working  the  engines  faster.  He  remonstrated  by  say- 
ing that  "to  attempt  such  a  thing  in  a  night  like  this  would 
be  certain  destruction  to  the  ship  and  all  on  board,  but  do  the 
best  you  can  until  morning  and  when  the  worst  comes,  I  may 
attempt  it  in  daylight,  but  I  feel  confident  we  will  have  a 
change  for  the  better  by  morning.  The  barometer  has  com- 
menced to  rise  and  is  going  up  rapidly.  It  is  the  first  time 
it  has  made  a  movement  in  that  direction  for  two  days." 
Strange  to  say,  by  8  o'clock  the  next  morning,  it  was  per- 
fectly calm,  but  a  tremendous  sea  was  rolling,  which  knocked 
us  about  considerably.  This  was  the  heaviest  gale  we  ever 
experienced.  On  our  arrival  at  Wilmington,  we  made  some 
improvement  in  bilge  and  other  pumps,  which  'was  actually 
necessary  to  make  her  seaworthy  in  anything  like  heavy 

The  ship  was  in  critical  and  dangerous  positions  on 
divers  occasions.  Once  on  the  shoals  off  Fort  Caswell 
where  she  remained  for  two  or  three  days  in  range  of  the  en- 
emy's guns,  but  was  finally  worked  off  and  arrived  in  Wil- 
mington without  any  serious  damage.  Again,  coming  from 
St.  Georges,  Bermuda,  we  expected  to  make  Bald  Head  light 
about  12  o'clock  at  night.  However,  a  light  was  seen  ahead 
about  this  time,  but  it  proved  to  be  Cape  Lookout,  and,  when 
this  was  thoroughly  understood  and  consultation  held,  Colo- 
nel Crossan,  Captain  Wiley,  the  pilot  Kic  Moss  and  Chief 
Engineer,  as  to  what  was  best  to  be  done,  it  was  decided  that 
we  should  try  to  get  in  at  ISTew  Inlet. 

Failing  to  get  in  there,  she  was  to  be  run  on  the  beach,  as 
we  did  not  have  coal  enough  on  board  to  go  back  to  Bermuda. 
However,  we  left  Cape  Lookout  about  2  o'clock  on  a  beautiful 
October  morning,  all  excitement  and  ship  working  at  full 
speed  close  in  to  the  land,  determined  to  go  in  or  on  the  beach. 
It  being  a  little  hazy  along  the  line,  was  something  in  our 
favor.  Did  not  see  any  of  the  fleet  until  we  passed  Wrights- 
ville  and  sighted  Fort  Fisher.  As  we  approached  the  fort, 
the  gun-boats  made  for  us,  firing  shot  that  fell  short.  At  this 
time  we  were  approaching  them  very  rapidly ;  on  account  of 
a  point  of  shoal,  we  had  to  turn  to  make  the  channel  inlet. 
Bv  this  time  their  shot  were  goinc  over  us,  and  when  Colonel 

The  Steamer  Ad-Vance.  337 

Lamb's  Wliitwortli  guns  began  their  firing  iipon  the  fleet, 
one  large  steamer,  supposed  to  be  the  State  of  Georgia,  came 
rapidly  towards  us,  and  when  in  dangerous  proximity,  was 
about  to  turn  to  bring  her  broadside  guns  upon  the  Ad-Vance, 
but  a  well-directed  shot  from  a  10-inch  Columbiad  from  the 
northeast  salient  of  the  fort  crashed  into  her  boAv,  when  she 
rapidly  backed  water  and  withdrew  from  the  chase,  enabling 
the  Ad-Vance  to  get  safely  in,  amid  the  shouts  of  the  garrison 
and  the  cheers  of  the  officers  and  crew  and  the  waving  of 
handkerchiefs  by  tliose  on  deck  of  the  blockade  runner. 
A  number  of  officers  came  on  board  to  congratulate  us,  and 
Captain  Wiley  and  the  Kev.  Moses  D.  Hoge,  mIio  was  on 
board  bringing  in  a  lot  of  testaments.  Bibles  and  tracts  for 
the  soldiers,  sent  special  thanks  to  Colonel  Lamb  and  his  gar- 
rison for  their  timely  aid.  This  was  considered  one  of  the 
most  daring  and  gallant  feats  performed  by  the  blockade-run- 
ners during  the  war. 


We  left  Wilmington  about  9  September,  1864,  Captain 
Wiley  still  in  command,  Avith  a  full  cargo,  principally  of  cot- " 
ton,  bound  for  Halifax,  X.  C,  and  anchored  at  New  Inlet, 
near  Fort  Fisher,  and  in  full  sight  of  the  Federal  fleet  of 
twenty-five  or  thirty  vessels,  who,  of  course,  understcjud  our 
designs  and  would  be  on  the  lookout  for  us  that  night.  Al- 
though the  night  was  not  altogether  favorable,  we  started  as 
soon  as  the  tide  would  permit.  Of  course,  smoke,  sparks  and 
flames  from  the  stack  had  to  be  kept  down.  This  was  very 
difficult  to  do,  as  our  last  shovelful  of  good  coal  was  used 
shortly  after  crossing  the  bar  and  ill  plain  sight  of  some  of  the 
fleet.  Those  that  could  see  us  would  throw  rockets,  indicat- 
ing the  direction  we  were  going.  Then  the  dodging  on  our 
part  and  the  fre(|uent  change  of  the  shi]r's  course  to  keep  from 
running  into  them.  The  excitement  at  this  time  was  very 
great.  Yet  all  was  as  quiet  as  the  grave  on  board  and  every 
man  was  at  his  post  and  doing  his  duty  faithfully.  The 
rocket  firing  and  shooting  were  very  heavy,  and  nothing  but 
good  management  on  the  part  of  our  officers  could  have  pulled 
us  safely  through  the  fleet  that  night.  At  sunrise  there  was 

338  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

nothing  in  sight,  yet  onr  black  smoke  was  giving  ns  away. 
Some  of  the  fleet  were  following  it,  and  about  8  o'clock  a  ves- 
sel was  discovered  chasing  us  and  appeared  to  be  gaining. 
Everj^thing  possible  was  done  to  increase  the  speed  of  the 
Ad-Vancc,  but  the  steaming  qualities  of  the  coal  were  against 
us.  We  were  using  Chatham,  or  Egypt  coal,  which  was  very 
inferior ;  in  fact  nothing  but  slate  or  the  croppings  of  the 
mine.  Our  good  coal  at  Wilmington  was  taken  for  the  Con- 
federate cruisers,  which  accounts  for  our  capture.  We  were 
in  hopes  we  could  evade  the  pursuing  steamer  in  the  darkness 
of  the  night,  but,  in  our  present  condition,  she  was  too  fast 
for  us  and  was  able  to  throw  some  shot  over  us  some  time  be- 
fore sundown,  which  caused  us  to  stop  the  ship  and  surrender. 
Erom  the  stopping  of  the  ship  to  the  boarding  of  the  United 
States  officers,  some  time  elapsed,  causing  an  accumulation  of 
steam,  which  was  blowing  off  very  freely.  The  United  States 
Engineer  Corps,  seeing  the  condition  of  affairs,  asked  me 
to  have  my  men  haul  the  fires  and  arrange  to  have  the  boilers 
supplied  with  water.  I  told  him  I  had  nothing  more  to  do 
with  the  ship  and  considered  him  in  charge.  He  then  asked 
if  my  assistant  engineers  would  go  down  and  attend  to  this, 
I  pointed  them  out  to  him,  saying  they  would  answer  for 
themselves  and,  on  their  recusal,  the  Lieutenant  ordered  us  on 
the  bridge  on  top  of  tlie  boilers,  saying :  ''If  she  does  blow  up 
I  will  send  you  all  to  eternity."  Imagine  us  sitting  on  top 
of  the  boilers  waiting  for  the  explosion.  However,  we  knew 
there  was  no  immediate  danger,  if  they  could  succeed  in  get- 
ting the  jiumps  to  work,  which  they  did  in  a  short  time,  and 
we  were  relieved  from  our  dangerous  position  and  sent  on 
board  the  Santiago  de  Cuba,  which  captured  us.  All  were 
examined  as  to  their  nationality,  many  North  Carolinians 
and  A''ii*ginians  on  board  claiming  British  protection.  In 
fact,  all  on  board  except  two,  one  from  Connecticut  and  one 
from  Virginia,  claimed  British  protection  and  all  could 
sound  the  letter  "O"  in  "home"  very  broad.  Mr.  Carter, 
our  purser,  was  the  only  one  on  board  that  was  sworn,  and 
this  was  on  account  of  the  clothing  he  wore,  it  being  a  suit  of 
ISTorth  Carolina  home-spun.  The  Captain  looked  at  him 
from  head  to  foot  and  vice  versa,  saving  that  he  was  the  first 

The  Steamer  Ad-Vance.  339 

Englishman  he  ever  saw  with  a  suit  of  clothes  of  that  kind. 

On  our  way  to  Xorfolk,  with  Cape  Henry  in  sight,  Sunday 
morning  we  were  ordered  on  deck  for  prayer  (Episcopal  ser- 
vice). During  the  service  our  Captain  Wiley  called  my  at- 
tention to  the  Ca])tain  of  the  Santiago  de  Cuba,  saying  the 
prayers  were  doing  him  no  good,  from  the  fact  that  he  was 
turning  around  every  minnte  to  see  if  the  valuable  prize,  the 
Ad-Vance,  was  coming,  and  when  satisfied  that  all  things 
were  well  with  her,  would  turn  around  again,  giving  a  little 
more  attention  to  the  sermon  for  a  few  minutes.  We  arrived 
in  Xorfolk  Sunday  afternoon  and  had  the  freedom  of  the  city, 
that  is  inside  the  Provost  Marshal's  limits. 

We,  however,  wanted  to  go  ''ome,"  and  had  to  appeal  to  the 
British  Consul  at  Xorfolk.  We  had  some  trouble  at  first,  but 
the  Consul  finally  took  our  case  to  heart  and  wrote  a  letter  to 
Lord  Lyons,  stating  the  way  her  Britannic  Majesty's  subjects 
were  treated.  This  did  the  work  for  us  and  we  were  permit- 
ted to  find  our  way  "ome"  as  best  we  could,  without  interrup- 

This  was  the  last  I  saw  of  the  Ad-Vance,  but  I  have  been 
told  by  Colonel  Lamb  that  she  was  turned  into  a  gun-boat, 
The  Frolic,  and  was  in  the  second  bombardment  at  Fort 
Fisher,  and  has  been  seen  several  times  at  Wilmington  since 
the  war. 

Many  of  the  North  Carolinians  made  their  way  from  Nor- 
folk to  Llalifax,  N.  S.,  thence  to  Nassau,  where  I  was  ap- 
pointed Chief  Engineer  of  the  steamer  Col.  Lamh,  with  Cap- 
tain Thomas  Lockwood  in  command.  We  were  then  ready  to 
run  the  blockade  again  to  Wilmington,  but  were  informed  by 
an  incoming  steamer  that  Forts  Fisher  and  Caswell  had  been 
taken.  This  left  no  port  open  for  us  but  Galveston.  We 
then  left  Nassau  for  Havana,  took  on  supplies  and  started  for 
Galveston ;  on  arriving  oft'  the  bar,  it  was  thought  too  risky 
to  go  in  as  the  wind  had  been  blowing  unfavorably  for  several 
days,  which  caused  low  water  in  the  harbor  which  would 
increase  the  risk  of  the  steamer.  On  consultation  with  pilots 
it  was  decided  not  to  take  the  risk ;  we  then  returned  to  Ha- 
vana, all  ports  being  now  effectively  closed,  and  after  making 
some  repairs  to  the  machinery,  we  were  ordered  to  Halifax, 

340  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

N.  S.,  toTiching  at  jSTassau  and  Bermuda,  arriving  at  Halifax 
about  10  April,  1865. 

While  lying  in  the  harbor,  Captain  Lockwood  gave  a  dina- 
tion  to  the  iVgents  and  Confederate  friends  on  Saturday,  15 
April,  and  at  sun  rise  the  ship  was  decorated  with  flags  from 
stem  to  stern  and  the  steamer  Col.  Lamb  made  a  very  hand- 
some appearance,  but  they  were  not  allowed  to  remain  there 
long.  About  9  :00  or  10  :00  a.  m.,  a  British  boat  was  seen 
coming  towards  us  and  pulled  alongside.  The  officer  in 
charge  inquired  for  the  Captain.  When  told  he  was  ashore, 
he  then  ordered  the  flags  to  be  taken  down,  as  it  was  very  un- 
becoming to  be  rejoicing  over  the  death  of  the  President  of 
the  United  States  in  British  waters.  When  told  that  they 
were  displayed  for  another  purpose,  it  made  no  difference. 
They  had  to  come  down  at  once.  This  was  news  to  us  and 
created  quite  a  sensation  in  the  city  and  the  newspapers  were 
full  of  it  for  several  days  on  both  sides,  but  is  was  claimed 
that  the  flags  should  have  been  allowed  to  remain,  as  the  news 
of  President  Lincoln's  death  did  not  reach  Halifax  until 
about  9  :00  o'clock  that  morning,  and  the  flags  were  up  at  sun- 

The  surrender  having  taken  place  while  we  were  here,  it 
was  decided  to  take  the  ship  to  Liverpool.  We  left  here 
about  5  ]\Iay  and  had  a  storiuy  passage  all  the  way — in  fact 
a  gale  of  wind  carrying  away  the  foremast  a  few  feet  above 
deck,  which  came  near  swamping  us;  then  came  the  remorse 
of  conscience  with  those  of  us  that  belonged  on  this  side  of  the 
Atlantic  for  not  going  home  immediately  after  the  surrender 
instead  of  taking  this  trip.  However,  we  arrived  in  Liver- 
pool about  1  June.  We  remained  there  a  few  days  and  then 
started  for  home  in  the.Cunard  steamer  China.  This  being 
an  ocean-going  steamer,  we  felt  much  safer  than  iij  the  Ad- 
Yance  or  Col.  Lamb.  We  had  a  pleasant  return  trip,  arriving 
in  Halifax,  iST.  S.,  on  4  July,  1S65,  from  there  to  Charlotte, 
jST.  C,  where  my  family  resided  during  the  last  two  years  of 
the  war.  I  found  all  well  and  was  glad  to  be  home  with  my 
famih"  once  more. 

Jas.  Maglenn-, 

Hamlet,  N.  C, 

10  September,  1901. 



tVlden  foundations^ 


1.     Tliriinas  M.  Crossen,  Captain,  Steamer  "  Ail-Vance."' 
■■i     Joliri  White,  Commissioner  to  Enjclaiul. 
3.    James  JIaslenn.  Chief  Engineer. 


By  rev.  MOSES  D.  HOGE,  D.  D. 

Bermuda,  Wednesday,  October  8,  1863. — x\t  12  o'clock 
went  on  board  the  Ad-Vance  (Lord  Clyde).  My  fellow  pas- 
sengers are  Rev.  Mr.  Terr}^,  Mrs.  Pender,  Messrs.  Bur- 
ton, Walker  and  Reguanlt.  Got  oft"  at  10  o'clock;  beauti- 
ful view  of  Bermuda  as  we  rapidly  sped  along.  The  Clyde 
a  fine  and  fast  vessel.     Officers,  Colonel  Crossen,  Captain 

Wylie  (the  English  Captain)  ;  First  Officer,  — .  — .  ; 

Surgeon,  Dr.  Swan ;  Purser,  Mr.  Flanner ;  Signal  Officer, 
Mr.  Smith.  The  Colonel  is  a  noble  man ;  Wylie  a  warm- 
hearted Scotchman,  though  he  looks  English  ever}-  inch,  big, 
burly  and  red  faced,  full  of  enthusiasm^full  of  poetry. 
Flnnner  has  good  points.  I  have  had  some  pleasant  inter- 
course with  young  Smith,  who  became  pious  at  Hampden- 
Sidney.  We  have  taken  no  state  rooms  on  the  Clyde,  al- 
though there  are  a  great  number  of  unoccupied  ones,  but  our 
little  company  of  passengers  all  stay  in  the  saloon  at  night. 
The  fare  is  rather  rough,  but  that  is  nothing  when  we  have  a 
good  shi])  homeward  1)ound. 

We  have  been  in  much  trouble  on  the  ship  to-day.  The 
coal,  which  was  thought  to  be  very  good  (Welsh  coal,  Cardiff) 
is  found  to  be  of  very  bad  quality.  This  morning  we  could 
not  get  up  steam  as  nsnal.  The  serious  question  is  discussed 
whether  we  had  better  not  return  to  Bermuda.  After  run- 
ning fourteen  knots  we  droj^ped  down  to  five.  It  is  thought 
to  be  useless  to  go  on  toward  the  blockaders  to  ensure  a  cap- 
ture. We  put  tlie  vessel  about  and  sailed  a  while  due  east, 
but  after  a  little  while  the  draft  increased  and  the  paddles 
made  their  former  revolutions  from  twenty  to  twenty-three 
per  minute. 

342  North  Carolina  Troops,   l861-'65. 

The  difficulty  was  there  was  a  mixture  of  something  like 
kelp  and  sand,  which  melted  on  the  hars  of  the  grates  and 
choked  tlie  draft,  making  a  deposit  they  called  slag.  It  waa 
terribly  hard  on  the  firemen  to  keep  them  clear. 

The  discipline  of  this  ship  is  very  bad.  The  sailors  came 
and  demanded  their  bounty  the  first  day,  and  the  second,  the 
firemen  came  up  on  the  quarter  deck,  a  thing  quite  contrary 
to  ship  etiquette,  and  made  the  same  demand.  They  ought 
to  have  been  paid  at  once  according  to  custom,  but  while  it 
was  wrong  to  withhold  the  money,  it  was  not  right  for  them  to 
demand  it  as  they  did. 

October  9,  1863. — I  am  now  on  board  the  Ad-Vance,  (Lord 
Clyde),  about  100  miles  from  the  North  Carolina  coast.  It 
is  4  o'clock,  p.  m.,  and  I  am  sitting  on  the  bottom  step  of  the 
paddle  box,  from  which  I  can  look  down  directly  into  the 
water  and  see  how  beautifully  it  divides  before  the  bow  of 
the  steamer,  darting  through  at  a  noble  speed.  This  is  one 
of  the  most  pleasant  days  as  to  temperature  I  ever  felt,  clear, 
coolish,  without  being  cool  and  something  life-giving  in  the 

It  is  a  day  for  thought,  a  time  for  review  and  anticipation. 
To-night  we  will  know  our  fate,  whether  it  is  to  be  the  bot- 
tom of  the  sea,  a  northern  prison,  or  Richmond.  I  am  not 
apprehensive,  but  I  know  the  risks.  We  have  heard  nothing 
from  Wibnington.  No  steamers  came  out  while  we  were  in 
Bermuda,  though  several  were  expected.  We  may  be  run- 
ning into  a  tra]^ — as  we  know  not  what  progress  the  Federals 
may  have  made  in  the  way  of  excluding  blockade-runners. 
We  may  be  damaged  by  the  fire  of  the  fleet,  even  if  w^e  succeed 
in  running  the  gauntlet  and  although  I  do  not  repent  coming, 
and  notwithstanding  the  uncertainty,  I  have  no  desire  to  turn 
back,  yet  I  know  we  may  be  disappointed  just  on  the  happy 
eve  of  getting  home  and  indeed  may  never  reach  it  at  all.  I 
have  spent  much  time  this  morning  in  prayer,  in  solemn  con- 
secration of  myself  to  God,  and  in  supplication  for  a  spirit  of 
submission  to  His  will.  I  try  to  commit  myself  and  my  dear 
family  and  church  to  His  holy  keeping. 

We  have  just  been  mustered  on  deck  and  had  our  places  in 
the  boats  assigned  to  us,  in  case    we    have    to    abandon    the 

Running  the  Blockade  on  the  "Ad-Vance."  343 

steamer  to-night.  I  go  with  Colonel  Crossen  and  Mrs. 
Pender,  and  the  rest  of  our  boat's  crew  are  firemen  and  sail- 
ors. Terry,  Burton,  "Walker  and  Regnault  go  in  the  other 
life-boats,  the  rest  of  the  crew  in  the  two  aft  boats.  This 
looks  like  business.  It  is  the  purpose  to  destroy  the  Ad- 
Vance  and  take  to  the  boats  if  we  are  intercepted.  I  should 
dread  capture  on  my  dear  wife's  account.  It  would  almost 
break  her  heart,  after  our  long  separation  and  the  sorrow 
she  has  borne.  (The  death  of  their  oldest  son  while  he  was 
in  England.— M.  R.  G.) 

But  I  believe  the  good  Providence  which  brought  me  out 
and  gave  me  such  success  abroad,  will  open  a  door  for  my  safe 
return  to  my  home  and  work  again. 

Wilmington,  ]^.  C,  October  12,  18G3. — I,  now  on  shore, 
can  complete  my  notes  of  this  voyage.  It  had  a  memorable 
termination.  In  the  record  of  the  events  of  the  9th,  I  stated 
I  was  making  my  last  entry  (a  prayer  I  did  not  copy,  as  it 
was  too  personal. — M.  P.  G.)  expecting  to  get  ashore  that 
night.  We  were  disappointed,  however.  Although  the  Cap- 
tain and  Colonel  made  an  observation  at  12  M.,  they  failed  to 
detect  the  fact  that  the  current  of  the  Gulf  Stream  had  swept 
us  far  to  the  north  of  our  course.  About  9  o'clock  at  night 
we  saw  a  light  and  the  dim  outline  of  the  land.  At  first  it 
was  thought  to  be  the  signal  light  near  Port  Fisher,  and  Mr. 
Smith  wanted  to  make  signals,  but  after  long  inspection,  dis- 
covered that  it  was  a  light-house.  We  then  changed  our 
course  southward  and  ran  along  shore,  all  night  in  doubt  as  to 
where  we  were.  Colonel  C.  once  thought  we  might  be  south 
of  the  entrance  to  Wilmington  and  running  toward  Charles- 
ton. This  show^s  how  completely  at  sea  we  were !  Wben  it 
grew  light  enough  to  see  the  coast  more  plainly,  our  officers 
recognized  certain  localities  on  Masonboro  Sound,  the  salt 
works,  etc.,  and  we  ascertained  we  had  just  made  the  land 
north  of  Cape  Lookout,  80  miles  from  the  point  Ave  expected  to 
strike.  Colonel  Crossen  prepared  to  run  up  near  enough  to 
see  which  blockaders  were  within  view  and  I  supposed  he 
would  then  stand  out  to  sea  and  lie  off  until  night  and  then 
run  in  at  his  leisure,  but  to  my  astonishment,  although  it  was 
about  8  o'clock  in  the  morning,  the  sun  shining  brilliantly 

344  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

and  the  sea  level  as  a  floor  and  three  blockaders  guarding  the 
entrance,  he  steamed  straight  on  toward  Fort  Fisher.  The 
blockaders  seemed  confused  for  a  few  moments  by  the  audac- 
ity of  the  movement,  but  presently  they  came  about  and  all 
three  struck  for  the  shore,  intending  to  cut  us  off.  They 
came  on  very  speedily,  but  finding  that  we  were  running  so 
swiftly  they  opened  upon  us  with  shrapnel,  shell  and  solid 

It  was  a  scene  of  intense  excitement.  We  could  see  peo- 
ple on  the  shore,  watching  the  result.  We  doubted  not  with 
utmost  interest- — the  shells  were  plougliing  up  the  water  and 
tearing  up  the  sand  on  the  shore,  bursting  over  and  around 
us,  and  yet  not  one  struck  us.  It  was  almost  a  miracle.  Two 
or  three  of  their  shells  struck  the  sand  just  at  the  edge  of  the 
water  and  directly  opposite  to  us  and  the  wonder  was  how  the 
balls  could  get  there  w^ithout  passing  through  us.  Colonel  C. 
certainly  made  a  hazardous  experiment.  Had  the  mist  near 
the  coast  not  veiled  us  somewhat  from  the  view  of  the  enemy 
as  we  a^^proached,  and  had  he  seen  us  in  time  to  make  chase 
ten  minutes  sooner,  he  would  have  headed  us  off  and  driven 
us  ashore,  or  had  one  of  his  shot  penetrated  our  boilers,  we 
would  have  been  blown  to  fragments.  Had  we  been  compelled 
to  talce  to  our  boats,  we  would  have  still  been  in  great  danger, 
for  we  Avonld  have  been  under  fire  perhaps  an  hour,  when  the 
smooth  sea  made  it  as  easy  to  fire  accurately  from  the  deck  as 
from  the  walls  of  a  fort. 

As  it  was,  by  the  favor  of  a  good  Providence,  we  escaped 
unharmed  and  very  soon  ran  by  Fort  Fisher,  when  the  guns 
of  that  fort  opened  on  the  blockaders  and  a  pretty  little  fight 
took  place  bctAveen  them,  the  vessels  quickly  withdrawing, 
however,  one  of  them  liaving  been  struck. 

As  we  passed  the  fort  our  crew  cheered  heartily,  we  ran  up 
our  Confederate  flag. 

In  a  moment  more  we  struck  the  rip  and  stuck  fast. 

Moses  D.  Hoge. 

WiLMINCTON,     N.     '.. 

12  Octobr    1  ()3. 





By   an   officer   THEREOF. 

The  agents  of  the  Xavy  Department  who  are  engaged  in 
the  compilation  of  the  official  records  of  the  Union  and  Con- 
federate Navies  in  the  late  Avar,  have  recently  brought  to 
light,  from  Southern  sources,  a  mass  of  hitherto  unpublished 
information  of  curious  interest  and  value,  relative  to  the  oper- 
ations of  the  Confederate  privateer  Shenandoah.  In  the  de- 
structiveness  to  Union  property  the  work  of  the  Shenandoah 
was  second  only  to  that  of  the  Alabama,  and  the  former  en- 
joyed the  peculiar  distinction  of  having  far  outstripped  the 
records  of  all  other  cruisers  in  the  length  of  her  voyage  and 
the  fact  that  she  never  met  with  the  slightest  opposition  from 
Union  arms  in  her  path  of  destruction,  and  continued  her 
depredations  many  months  after  the  conclusion  of  the  war. 

It  is  worthy  of  remark  that  the  Xavy  Department  at  Wash- 
ington was  in  possession  of  information  relative  to  her  outfit 
and  plans  early  in  the  summer  of  1864,  but  active  search  was 
not  instituted  until  January,  1865,  and  though  the  United 
States  ships  Santee,  Wachusett,  Iroquois,  ^yyoming  and  the 
European  and  Pacific  squadrons  at  large  were  successively 
ordered  in  pursuit  of  her,  none -of  them  ever  succeeded  in 
coming  up  with  her,  much  less  in  engaging  her  in  combat.  In 
August,  1865,  her  commander  gained  conclusive  informa- 
tion that  the  war  had  gone  against  the  South,  and  he  leis- 
urely and  uninterruptedly  made  his  way  to  England,  where 
he  gave  himself  and  his  ship  into  the  hands  of  the  British 

The  Shenandoali  was  a  full-rigged  ship  of  1,000  tons  and 
250  horse-power,  with  a  battery  of  four  8-inch  guns — two 
32-pounders  and  two  12-pounders.  She  was  originally  the 
British  ship  Sea  King,  built  in  1863  for  the  East  Indian 
trade.  On  her  return  voyage  she  was  purchased  by  Confeder- 
ate agents  in  Europe  and  fitted  out  as  a  cruiser  in  the  Confed- 

346  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

erate  service,  primarily  to  disperse  and  destroy  the  New  Eng- 
land whaling  fleet  in  the  northern  seas.  She  had  been  de- 
signed as  a  transport  for  troops,  had  spaeions  decks  and  large 
air  ports,  and  was  well  suited  for  conversion  into  a  cruiser. 
A  fast  sailer  under  canvas,  her  steam  power  was  more  thao 
auxiliary,  as  she  could  exceed  eleven  knots  without  pressing. 
Provided  with  fifteen  months'  stores,  she  sailed  from  London 
8  October,  1804,  in  command  of  her  English  master,  Captain 
Corbett,  for  ]\[adeira.  Ten  days  later  she  was  delivered  over 
to  her  new  commander,  Lieutenant  James  I.  Waddell,  who 
had  taken  passage  from  Liverpool  with  the  officers  and  men 
detailed  for  his  command.  Among  the  latter  were  some 
picked  men  from  the  famous  Alabama,  which  had  been  sunk 
by  the  Kearsage  a  few  months  before.  The  Shenandoah 
was  commissioned  19  October  and  that  day  cleared  for  Ma- 

The  journal  of  Commander  Waddell  is  now  in  the  posses- 
sion of  the  Navy  Department,  and  is  a  most  interesting  rec- 
ord of  the  career  of  the  Shenandoah. 

On  30  October  the  cry  of  ''Sail  ho !"  rang  out  from  the 
Shenandoah' s  masthead.  Immediately  she  bore  down  upon 
the  distant  vessel,  an  American  bark,  the  Alma,  of  a  seaport 
in  ]\[aine,  bound  for  Buenos  Ayres  with  railroad  iron.  She 
was  on  her  flrst  voyage,  thoroughly  equipped,  nicely  coppered 
and  beautifully  clean^ — a  tempting  prize.  Defense  on  her 
part  was  out  of  the  question,  and  the  Confederates  boarded 
and  scuttled  her,  after  appropriating  such  of  her  furnishings 
as  they  could  make  use  of  and  taking  the  crew  prisoners,  six 
of  whom  afterwards  volunteered  their  service  as  active  men 
on  the  Shenandoah.     The  Alma  was  valued  at  $95,000. 

On  15  November  the  Shenandoah  crossed  the  equator.  Her 
course  thence  lay  south  along  the  coast  of  Brazil.  Nothing 
of  interest  occurred  after  crossing  the  line  except  the  inter- 
change of  courtesies  with  neutral  vessels  until  4  December, 
when  the  American  whaleship  Editards,  out  of  New  Bedford 
three  months,  Avas  sighted  and  captured  near  the  Island  of 
Tristan.  The  Edwards  had  taken  a  whale  and  was  "cutting 
out"  when  captured,  her  crew  being  so  occupied  with  the  fish 
that  the  Shenandoah  had  come  within  easy  range  of  her  unob- 

The  Shenandoah.  347 

served.  The  Edwards'  outfit  was  of  excellent  quality,  and 
the  Confederates  lay  by  two  days  supplying  their  steamer 
with  necessaries.  The  whaleship  was  then  burned,  and  Wad- 
dell  landed  for  a  day  at  Tristan  and  made  arrangements  with 
the  native  governor  to  receive  the  Edwards'  crew,  most  of 
whom  were  Sandwich  Islanders. 

Soon  after  the  departure  from  Tristan  it  was  found  that  a 
serious  accident  had  happened  to  the  propeller  shaft  of  the 
Shenandoah,  and  it  became  necessary  to  seek  some  considera- 
ble port  for  the  repairs.  Capetown  was  nearest,  but  Com- 
mander Waddell  preferred  making  Melbourne,  if  possible, 
the  course  thither  lying  nearer  the  more  frequented  tracks  of 
the  United  States  vessels.  The  voyage  was  marked  by  the 
capture  of  several  merchantmen. 

The  character  of  the  Shenandoah  was  known  at  Melbourne 
and  she  was  cheered  and  surrounded  by  the  steamers  in  the 
haven.  The  next  day  the  work  of  repairing  the  ship  was  be- 
gun and  during  the  delay  several  of  the  crew  embraced  the 
opportunity  to  desert,  all  of  them  being  men  who  had  joined 
the  Shenandoah  from  captured  ships.  The  attempt  of  Wad- 
dell to  pursue  and  bring  back  these  men  was  obstructed  by  the 
United  States  consul,  as  well  as  by  the  Australian  authorities. 
The  Shenandoah,  in  a  fortified  British  port,  was  in  no  posi- 
tion to  resist  these  acts,  and  on  18  February,  the  repairs  and 
coaling  having  been  completed,  the  port  was  cleared. 

The  delay  of  the  steamer  at  Melbourne  had  operated 
against  success  for  the  Shenandoah  in  the  South  Pacific.  The 
whaling  fleets  of  that  ocean  had  received  warning  of  the  pres- 
ence of  the  privateer  and  had  departed  for  sheltering  ports 
or  the  Arctic  ocean.  Learning  from  a  passing  steamer  that 
some  United  States  whaling  vessels  Avere  to  be  found  in  a 
harbor  of  the  Caroline  Islands,  Waddell  directed  his  course 
thither,  reaching  the  Islands  early  in  April. 

An  English  pilot,  who  had  been  living  therefor  some  years, 
volunteered  his  services  to  the  Confederates  and  brought  the 
steamer  to  anchor  in  sight  of  four  vessels  flying  the  American 
flag.  The  flag  of  the  Slicnayidoah  was  not  yet  displayed. 
After  anchorage  was  secured  four  armed  boats  were  dis- 
patched with  orders  to  capture  the  vessels  and  bring  their  of- 

348  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

ficers,  ships'  papers,  log  books,  instruments  for  navigation 
and  whaling  charts  to  the  She7iandoah.  After  the  boats  left 
the  steamer  the  Confederate  flag  was  hoisted  and  a  gun  fired. 
This  signal  announcing  the  character  of  the  warship  brought 
doAvn  the  American  flags  and  the  seizure  was  immediately 
made.  Waddell  remained  some  days  in  this  harbor,  where 
he  made  friends  with  the  native  ''king,"  a  savage. 

The  course  of  the  Shenandoah  was  thence  for  many  days 
toward  the  north,  and  beset  with  violent  storms.  Finally 
the  snow-covered  Kurile  Islands  were  sighted,  and  31  May  the 
Sea  of  Okhotsk  was  entered,  under  the  coast  of  Kamschatka. 
A  few  days  later  the  w^haling  bark  Abigail,  of  JSTew  Bedford, 
was  overtaken,  captured,  and  burned.  The  Shenandoah  con- 
tinued as  far  north  as  the  mouth  of  Chijinsk  Bay,  but  being 
forced  away  by  the  ice  she  stole  along  the  coast  of  Siberia  on 
her  still  Jiuiit  amid  frequent  storms  and  great  danger  from 
floating  ice.  On  14-  June  no  ships  having  been  sighted,  Wad- 
dell changed  his  course  toward  the  Aleutian  Islands,  entered 
Behring  Sea  on  the  next  day  and  almost  immediately  fell  in 
with  a  couple  of  I^ew  Bedford  whalers.  One  of  them,  the 
William  Thompson,  was  the  largest  out  of  iSTew  England,  and 
valued  at  $60,000.      These  ships  were  burned. 

The  following  day  five  vessels  were  sighted  near  an  ice 
floe.  The  Confederates  hoisted  tlie  American  flag,  bore 
down  upon  them,  and  ordered  the  nearest,  the  Milo,  of  New 
Bedford,  to  produce  her  ship's  papers.  Her  captain  com- 
plied, but  was  enraged  to  find  himself  thus  entrapped.  He 
declared  the  war  was  over.  Waddell  demanded  documentary 
evidence,  which  the  captain  could  not  produce.  His  vessel 
was  seized  and  the  Shenandoah  started  after  the  companion 
ships  with  the  usual  result.  For  several  days  following  the 
She7iandoalt  had  things  all  her  own  way  and  the  prizes  were 
frequent  and  valuable.  She  struck  fleet  after  fleet  of  whal- 
ing ships,  only  to  consign  them  and  their  contents  to  the 
flames.  On  20  -June,  alone,  five  ships,  valued  collectively  at 
$160,000,  were  destroyed  and  a  day  or  two  later  she  reached 
the  climax  of  her  career,  burning  within  eleven  hours  eleven 
ships,  worth  in  the  aggregate  nearly  $500,000. 

The   Slu'nandonh    was   now   overcrowded   with    prisoners, 

The  Shenandoah,  349 

most  of  whom  Avere  afterwards  transferred  to  passing  ships. 
Having  cruised  aronnd  daringly  for  a  week  or  two  longer, 
and  sighting  no  more  ships,  slie  turned  her  prow  southward 
again.  Her  depredations  w^ere  at  an  end,  for  early  in  August 
she  spoke  the  English  bark  Barracouta,  from  San  Francisco 
to  Liverpool,  and  from  her  received  Xew  York  papers  which 
gave  conclusive  evidence  of  the  end  of  the  war  between  the 
States  and  imparted  to  Commander  Waddell  the  more  per- 
sonally interesting  information  that  the  United  States  gov- 
ernment had  sent  six  gun-boats  on  his  track  to  the  Arctic  re- 
gions to  ''catch  the  pirates  and  hang  them  on  sight." 

Upon  receipt  of  the  news  Commander  Waddell  put  sixty 
men  to  work  painting  a  16-foot  belt  of  white  around  the  ves- 
sel, stowed  the  guns  below  the  deck,  trimmed  her  as  a  mer- 
chantmen and  made  Liverpool.  On  the  trip  he  trusted 
the  ship  within  range  of  the  half  dozen  g-un-boats  that  were 
sent  to  capture  the  privateer.  In  answer  to  their  salutes  he 
dipped  the  English  flag  and  steamed  away. 

On  5  jSTovember,  1865, the  Shenandoah  entered  St.  George's 
channel,  having  sailed  22,000  miles  without  seeing  land.  On 
6  November  she  steamed  up  the  Mersey,  and  the  Confederate 
flag  having  been  hauled  down  Waddell  sent  a  communication 
to  the  English  Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs,  Earl  Russell, 
placing  the  ship  at  the  disposal  of  the  British  Government. 
Through  Earl  Russell  the  vessel  was  transferred  to  the  juris- 
diction of  the  American  Minister,  Charles  Francis  Adams. 
The  vessel  was  sold  to  the  Prince  of  Zanzibar  for  use  as  a 
pleasure  craft.  On  the  trip  home  the  famous  privateer, 
which  had  withstood  the  buffetings  of  a  cruise  of  58,000 
statute  miles,  was  caught  in  a  cyclone  and  vessel,  prince  and 
crew  were  lost. 

Such  is  the  record  of  the  Shenandoah.  She  was  actually 
cruising  for  the  Union  property  but  eight  months,  and  during 
that  time  she  captured  and  destroyed  vessels  to  the  value  of 
more  than  $1,200,000,  and  the  Union  had  never  been  able 
to  direct  a  blow  against  her.  She  had  visited  every  ocean 
except  the  Antarctic,  covering  a  distance  of  58,000  statute 
miles.  The  last  gun  in  defense  of  the  South  was  fired  in 
the  Arctic  ocean  from  her  deck  on  22  June,  1865, 

350  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

Captain  James  Iredell  Waddell  was  a  perfect  specimen  of 
physical  manhood,  standing  6  feet  1  inch,  and  weighing  210 

Note. — In  Vol.  3.  Off.  Bee.  Union  A  Confed.  Navies  at  p.  785  is  the  log 
of  the  Shenandoah  from  which  it  appears  (p.  793)  that  in  her  eight 
months  cruise  she  captured  38  vessels  valued  at  |1, 173,223.  From  p. 
793  to  836  is  an  admirable  account  of  the  cruise  of  the  vessel  by  her 
commander,  at  the  conclusion  of  which  Captain  Waddell  says  : 

"The  Shenandoah  was  actually  cruising  but  eight  months  after  the 
enemy's  property,  during  which  time  she  made  thirty-eiglit  captures, 
an  average  of  a  fraction  over  four  per  month. 

She  released  six  on  bond  and  destroyed  thirty-two. 

She  visited  every  ocean  except  the  Antartic  Ocean. 

She  was  the  only  vessel  which  carried  the  flag  around  the  world,  and 
she  carried  it  six  months  after  the  over-throw  of  the  South. 

She  was  surrendered  to  the  British  nation  6  November,  1865. 

The  last  gun  in  defence  of  the  South  was  fired  from  her  deck  33  June, 
in  the  Arctic  Ocean. 

She  ran  a  distance  of  58,000  statue  miles  and  met  with  no  serious  injury 
during  a  cruise  of  thirteen  months. 

Her  anchors  were  on  her  bows  for  eight  months 

She  never  lost  a  chase,  and  was  second  only  to  the  celebrated  Alabama. 

I  claim  for  her  officers  and  men  a  triumph  over  their  enemies  and  over 
every  obstacle,  and  for  myself  I  claim  having  done  my  duty." 

If  space  permitted  the  whole  of  this  article  merits  reproduction  here. 







Captured  nine  miles  nortli  of  Fort  Fisher  by  Admiral  Lee,  and  now 

a  trophy  in  Washington,  D.  C,  Navy  Yard. 


By  colonel  WILLIAM  LAMB,   Tnri;TY--ix  i  h  Regiment  N.  C.  T. 

Shortly  after  taJving  command  of  Fort  Fisher  I  recovered 
from  the  wreck  of  a  blockade  runner,  the  British  Steamship 
Modern  Greece,  four  12  pounder  WhitA\orth  rifle  guns, 
with  a  range  of  five  miles.  With  these  guns,  we  made  the 
U.  S.  Blockading  fleet  remove  their  anchorage  from  two 
and  a  half  miles  to  five  miles  from  the  fore.  So  many  ves- 
sels were  saved  with  these  guns  that  they  soon  had  a  reputa- 
tion throughout  the  South,  and  three  of  them  were  transfer- 
red to  other  commands,  two  going  to  Virginia. 

In  August,  1863,  the  British  Steamship  Hehe  with  a 
most  valuable  cargo,  while  trying  to  enter  Xew  Inlet,  was 
driven  ashore  by  the  enemy  and  partially  destroyed.  A  de- 
tachment of  Cai)tain  Munn's  Company  sent  to  her  relief, 
rescued  the  Captain  and  Crew  and  captured  on  her.  Ensign 
W.  W.  Crowninshield,  Master's  Mate  John  Paige,  Third  As- 
sistant Engineer  Wm.  Mason,  five  petty  ofiicers,  five  seamen 
and  one  ordinary  seaman,  from  the  U.  S.  S.  Niphon.  Munn's 
detachment  remained  ^^dth  a  Whitworth  rifie  gun  and  a 
Faucett  and  Preston  rifle  piece,  behind  an  improvised  sand 
battery,  to  guard  the  wreck  while  its  cargo  was  being  re- 

■Sunday  morning  23  August,  the  steam  frigate  Minnesoia, 
the  flagship  of  the  Xorth  Atlantic  Blockading  Squadron,  came 
up  abreast  of  the  wreck,  wdthin  600  yards,  while  the  United 
States  Steamship  James  Adger  was  sent  into  within  300 
yards,  to  see  if  the  Hebe  could  be  hauled  off  and  the  United 
States  Steamship  Nipli07i  was  ordered  along  the  beach  to 
cut  off  any  retreat.  The  heroic  detachment  instead  of  re- 
treating as  they  should  have  done,  with  their  guns,  as  soon 
as  they  saw  this  powerful  steamship  approaching,  carrying- 
more  guns  and  ammunition  than  were  in  Fort  Fisher,  de- 
fiantly stood  their  ground  and  fired  on  the  boat  sent  by  the 

352  North  Carolina  Troops,   18G1-'65. 

James  Adger  with  a  tow  line  towards  the  Hehe,  driving 
her  back,  wounding  one  of  the  crew.  The  Minnesota  and 
James  Adger  then  opened  a  frightful  lire  on  the  detach- 
ment and  gains  tearing  up  the  beach,  killing  private  Holland 
and  wounding  five  others.  The  detachment  barely  escaped 
cajjture.  They  carried  oil'  their  dead  and  Vv'ounded  comrades 
but  were  obliged  to  leave  their  guns.  The  wreck  was  over 
seven  miles  from  Fort  Tisher,  on  the  narrow  and  low  beach 
between  Masonboro  Sound  and  the  Ocean,  and  it  was  won- 
derful that  any  escaped  alive.  The  enemy  after  landing 
carried  off  the  two  guns."" 

The  j\Jin7icsota  fired  173  shot  and  shell  consuming  1,977 
pounds  of  cannon  powder..  The  James  Adger  fired  1G3 
shot  and  shell  using  U5S  pounds  of  powder,  or  a  total  of  336 
shell  and  shot  and  more  than  a  ton  of  cannon  powder,  to 
drive  a  detachment  of  tar  heels  from  two  small  field  pieces. 
The  Niplion  fired  172  shot  and  shell  at  the  detachment  as 
it  retreated,  and  claimed  to  have  wyunded  many,  but  did 
not  strike  one. 

General  W.  H.  C.  "Whiting  in  reporting  this  fight  to  the 
Secretary  of  War,  Eichmond,  24  August,  1863,  says:  "I 
have  met  with  a  serious  and  heavy  loss  in  that  Whitworth, 
a  gun  that  in  the  hands  of  the  indefatigable  Lamb,  has  saved 
dozens  of  vessels,  and  millions  of  money  to  the  Confederate 
States.  I  beg  that  a  couple  of  the  Whitworth  guns  originally 
saved  by  him  from  the  Modern  Greece  may  be  sent  here 
at  once.  Their  long  range  makes  them  more  suitable  for  a 
seaboard  position.  Could  I  get  them  with  horses  we  could 
save  many  a  vessel  that  will  now  be  lost  to  us." 

William  Lamb. 

Norfolk,  Va., 

23  August,  1901. 

*8ee  ])icture  in  this  Vol.  of  the  captured  "Whitworth  Eifle  gun,  now  at 
Washington,  D.  C.  Navy  Yard. 





1.  John  Newland  Maffltt,  Captain  of    Confederate    Blockade-runners    "  Lilian," 

•"Florie,"  and  'Owl." 

2.  George  C.  McDougal.  Chief  Engineer,  60  voyages  through  the  blockade. 

3.  C.  C.  Morse,  Cape  Fear  Pilot,  North  Carolina  Steamer  "  Ad-Vance." 

4.  Jameis  Sprunt,  Purser,  Confederate    Blockade-runners  "  Lilian "  and  "  Susan 


5.  Fred  W.  Gregory,  Confederate  States  Signal  Officer,  Steamer  "  Susan  Bieme." 


By  JAMES  SPRUNT,  Fokmek  riK.sER  Steamer  Lilian. 

The  following  serial,  undertaken  at  the  request  of  Hon. 
Walter  Clark,  is  a  compilation  of  the  narrative  of  some  of 
those  who  partieipaled  in  a  branch  of  the  Confederate  ser- 
vice, which,  although  not  officially  recognized,  was  neverthe- 
less effective  in  sustaining  the  war  long  after  the  resources 
of  the  South  had  been  exhausted. 


There  are  no  records  from  which  computation  might  be 
made  of  the  amount  and  value  of  goods,  arms,  supplies  and 
stores  brought  into  tlie  Confederate  States  during  the  four 
years  of  blockade,  but  the  Hon.  Zebulon  B.  Vance,  who 
was  Governor  of  North  Carolina  during  several  years  of  the 
war,  has  put  on  record  the  share,  in  part,  of  our  State  in 
blockade-running,  from  ^\hicli  a  general  idea  of  the  amount 
of  values  may  be  obtained. 

In  an  address  before  the  Association  of  the  Maryland  Line, 
delivered  in  Baltimore  2.3  February,  1885,  he  said: 

"By  the  general  industry  and  thrift  of  our  ])cople  and  by 
the  use  of  a  number  of  blockade-running  steamers,  carrying 
out  cotton  and  bringing  in  supplies  from  Euro]ie,  I  had  col- 
lected and  distributed  from  time  to  time,  as  near  as  can  be 
gathered  from  the  records  of  the  Quartermaster's  Depart- 
ment, the  followung  stores :  Large  quantities  of  machinery 
supplies;  60,000  pairs  of  hand  cflrds;  10,000  grain  scythes; 
200  barrels  of  blue  stone  for  wheat  growers  ;  leather  and  shoes 
to  2.50,000  pairs;  50,000  blankets;  grey  wool  cloth  for 
at  least  250,000  suits  of  uniforms;  12,000  overcoats  ready- 
made;  2,000  best  Enfield  rijfles,  with  100  rounds  of  fixed 
ammunition;  100,000  pounds  of  bacon;  500  sacks  of  coffee 
for  hospital  use ;  $50,000  worth  of  medicines  at  gold  prices, 
large  quantities  of  lubricating  oils,  besides  minor  supplies  of 
■     23 

354  North  Carolina  Troops,   1 861-65. 

various  kinds  for  the  charitable  institutions  of  the  State.  Not 
only  ^\'as  the  supply  of  shoes,  blankets  and  clothing  more  than 
sufficient  for  the  supply  of  the  North  Carolina  troops,  but 
large  quantities  were  turned  over  to  the  Confederate  Gov- 
ernment for  the  troops  of  other  States.  In  the  winter  suc- 
ceeding the  l)attlo  of  Chickamauga,  I  sent  to  General  Long- 
street's  Corps  14,000  suits  of  clothing  complete.  At  the  sur- 
render of  General  Johnston,  the  State  had  on  hand  ready- 
made  and  in  cloth  92,000  suits  of  uniforms,  with  great  stores 
of  blanJ^ets,  leather,  etc.  To  make  good  the  warrant  on  which 
these  ])iirchases  had  been  made  abroad,  the  State  purchased 
and  had  on  hand  in  trust  for  the  holders  11,000  bales  of  cot- 
ton and  100,000  Ijarrels  of  rosin.  The  cotton  was  partly  de- 
stroyed before  the  w^ar  closed,  and  the  remainder,  amounting 
to  several  thousand  bales,  was  captured,  after  peace  was  de- 
clared, by  certain  officers  of  the  Federal  army." 

President  Davis,  in  a  message  to  Congress,  said  that  the 
number  of  vessels  arriving  at  only  two  ports — Charleston  and 
Wilmington,  from  1  K(wember  to  6  December,  1864,  had 
been  43,  and  that  only  a  very  small  portion  of  those  outward- 
bound  had  been  captured;  that  out  of  11,796  bales  of  cotton 
shipped  since  1  July,  1864,  but  1,272  bales  had  been  lost. 
And  the  special  report  of  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  in  re- 
lation to  tlie  same  ]uatter  stated  that  there  had  been  imported 
at  the  ports  of  Wihnington  and  Charleston  since  26  October, 

1864,  8,632,000  pounds  of  meat;  1,507,000  pounds  of  lead; 
1,933,000  pounds  of  saltpetre;  546,000  pairs  of  shoes;  316,- 
000  pairs  of  blankets;  520,000- pounds  of  coffee;  69,000 
rifles ;  97  packages  of  revolvers ;  2,639  j^ackages  of  medicines ; 
43  cannon ;  with  a  very  large  quantity  of  other  articles.  In 
addition  to  these  articles,  many  valuable  stores  and  supplies 
had  been  brought  in  by  way  of  the  Northern  lines,  by  way  of 
Florida,  through  the  port  of  Galveston,  and  through  Mexico 
across  the  Eio  Grande.     From  1  March,  1864,  to  1  January, 

1865,  the  value  of  the  shipments  of  cotton  on  Confederate 
Government  account  was  shown  by  the  Secretary's  report  to 
have  been  $5,296,000  in  specie,  of  which  $1,500,000  had  been 
.shipped  out  betv/een  1  July  and  1  December,  1864. 

A  list  of  vessels  which  were  runniuo-  the  blockade  from 

Blockade  Running.  355 

Kassaii  and  otlier  ports  in  the  period  intervening  between 
November,  1861,  and  March  186-1  (Scharf's  C.  S.  Navy, 
488),  showed  tliat  84  ste.nners  vrere  engaged;  of  these  37 
were  captured  by  the  enemy,  12  were  totally  lost,  11  were 
lost  and  the  cargoes  partially  saved,  and  one  foundered  at  sea. 
They  made  363  trips  to  Nassau  and  65  to  other  ports.  Among 
the  highest  number  of  runs  made  were  those  of  the  R.  E. 
Lee,  which  ran  21  times;  the  Faiiny,  which  ran  18  times; 
the  Margaret  and  Jessie,  which  performed  the  same  feat. 
Out  of  425  runs  from  Nassau  alone  (including  schooners) 
only  62,  about  one  in  seven,  were  unsuccessful.  As  freights 
were  enormous,  ranging  from  $300  to  $1,000  per  ton,  some 
idea  may  be  formed  of  the  profits  of  a  business  in  which  a 
party  could  afford  to  lose  a  vessel  after  two  successful  trips. 
In  ten  months  of  1863,  from  January  to  October,  90  vessels 
ran  into  Wilmington.  During  August  one  ran  in  every  other 
day.      On  11  July,  four,  and  five  on  19  October. 

With  the  termination  of  blockade  running,  the  commercial 
importance  of  Mataraoras,  Nassau,  Bermuda,  and  other  West 
India  ports  departed.  On  11  ]\[arch,  1865,  there  were  lying 
in  Nassau  35  British  l)lockade-runners,  which  were  valued 
at  $15,000,000  in  greenbacks,  and  there  were  none  to  do  them 
reverence.  Their  occupation  Avas  gone,  their  profits  at  an 
,end.  and  some  other  service  must  be  sought  to  give  them  em- 

A  description  of  Nassau  at  the  time  of  which  I  write  will 
be  both  interesting  and  instructive.  Says  Capt.  Wilkinson: 
''It  was  a  busy  place  during  the  M'ar,  the  chief  depot  of  sup- 
plies for  the  Confederacy,  and  the  port  to  which  most  of  the 
cotton  was  shipped.  Its  proximity  to  the  ports  of  Charleston 
and  Wilmington  gave  it  superior  advantages,  whilst  it  was 
easily  accessible  to  the  swift,  light-draft  blockade-runners,  all 
of  which  carried  Bahama  bank  pilots,  who  knew  every  chan- 
nel. The  United  States  cruisers,  having  no  bank  pilots,  and 
drawing  more  water,  were  compelled  to  keep  the  open  sea. 
Occasionally  one  of  the  latter  would  heave  to  outside  the  har- 
bor and  send  in  a  boat  to  communicate  Avith  the  American 
Oonsul,  but  their  usual  cruising  ground  was  off  Abaco  light. 
Nassau  is  situated  upon  the  island  of  New  Providence,  one  of 

356  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

the  Bahamas,  and  it  is  the  chief  town  and  capital  of  the 
group.  All  of  the  islands  are  snrrounded  by  coral  reefs  and 
shoals,  through  which  are  channels,  more  or  less  intricate. 
The  distance  from  Charleston  to  jS'assan  is  about  500  miles, 
and  from  Wihuington  about  550.  Practically  they  were 
equi-distant ;  for  blockade-runners  bound  for  either  port  in 
order  to  evade  the  cruisers  lying  in  wait  off  Abaco,  were  com- 
pelled to  give  that  headland  a  wide  berth  by  keeping  well  to 
the  eastward.  The  wharves  of  Nassau  were  piled  high  with 
cotton  during  the  war,  and  huge  warehouses  were  stowed  full 
with  supplies  for  the  Confederacy.  At  times  the  harbor 
was  crowded  with  lead-colored,  short-masted,  rakish  looking 
steamers;  the  streets,  alive  with  the  bustle  and  activity  of  the 
day,  swarmed  with  drunken  revelers  at  night.  Almost  every 
nationality  on  earth  was  represented  there,  the  high  wages 
ashore  and  afloat  tempting  adventurers  of  the  baser  sort,  and 
the  prospects  of  enormous  profits  offering  equally  strong  in- 
ducements to  capitalists  of  a  speculative  turn.  Monthly 
wages  of  a  sailor  on  board  a  blockade-runner  were  $100  in 
gold  and  $50  bounty  at  the  end  of  a  successful  trip  and  this 
under  favoral)le  circumstances,  would  be  accomplished  in 
seven  days. 

"The  captains  and  pilots  sometimes  received  as  much  as 
$5,000  and  perquisites.  On  board  the  goveimment  steamers 
the  crew,  which  was  shipped  abi'oad  and  under  the  articles 
regulating  the  "merchant  marine,"  received  the  same  wages 
as  were  paid  on  board  the  other  blockade-runners,  but  the  cap- 
tains and  subordinate  officers  of  the  government  steamers 
who  belonged  to  the  Confederate  States  Navy,  and  the  pilots 
who  were  detailed  from  the  army  for  this  service,  received 
their  pay  in  gold.  There  is  a  singular  fact  connected  with 
the  blockade-running  vessels  which  speaks  well  for  the  Con- 
federate States  naval  officers.  Though  many  commanded  a 
large  number  of  these  vessels,  yet  down  to  16  August,  1864, 
and  perhaps  later,  only  one  blockade-running;  vessel  was  lost." 

The  Cape  Fear  pilots  have  long  maintained  a  standard  of 
excellence  in  their  profession"  most  creditable  to  them  as  a  class 
and  as  individuals.  The  story  of  their  wonderful  skill  and 
bravery  at  the  time  of  the  Federal  blockade  has  never  been 







Blockade  Running.  357 

written,  for  the  survivors  are  modest  men,  and  time  has  ob- 
literated from  their  memories  many  incidents  of  this  extra- 
ordinary epoch.  Amidst  impenetrable  darkness,  without 
lightship  or  beacon,  the  narrow  and  closely  watched  inlet  was 
felt  for  with  a  deep  sea  lead,  as  a  blind  man  feels  his  way 
along  a  familiar  path,  and  even  when  the  enemy's  fire  was 
raking  the  wheel-house  the  faithful  pilot,  with  steady  hand 
and  iron  nerve,  safely  steered  the  little  fugitive  of  the  sea  to 
her  desired  haven.  It  might  be  said  of  him  as  of  the  ISTan- 
tucket  skipper,  that  he  could  get  his  bearings  on  the  darkest 
night  by  a  taste  of  the  lead. 

These  are  the  naiues  of  some  of  the  noted  blockade-runners 
and  their  pilots,  well  known  in  Smithville  thirty  odd  years 

Steamer  Corntibia,  afterwards  called  The  Lady  Davis,  C. 
C.  Morse;  steamer  Giraffe,  afterwards  known  as  the  R.  E. 
Lee,  Archibald  Guthrie;  steamer  Fannie,  Henry  Howard; 
steamer  TJansa,  J.  I^.  Burruss ;  steamer  City  of  Petersburg, 
Joseph  Bensel;  steamer  Old  Dominion,  Richard  Dosher; 
steamer  Alice,  Joseph  Springs;  steamer  Margaret  and  Jes- 
sie, Chas.  W.  Craig ;  steamer  Hebe,  George  W.  Burruss ; 
steamer  Ad-Va)ice,  C.  C.  Morse;  steamer  Pet,  T.  W.  Craig; 
steamer  Atalanta,  Thos.  M.  Thompson;  steamer  Eugenia,  T. 
W.  Newton ;  steamer  Ella  and  Annie,  J.  M.  Adkins ;  steamer 
Banshee,  Thomas  Bui-russ;  steamer  Venus,  R.  Sellars; 
steamer  Don,  William  St.  George ;  steamer  Lynx,  J.  W. 
Craig;  steamer  Ijet  Her  Be,  T.  J.  Burruss;  steamer  Little 
Hattie,  R.  S.  Grissom ;  steamer  Lilian,  Thomas  Grissom ; 
steamer  North  Heath,  Julius  Dosher;  steamer  Let  Ller  Rip, 
E.  T.  Burruss ;  steamer  Beauregard,  J.  W.  Potter ;  steamer 
Ou'l,  T.  B.  Garrason;  steamer  Agnes  Fry,  Thomas  Dyer; 
steamer  Kate,  C.  C  Morse;  steamer  Sirene,  John  Hill; 
steamer  Calypso,  C.  G.  Smith ;  steamer  Ella,  John  Savage ; 
steamer  Condor,  Thomas  Brinkman;  steamer  Coquette,  E. 
T.  Daniels ;  steamer  Ilary  Celeste,  J.  W.  Anderson.  Many 
other  steamers  might  be  named,  among  them  the  Britannica, 
Emma,  Dee.  Antonica,  Victory,  Granite  City,  Stonewall 
Jackson,  Flora,  LLtvelock,  Hero,  Eagle,  Douvo,  Thistle,  Sco- 
tia,   Gertnide,    Charleston,    Colonel    Lamb,    Dolphin,    and 

358  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

Dream,  whose  pilots'  names  may  be  among  those  already  re- 
called. These  are  noted  here  from  memory,  for  there  is  no 
record  extant.  All  of  these  men  were  exposed  to  constant 
danger,  and  one  of  them,  J.  W.  Anderson  of  the  Mary  Celeste, 
died  a  hero's  death.  Shortly  after  leaving  the  port  of  Nas- 
sau on  his  last  voyage,  he  was  stricken  down  by  yellow  fever. 
The  cajDtain  at  once  proposed  to  put  the  ship  about  and  return 
to  the  Bahamas,  but  his  brave  pilot  said:  "No,  you  may 
proceed,  I  w^ill  do  my  best  to  get  you  into  port,  even  if  it 
costs  me  my  life."  On  the  second  day  he  was  delirious,  but 
as  the  little  ship  approached  our  dangerous  coast  he  regained 
consciousness,  and  spoke  of  his  home  and  the  loved  ones  await- 
ing his  coming  at  Smithville.  When  darkness  drew  on,  his 
fever  increased  and  his  condition  seemed  hopeless,  but  with 
the  heart  of  a  lion  he  detei'mined  to  take  his  post  on  the 
bridge,  and  when  soundings  were  reached  he  was  carried  bod- 
ily to  the  wheel  house,  where,  supported  by  two  of  the  sailors, 
he  guided  by  feeble  tones,  the  gallant  ship  through  devious 
ways  until  the  hostile  fleet  was  passed.  x\s  the  well  known 
lights  of  his  home  appeared  in  the  distance,  his  voice  grew 
stronger,  but  tremulous,  for  he  felt  that  he  was  nearing  the 
end  of  life's  voyage.  "Starboard  ;  steady ;  port ;  ease  her ; 
stop  her ;  let  go  anchor" — with  the  rattle  of  the  chains  he 
sank  to  the  deck,  overcome  by  the  dread  disease,  and  on  the 
following  morning  breathed  his  last. 

Along  tlie  coast  may  still  be  seen  the  storm-beaten  hulls  of 
some  of  the  unfortunate  ships,  which  after  weathering  many 
a  gale  at  sea,  came  to  grief  within  sight  of  a  friendly  port. 
The  Beauregard  and  the  Venus  lie  stranded  on  Carolina 
Beach ;  the  Modern  Greece  near  New  Inlet ;  the  Antonica  on 
Frying  Pan  Shoals ;  the  Ella  on  Bald  Head ;  the  Spunkey 
and  the  Georgiana  McCall  on  Caswell  Beach ;  the  Hebe  and 
the  Dec  between  Masonboro  and  Wrightsville.  Two  others 
lie  near  Lockwood's  Folly  bar,  and  others  whose  names  are 
forgotten,  lie  half  buried  in  the  sands  Avhere  they  may  remain 
for  centuries. 


I  have  already  quoted  a  part  of  Senator  Z.  B.  Vance's 
address  delivered  in  Baltimore  in  1885,  with  reference  to  the 

Blockade  Running.  359 

operations  of  the  State  of  Xorth  Carolina  in  blockade-run- 
ning under  kis  administration  'during  the  late  war,  and  I 
now  present  the  following  communication  prepared  for  the 
compiler  by  the  late  Colonel  James  G.  Burr,  of  Wilmington, 
which  will  be  read  with  interest  by  many  of  our  older  citizens 
who   well   remember   the   episode   so   felicitously   described. 

''In  the  month  of  August,  1862,  Zebulon  B.  Vance,  then 
Colonel  of  a  Xorth  Carolina  Begiment  serving  the  Army  of 
Northern  Virginia,  and  quite  a  young  man,  was  elected  Gov- 
ernor of  the  State  by  a  large  majority.  He  did  not  seek  the 
office,  in  fact,  objected  to  the  use  of  his  name  for  the  reason 
that  he  preferred  the  ]:)Osition  which  he  then  held  in  the  army, 
and  for  the  further  reason  that  he  thought  he  was  too  young 
to  be  Governor.  The  people,  however,  thought  differently, 
and  he  was  borne  into  office  by  a  popular  upheaval.  Witk 
what  energy  and  vigor  he  discharged  his  duties,  how  true  he 
was  in  every  Avay  to  his  State  and  people  are  matters  of  his- 
tory and  need  not  be  referred  to  here.  He  was  inaugurated 
the  ensuing  September  and  early  in  his  administration  he 
conceived  the  idea  of  purchasing  for  the  State  a  steamer  to 
run  the  blockade  at  Wilmington,  bringing  in  supplies  for  our 
soldiers  in  the  field  and  our  suffering  people  at  home. 

"Colonel  Thos.  M.  Crossan,  formerly  of  the  United  States 
ivTavy,  was  accordingly  sent  to  England  with  Mr.  Hughes,  of 
New  Bern,  where,  in  conjunction  with  Mr.  John  White,  the 
agent  of  tlie  State  in  England  at  the  time,  they  purchased  the 
fine  side-wheel  steamer.  Lord  Clyde,  then  running  between 
Glasgow  and  Dublin,  which  name  before  her  advent  into 
Southern  waters  was  changed  to  that  of  Advance  or  Ad-Vance, 
the  latter  in  compliment  to  the  distinguished  Avar  governor 
through  whose  instructions  and  active  influence  the  ]3urchase 
had  been  made. 

"In  the  Spring  of  1863  the  Advance  made  her  first  success- 
ful trip  through  the  blockaders  and  arrived  safely  in  the  har- 
bor of  Wilmington,  bringing  a  large  amount  of  much  needed 
supplies.  The  Governor  was  informed  of  her  arrival  and 
came  down  immediately,  and  the  next  day,  Sunday,  went 
down  on  one  of  the  river  steamers  with  a  number  of  his 
friends  to  the  ship,  which  was  lying  at  the  quarantine  station 

360  North  Carolina  Troops.   1861-65. 

about  fifteen  or  sixteen  miles  below  the  city.  After  spending 
several  hours  on  board  examining  the  ship  and  partaking  of 
the  hospitalities  of  its  officers,  it  was  determined  to  take  her 
up  to  the  city  withou.t  waiting  for  a  permit  from  the  health 
officers,  as  it  was  assumed  the  Governor's  presence  on  board 
would  be  a  justification  for  the  violation  of  quarantine  reg- 
ulations. Accordingly,  steam  was  raised,  and  she  came  up 
to  the  city  and  was  made  fast  to  the  wharf  in  front  of  the 
Custom  House.  Then  occurred  a  scene  which  is  well  re- 
membered to  tliis  day  by  all  who  witnessed  it. 

"Scarcely  had  the  ship  ])een  secured  to  the  wharf  when  a 
military  gentleman  in  full  uniform  made  his  appearance,  and 
though  he  was  told  that  the  vessel  belonged  to  the  State,  and 
that  the  Governor  was  on  board,  he  seized  the  occasion  to 
make  a  display  of  his  authority  and  to  magnify  his  own  im- 
portance. With  the  manner  of  a  Sir  Oracle,  and  in  a  loud 
and  commanding  tone  of  voice,  he  peremptorily  declared  that 
no  one  should  leave  the  ship,  and  ordered  her  immediate  re- 
turn to  quarantine  station  down  the  river.  Governor  Vance 
happened  to  be  standing  near  the  gangway,  heard  distinctly 
the  rude  speech  of  the  military  satrap  and  noticed  his  offen- 
sive manner ;  and  his  crest  rose  on  the  instant.  With  flash- 
ing eyes  he  turned  upon  him,  and  in  a  voice  of  cencentrated 
passion  exclaimed  :  "Do  you  dare  to  say,  sir,  that  the  Gov- 
ernor of  the  State  shall  not  leave  the  deck  of  his  own  ship  ?" 
The  reply  of  the  officer  was  of  such  a  nature  as  to  add  fuel 
to  the  flames,  and  an  exciting  scene  would  doubtless  have  oc- 
curred (for  the  Governor  was  young  then  and  his  blood  was 
hot)  had  not  his  friends  interposed  and  persuaded  him  to  re- 
tire to  the  cabin  where,  after  a  while,  his  equanimity  was  re- 
stored. In  the  meantime,  the  Chairman  of  the  Board  of 
Commissioners  of  Navigation,  the  late  P.  W.  Fanning,  who 
had  been  sent  for,  arrived  upon  the  scene  and  promptly  set- 
tled the  matter  by  giving  his  permit  for  the  ship  to  remain 
where  she  was,  and  the  immediate  landing  of  all  who  desired 
to  do  so.  The  Governor  was  the  flrst  to  step  upon  the  gang- 
way, and  as  he  ]iassed  down,  he  stopped  for  a  moment,  res- 
pectfully saluted  Mr.  Fanning,  and  in  a  ringing  voice  ex- 
claimed :      "iVo  man  is  more  prompt  to  obey  the  civil  au- 

Blockade  Running.  361 

thority  than  myself,  but  I  will  not  be  ridden  over  by  epau- 
lettes or  bayonets."  The  large  crowd  which  had  assembled 
gave  him  three  cheers  as  he  disappeared  from  view  and  added 
three  more  for  the  gallant  ship  Ad-Vance,  from  whose  masts 
and  yards  innumerable  flags  were  flying  in  the  breeze. 

''The  Ad-Vance  was  a  first-class  ship  in  every  respect;  she 
had  engines  of  great  power  which  were  very  highly  finished 
and  her  speed  was  good.  With  a  pressure  of  twenty  pounds 
to  the  square  inch  she  easily  averaged  seventeen  knots  to  the 
hour  and  when  it  was  increased  to  thirty  pounds,  she  reeled 
off  twenty  loiots  without  difficulty.  Her  officers  were :  Col- 
onel Crossan,  Commander ;  Captain  Wylie,  a  Scotchman,  who 
came  oyer  wath  her,  Sailing  Master ;  Captain  Geo.  Morri- 
son, Chief  Engineer ;  Mr.  John  B.  Smith,  Signal  Officer. 
The  only  objection  to  her  was  her  size  and  heavy  draught  of 
water,  the  latter  rendering  it  difficult  for  her  to  cross  the 
shoals,  v/hich  at  that  time  were  a  great  bar  to  the  navigation 
of  the  river,  and  in  consequence  of  which  she  could  never  go 
out  or  return  with  a  full  cargo  either  of  cotton  or  supplies. 
She  ran  the  blockade  successfully  seven  or  eight  trips,  bring- 
ing in  all  kinds  of  supplies — thanks  to  the  energy  and  wise 
foresight  of  our  patriotic  War  Governor — that  were  so  much 
needed  by  our  troops  and  the  people.  The  regularity  of  her 
trips  was  remarkable  and  could  be  calculated  upon  almost  to 
the  very  day :  indeed,  it  was  common  to  hear  upon  the  streets 
the  almost  stereoly]ted  remark,  'To-morrow  the  Ad-Vance  will 
be  in.'  And  vhen  the  morrow  came  she  could  generally  be 
seen  gliding  up  to  her  dock  with  the  rich  freight  of  goods  and 
wares  which  were  so  greatly  needed  by  our  people.  In  the 
meantime,  however,  she  had  several  narrow  escapes  from  cap- 
ture. Coming  from  Nassau  on  one  occasion  the  weather 
being  very  stormy  and  a  heavy  fog  prevailing,  she  ran  ashore 
opposite  Fort  Caswell  and  remained  there  two  days.  The  sea 
was  so  rough  that  the  blockaders  could  not  approach  near 
enough  to  do  her  any  damage,  and  after  discharging  part  of 
her  cargo  she  was  relieved  from  her  perilous  position  and  got 
safely  into  port.  But  the  most  exciting  trip  was  one  made 
in  the  month  of  July,  1864,  from  Bermuda. 

"She  had  on  board  as  passengers  a  number  of  prominent 

362  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

gentlemen,  among  them  Marshall  Kane,  of  Baltimore;  Rev. 
Dr.  Moses  D.  Iloge,  of  Richmond,  Va.,  and  others  who  had 
come  down  from  St.  Johns,  New  Brnnswick,  and  joined  the 
ship  at  Bermuda,  and  who  were  extremely  anxious  to  reach 
the  Confederate  States.  By  some  error  in  calculation,  in- 
stead of  making  Cape  Fear  light  at  3  a.  ni.,  as  was  intended, 
they  made  the  light  on  Cape  Lookout,  a  long  distance  out  of 
their  course.  What  "was  best  to  be  done  was  the  question  to 
be  solved,  and  to  be  solved  at  once,  for  daylight  comes  soon  in 
July.  The  ship  had  scarcely  enough  coal  in  her  bunkers  to 
take  her  back  to  the  port  she  had  left  and  almost  certain  cap- 
ture stared  them  in  the  face  should  they  attempt  to  run  in. 
However,  it  was  determined  to  make  the  attempt,  and  the 
ship  was  headed  for  New  Inlet.  Hugging  the  shore  as  closely 
as  possible,  \yitli  all  steam  on,  she  dashed  down  the  coast  with 
the  speed  of  a  thoroughbred  on  a  hotly  contested  race  course. 
Fortunately  at  that  time  many  persons  were  engaged  in  mak- 
ing salt  on  the  coast,  and  the  smoke  rising  from  the  works 
created  a  cloud  or  mist  which  concealed  the  ship  from  the 
blockaders,  although  it  was  broad  day.  But  as  she  neared 
the  inlet  she  was  oompelled  to  change  her  course  further  out 
to  sea  on  account  of  a  shoal  or  spit  that  makes  out  into  the 
ocean  at  that  ]3oint,  and  was  inunediately  discovered  by  the 
blockading  fleet  who  opened  fire  upon  her  and  gave  chase  like 
a  pack  of  hounds  in  eager  pursuit  of  a  inuch  coveted  quarry. 
It  was  a  most  trying  situation,  for  the  ship  was  compelled 
to  keep  her  course,  although  it  carried  her  nearer  and  nearer 
to  the  enemy — until  she  could  round  the  shoal  and  run  in  to- 
wards the  land  when  she  would  be  in  comjoarative  safety. 
Shot  aud  shell  were  flying  around  her  in  every  direction,  but 
she  held  steadily  on,  thougli  rushing  as  it  seemed  to  certain 
destruction,  when  suddenly  a  roar  was  heard  from  the  fort ; 
the  heavy  guns  upon  the  mound  had  opened  upon  the  pursu- 
ers with  such  effect  as  to  check  their  speed  and  force  them 
to  retire,  and  the  gallant  ship  which  had  been  so  hardly 
pressed,  soon  rounded  the  shoal  and  was  safe  beneath  the  shel- 
tering guns  of  the  fort. 

''But  the  pitcher  that  goes  often  to  the  fountain  is  broken  at 
last,  and  ^he  time  came  when  the  career  of  the  Ad-Vance  as  a 

Blockade  Running.  363 

blockade-rnnner  was  to  cease  forever.  She  was  captured  on 
her  outward  trip  a  few  miles  from  our  coast,  owing  to  an  in- 
ferior quality  of  coal  she  was  compelled  to  use  which  was  very 
lutuminous  and  which  emitted  a  black  smoke  that  betrayed 
her  to  the  watchful  eyes  of  the  fleet;  being  surrounded  by 
them,  she  was  obliged  to  surrender  w'ith  her  cargo  of  cotton 
aud  her  ofliceis  and  crew  as  prisoners.  She  was  a  noble  ship, 
greatly  endeared  to  the  people  of  our  State,  and  her  capture 
was  felt  as  a  personal  calamity. 

"With  reference  to  her  capture — her  name  having  been  in- 
correctly referred  to  as  the  A.  D.  Vance,  and  being  still  mis- 
quoted in  the  United  States  Xavy  Records,  whence  I  obtained 
the  accompanying  illustration — the  newspaper  Carolinian, 
published  in  Fayetteville  17  September,  1864,  said:  "The 
loss  of  the  .1.  D.  Vance  is  a  severe  loss  to  our  State.  She  has 
done  noble  service  for  our  IS^orth  Carolina  soldiers,  and  has 
paid  for  herself  twenty  times." 

"In  1867  she  made  her  reapperance  in  the  waters  of  the 
Cape  Fear  as  the  United  States  man-of-war  Frolic,  sent  to 
this  ])ort  to  ju'event  tlie  Cuban  warship  Cuba  from  leaving 
WilmiuG'ton,  whicL  duty  was  successfully  performed.  It 
happened  on  that  occasion  that  Captain  George  Morrison, 
her  former  engineer,  met  some  of  her  officers  and  was  asked 
by  tliem  her  rate  of  speed  while  he  had  charge  of  her  engines. 
Tie  replied,  "Seventeen  knots  easily."  "Impossible,"  they 
said,  "for  we  have  not  been  able  to  get  more  than  eight  or  nine 
out  of  her."  "Something  wrong  then,"  said  the  captain, 
"aud  unless  you  have  made  some  alterations  in